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Novel Deep Learning Models for Medical Imaging Analysis

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Deep learning is a sub-field of machine learning in which models are developed to imitate the workings of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for decision making.

Deep learning is a sub-field of machine learning in which models are developed to imitate the workings of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for decision making. This dissertation is focused on developing deep learning models for medical imaging analysis of different modalities for different tasks including detection, segmentation and classification. Imaging modalities including digital mammography (DM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) are studied in the dissertation for various medical applications. The first phase of the research is to develop a novel shallow-deep convolutional neural network (SD-CNN) model for improved breast cancer diagnosis. This model takes one type of medical image as input and synthesizes different modalities for additional feature sources; both original image and synthetic image are used for feature generation. This proposed architecture is validated in the application of breast cancer diagnosis and proved to be outperforming the competing models. Motivated by the success from the first phase, the second phase focuses on improving medical imaging synthesis performance with advanced deep learning architecture. A new architecture named deep residual inception encoder-decoder network (RIED-Net) is proposed. RIED-Net has the advantages of preserving pixel-level information and cross-modality feature transferring. The applicability of RIED-Net is validated in breast cancer diagnosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) staging. Recognizing medical imaging research often has multiples inter-related tasks, namely, detection, segmentation and classification, my third phase of the research is to develop a multi-task deep learning model. Specifically, a feature transfer enabled multi-task deep learning model (FT-MTL-Net) is proposed to transfer high-resolution features from segmentation task to low-resolution feature-based classification task. The application of FT-MTL-Net on breast cancer detection, segmentation and classification using DM images is studied. As a continuing effort on exploring the transfer learning in deep models for medical application, the last phase is to develop a deep learning model for both feature transfer and knowledge from pre-training age prediction task to new domain of Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD conversion prediction task. It is validated in the application of predicting MCI patients’ conversion to AD with 3D MRI images.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Transfer Learning for BioImaging and Bilingual Applications

Description

Discriminative learning when training and test data belong to different distributions is a challenging and complex task. Often times we have very few or no labeled data from the test

Discriminative learning when training and test data belong to different distributions is a challenging and complex task. Often times we have very few or no labeled data from the test or target distribution, but we may have plenty of labeled data from one or multiple related sources with different distributions. Due to its capability of migrating knowledge from related domains, transfer learning has shown to be effective for cross-domain learning problems. In this dissertation, I carry out research along this direction with a particular focus on designing efficient and effective algorithms for BioImaging and Bilingual applications. Specifically, I propose deep transfer learning algorithms which combine transfer learning and deep learning to improve image annotation performance. Firstly, I propose to generate the deep features for the Drosophila embryo images via pretrained deep models and build linear classifiers on top of the deep features. Secondly, I propose to fine-tune the pretrained model with a small amount of labeled images. The time complexity and performance of deep transfer learning methodologies are investigated. Promising results have demonstrated the knowledge transfer ability of proposed deep transfer algorithms. Moreover, I propose a novel Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) approach to process the noisy images in advance. In addition, I also present a two-stage re-weighting framework for general domain adaptation problems. The distribution of source domain is mapped towards the target domain in the first stage, and an adaptive learning model is proposed in the second stage to incorporate label information from the target domain if it is available. Then the proposed model is applied to tackle cross lingual spam detection problem at LinkedIn’s website. Our experimental results on real data demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A probabilistic framework of transfer learning- theory and application

Description

Transfer learning refers to statistical machine learning methods that integrate the knowledge of one domain (source domain) and the data of another domain (target domain) in an appropriate way, in

Transfer learning refers to statistical machine learning methods that integrate the knowledge of one domain (source domain) and the data of another domain (target domain) in an appropriate way, in order to develop a model for the target domain that is better than a model using the data of the target domain alone. Transfer learning emerged because classic machine learning, when used to model different domains, has to take on one of two mechanical approaches. That is, it will either assume the data distributions of the different domains to be the same and thereby developing one model that fits all, or develop one model for each domain independently. Transfer learning, on the other hand, aims to mitigate the limitations of the two approaches by accounting for both the similarity and specificity of related domains. The objective of my dissertation research is to develop new transfer learning methods and demonstrate the utility of the methods in real-world applications. Specifically, in my methodological development, I focus on two different transfer learning scenarios: spatial transfer learning across different domains and temporal transfer learning along time in the same domain. Furthermore, I apply the proposed spatial transfer learning approach to modeling of degenerate biological systems.Degeneracy is a well-known characteristic, widely-existing in many biological systems, and contributes to the heterogeneity, complexity, and robustness of biological systems. In particular, I study the application of one degenerate biological system which is to use transcription factor (TF) binding sites to predict gene expression across multiple cell lines. Also, I apply the proposed temporal transfer learning approach to change detection of dynamic network data. Change detection is a classic research area in Statistical Process Control (SPC), but change detection in network data has been limited studied. I integrate the temporal transfer learning method called the Network State Space Model (NSSM) and SPC and formulate the problem of change detection from dynamic networks into a covariance monitoring problem. I demonstrate the performance of the NSSM in change detection of dynamic social networks.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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New statistical transfer learning models for health care applications

Description

Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the

Transfer learning is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. It refers to methods that integrate the knowledge of other domains (called source domains) and the data of the target domain in a mathematically rigorous and intelligent way, to develop a better model for the target domain than a model using the data of the target domain alone. While transfer learning is a promising approach in various application domains, my dissertation research focuses on the particular application in health care, including telemonitoring of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and radiomics for glioblastoma.

The first topic is a Mixed Effects Transfer Learning (METL) model that can flexibly incorporate mixed effects and a general-form covariance matrix to better account for similarity and heterogeneity across subjects. I further develop computationally efficient procedures to handle unknown parameters and large covariance structures. Domain relations, such as domain similarity and domain covariance structure, are automatically quantified in the estimation steps. I demonstrate METL in an application of smartphone-based telemonitoring of PD.

The second topic focuses on an MRI-based transfer learning algorithm for non-invasive surgical guidance of glioblastoma patients. Limited biopsy samples per patient create a challenge to build a patient-specific model for glioblastoma. A transfer learning framework helps to leverage other patient’s knowledge for building a better predictive model. When modeling a target patient, not every patient’s information is helpful. Deciding the subset of other patients from which to transfer information to the modeling of the target patient is an important task to build an accurate predictive model. I define the subset of “transferrable” patients as those who have a positive rCBV-cell density correlation, because a positive correlation is confirmed by imaging theory and the its respective literature.

The last topic is a Privacy-Preserving Positive Transfer Learning (P3TL) model. Although negative transfer has been recognized as an important issue by the transfer learning research community, there is a lack of theoretical studies in evaluating the risk of negative transfer for a transfer learning method and identifying what causes the negative transfer. My work addresses this issue. Driven by the theoretical insights, I extend Bayesian Parameter Transfer (BPT) to a new method, i.e., P3TL. The unique features of P3TL include intelligent selection of patients to transfer in order to avoid negative transfer and maintain patient privacy. These features make P3TL an excellent model for telemonitoring of PD using an At-Home Testing Device.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018