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Effect of a vegetarian-like diet on blood coagulation and other health parameters in blood types A and O: an evaluation of the "Blood Type Diet

Description

Background. Research suggests that non-O blood types are at an increased risk of thrombosis and related health complications in cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is due in part to higher concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), an important factor involved in

Background. Research suggests that non-O blood types are at an increased risk of thrombosis and related health complications in cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is due in part to higher concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), an important factor involved in blood clotting. Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a vegetarian-like diet on blood coagulation and other health parameters in adults with type A blood compared to type O blood over a four week intervention. Given the lack of previous research on blood type and diet, it was hypothesized that no difference in blood coagulation would be observed. Design. This study was a randomized, parallel arm, dietary intervention using healthy, omnivorous adults with blood types A and O. A total of 39 subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: a vegetarian-like diet group made up of 12 type As and 12 type Os and an omnivorous control diet group made up of 11 type As and 12 type Os. At weeks 0 and 4, fasting blood was drawn and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), von Willebrand factor (VWF), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and CRP. In addition, subjects were weighed and filled out a FFQ at weeks 0 and 4. Results. After adhering to a vegetarian-like diet for four weeks, type Os had a significant increase in PT (+0.24±0.32 sec/ p=0.050), whereas type As saw no significant change. There was a trend of weight loss for type Os in the vegetarian-like diet group (-1.8±2.6 lb/ p=0.092) and significant weight loss for type As (-0.9±2.1 lb/ p=0.037). Both blood types O and A experienced significant decreases in BMI (-0.3±0.4/ p=0.092 and -0.2±0.3/ p=0.037, respectively). No change was seen in APTT, VWF, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, or CRP. Conclusion. Type Os saw an increase in PT, perhaps indicating a reduction in risk of thrombosis and its related health complications. Type As were less responsive to the dietary intervention and may require more rigid dietary guidelines or a longer time on such a diet to see the benefits.

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Date Created
2013

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Film bulk acoustic resonators of high quality factors in liquid environments for biosensing applications

Description

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) demonstrates label-free biosensing capabilities and is considered to be a promising alternative of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). FBARs achieve great success in vacuum, or in the air, but find limited applications in

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) demonstrates label-free biosensing capabilities and is considered to be a promising alternative of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). FBARs achieve great success in vacuum, or in the air, but find limited applications in liquid media because squeeze damping significantly degrades quality factor (Q) and results in poor frequency resolution. A transmission-line model shows that by confining the liquid in a thickness comparable to the acoustic wavelength of the resonator, Q can be considerably improved. The devices exhibit damped oscillatory patterns of Q as the liquid thickness varies. Q assumes its maxima and minima when the channel thickness is an odd and even multiple of the quarter-wavelength of the resonance, respectively. Microfluidic channels are integrated with longitudinal-mode FBARs (L-FBARs) to realize this design; a tenfold improvement of Q over fully-immersed devices is experimentally verified. Microfluidic integrated FBAR sensors have been demonstrated for detecting protein binding in liquid and monitoring the Vroman effect (the competitive protein adsorption behavior), showing their potential as a promising bio-analytical tool. A contour-mode FBAR (C-FBAR) is developed to further improve Q and to alleviate the need for complex integration of microfluidic channels. The C-FBAR consists of a suspended piezoelectric ring made of aluminum nitride and is excited in the fundamental radial-extensional mode. By replacing the squeeze damping with shear damping, high Qs (189 in water and 77 in human whole blood) are obtained in semi-infinite depth liquids. The C-FBAR sensors are characterized by aptamer - thrombin binding pairs and aqueous glycerine solutions for mass and viscosity sensing schemes, respectively. The C-FBAR sensor demonstrates accurate viscosity measurement from 1 to 10 centipoise, and can be deployed to monitor in-vitro blood coagulation processes in real time. Results show that its resonant frequency decreases as the viscosity of the blood increases during the fibrin generation process after the coagulation cascade. The coagulation time and the start/end of the fibrin generation are quantitatively determined, showing the C-FBAR can be a low-cost, portable yet reliable tool for hemostasis diagnostics.

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Date Created
2011