Matching Items (3)

156007-Thumbnail Image.png

Novel operation of granular activated carbon contactors for removal of disinfection byproducts precursors

Description

Granular activated carbon (GAC) is effectively used to remove natural organic matter (NOM) and to assist in the removal of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and their precursors. However, operation of GAC

Granular activated carbon (GAC) is effectively used to remove natural organic matter (NOM) and to assist in the removal of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and their precursors. However, operation of GAC is cost- and labor-intensive due to frequent media replacement. Optimizing the use of GAC is necessary to ensure treatment efficiency while reducing costs. This dissertation presents four strategies to reduce improve GAC usage while reducing formation of DBPs. The first part of this work adopts Rapid Small Scale Tests (RSSCTs) to evaluate removal of molecular weight fractions of NOM, characterized using size exclusion chromatography (SECDOC). Total trihalomethanes (TTHM), haloacetic acids (HAA5) and haloacetonitriles (HAN) formation were quantified after treatment with GAC. Low MW NOM was removed preferentially in the early bed volumes, up until exhaustion of available adsorption sites. DBP formation potential lowered with DOC removal. Chlorination prior to GAC is investigated in the second part of this work as a strategy to increase removal of NOM and DBP precursors. Results showed lower TTHM formation in the effluent of the GAC treatment when pre-chlorination was adopted, meaning this strategy could help optimize and extend the bed life if GAC filters. The third part of this work investigates in-situ GAC regeneration as an alternative to recover adsorption capacity of field-spent GAC that could potentially offer new modes of operation for water treatment facilities while savng costs with reactivation of spent GAC in an external facility. Field-spent GACs were treated with different oxidant solutions and recovery in adsorption capacity was evaluated for NOM and for two micro pollutants. Recovery of GAC adsorption capacity was not satisfactory for most of conditions evaluated. This indicates that in-situ GAC regeneration could be more effective when the adsorbates are present at high concentrations. Lastly, this work investigates the impact of low molecular weight polyDADMAC on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation. Water treatment facilities rely on polyDADMAC as a coagulant aid to comply with NOM removal and turbidity requirements. Since polymer-derived NDMA precursors are not removed by GAC, it is essential to optimize the use and synthesis of polyDADMAC to reduce NDMA precursors during water treatment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

154023-Thumbnail Image.png

Identification of N-Nitrosodimethylamine precursors to improve their control

Description

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen and drinking water disinfection by-product. NDMA forms as the product of reactions between chloramines and precursor compounds in water. This dissertation aims to

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a probable human carcinogen and drinking water disinfection by-product. NDMA forms as the product of reactions between chloramines and precursor compounds in water. This dissertation aims to provide insight into the removal of NDMA precursors, their nature, and a method to aid in their identification. Watershed-derived precursors accounted for more of and greater variability to NDMA formation upon chloramination than polymer-derived precursors in environmental samples. Coagulation polymers are quaternary amines, which have low NDMA yield but high use rates. Watershed-derived precursors were removed up to 90% by sorption to activated carbon, but activated carbon exhibited much less (<10%) sorption of polymer-derived precursors. Combined with literature NDMA molar yields of model anthropogenic compounds, where anthropogenic chemicals in some cases have NDMA yields >90% and biological compounds always have yields <2%, trace, organic, amine containing, anthropogenic chemicals were implicated as the most likely source of NDMA precursors in the watershed. Although activated carbon removes these precursors well, identification of individual compounds may result in more cost effective mitigation strategies. Therefore, I developed a method to isolate NDMA precursors from other organic matter into methanol to facilitate their identification. Optimization of the method resulted in a median recovery of NDMA precursors of 82% from 10 surface waters and one wastewater. The method produces 1,000X concentrated NDMA precursors and, in collaboration with the University of Colorado Center for Environmental Mass Spectrometry, time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) was performed on multiple treated wastewater and raw drinking water isolates. During TOF-MS, tertiary amines can cleave to form a neutral loss and an R group ion that is dependent on the original structure and I wrote a software program to “trawl” exported TOF-MS spectra for the diagnostic neutral loss resulting from fragmentation of tertiary amines. Methadone was identified as one new NDMA precursor that occurs at concentrations that form physiologically relevant levels of NDMA in surface water and wastewater. The approach used here to identify NDMA precursors is adaptable to other unknown disinfection by-product precursors given that a functional group is known that can 1)control sorption and 2)produce a predictable diagnostic fragment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

150162-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of photocatalysis for precursor removal and formation inhibition of disinfection byproducts

Description

Disinfection byproducts are the result of reactions between natural organic matter (NOM) and a disinfectant. The formation and speciation of DBP formation is largely dependent on the disinfectant used and

Disinfection byproducts are the result of reactions between natural organic matter (NOM) and a disinfectant. The formation and speciation of DBP formation is largely dependent on the disinfectant used and the natural organic matter (NOM) concentration and composition. This study examined the use of photocatalysis with titanium dioxide for the oxidation and removal of DBP precursors (NOM) and the inhibition of DBP formation. Water sources were collected from various points in the treatment process, treated with photocatalysis, and chlorinated to analyze the implications on total trihalomethane (TTHM) and the five haloacetic acids (HAA5) formations. The three sub-objectives for this study included: the comparison of enhanced and standard coagulation to photocatalysis for the removal of DBP precursors; the analysis of photocatalysis and characterization of organic matter using size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy and excitation-emission matrices; and the analysis of photocatalysis before GAC filtration. There were consistencies in the trends for each objective including reduced DBP precursors, measured as dissolved organic carbon DOC concentration and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Both of these parameters decreased with increased photocatalytic treatment and could be due in part to the adsorption to as well as the oxidation of NOM on the TiO2 surface. This resulted in lower THM and HAA concentrations at Medium and High photocatalytic treatment levels. However, at No UV exposure and Low photocatalytic treatment levels where oxidation reactions were inherently incomplete, there was an increase in THM and HAA formation potential, in most cases being significantly greater than those found in the raw water or Control samples. The size exclusion chromatography (SEC) results suggest that photocatalysis preferentially degrades the higher molecular mass fraction of NOM releasing lower molecular mass (LMM) compounds that have not been completely oxidized. The molecular weight distributions could explain the THM and HAA formation potentials that decreased at the No UV exposure samples but increased at Low photocatalytic treatment levels. The use of photocatalysis before GAC adsorption appears to increase bed life of the contactors; however, higher photocatalytic treatment levels have been shown to completely mineralize NOM and would therefore not require additional GAC adsorption after photocatalysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011