Matching Items (29)

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Synthesis and application of porphyrin, phthalocyanine and perylene chromophores for solar energy conversion

Description

Photosynthesis, one of the most important processes in nature, has provided an energy basis for nearly all life on Earth, as well as the fossil fuels we use today to power modern society. This research aims to mimic the photosynthetic

Photosynthesis, one of the most important processes in nature, has provided an energy basis for nearly all life on Earth, as well as the fossil fuels we use today to power modern society. This research aims to mimic the photosynthetic process of converting incident solar energy into chemical potential energy in the form of a fuel via systems capable of carrying out photo-induced electron transfer to drive the production of hydrogen from water. Herein is detailed progress in using photo-induced stepwise electron transfer to drive the oxidation of water and reduction of protons to hydrogen. In the design, use of more blue absorbing porphyrin dyes to generate high-potential intermediates for oxidizing water and more red absorbing phthalocyanine dyes for forming the low potential charge needed for the production of hydrogen have been utilized. For investigating water oxidation at the photoanode, high potential porphyrins such as, bis-pyridyl porphyrins and pentafluorophenyl porphyrins have been synthesized and experiments have aimed at the co-immobilization of this dye with an IrO2-nH2O catalyst on TiO2. To drive the cathodic reaction of the water splitting photoelectrochemical cell, utilization of silicon octabutoxy-phthalocyanines have been explored, as they offer good absorption in the red to near infrared, coupled with low potential photo-excited states. Axially and peripherally substituted phthalocyanines bearing carboxylic anchoring groups for the immobilization on semiconductors such as TiO2 has been investigated. Ultimately, this work should culminate in a photoelectrochemical cell capable of splitting water to oxygen and hydrogen with the only energy input from light. A series of perylene dyes bearing multiple semi-conducting metal oxide anchoring groups have been synthesized and studied. Results have shown interfacial electron transfer between these perylenes and TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated within reverse micelles and naked nanoparticles. The binding process was followed by monitoring the hypsochromic shift of the dye absorption spectra over time. Photoinduced electron transfer from the singlet excited state of the perylenes to the TiO2 conduction band is indicated by emission quenching of the TiO2-bound form of the dyes and confirmed by transient absorption measurements of the radical cation of the dyes and free carriers (injected electrons) in the TiO2.

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2013

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Synthesis, biochemical and pharmacological evaluation of rationally designed multifunctional radical quenchers

Description

Mitochondria are crucial intracellular organelles which play a pivotal role in providing energy to living organisms in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) coupled with oxidative phosphorylation (OX-PHOS) transforms the chemical energy of amino

Mitochondria are crucial intracellular organelles which play a pivotal role in providing energy to living organisms in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) coupled with oxidative phosphorylation (OX-PHOS) transforms the chemical energy of amino acids, fatty acids and sugars to ATP. The mitochondrial electron transport system consumes nearly 90% of the oxygen used by the cell. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of superoxide anions (O2*-) are generated as byproduct of cellular metabolism due to leakage of electrons from complex I and complex III to oxygen. Under normal conditions, the effects of ROS are offset by a variety of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic).

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in the etiology of various pathologies, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, diabetes and aging. To treat these disorders, it is imperative to target mitochondria, especially the electron transport chain. One of the methodologies currently used for the treatment of mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases where endogenous antioxidant defenses are inadequate for protecting against ROS involves the administration of exogenous antioxidants.

As part of our pursuit of effective neuroprotective drugs, a series of pyridinol and pyrimidinol analogues have been rationally designed and synthesized. All the analogues were evaluated for their ability to quench lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and preserve mitochondrial membrane potential (Δm) and support ATP synthesis. These studies are summarized in Chapter 2.

Drug discovery and lead identification can be reinforced by assessing the metabolic fate of orally administered drugs using simple microsomal incubation experiments. Accordingly, in vitro microsomal studies were designed and carried out using bovine liver microsomes to screen available pyridinol and pyrimidinol analogues for their metabolic lability. The data obtained was utilized for an initial assessment of potential bioavailability of the compounds screened and is summarized fully in Chapter 3.

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2014

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Synthesis and evaluation of multifunctional radical quenchers for the protection of mitochondrial function

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Mitochondria produce the majority portion of ATP required in eukaryotic cells. ATP is generated through a process known as oxidative phosphorylation, through an pathway consisting five multi subunit proteins (complex I-IV and ATP synthase), embedded inside the mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial

Mitochondria produce the majority portion of ATP required in eukaryotic cells. ATP is generated through a process known as oxidative phosphorylation, through an pathway consisting five multi subunit proteins (complex I-IV and ATP synthase), embedded inside the mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction increases reactive oxygen species in the cell and causes several serious disorders. Described herein are the synthesis of antioxidant molecules to reduce the effects in an already dysfunctional system. Also described is the study of the mitochondrial electron transport chain to understand the mechanism of action of a library of antioxidants. Illustrated in chapter 1 is the general history of research on mitochondrial dysfunction and reported ways to ameliorate them. Chapter 2 describes the design and synthesis of a series of compounds closely resembling the redox-active quinone core of the natural product geldanamycin. Geldanamycin has been reported to confer cytoprotection to FRDA lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner under conditions of induced oxidative stress. A library of rationally designed derivatives has been synthesized as a part of our pursuit of a better neuroprotective drug. Chapter 3 describes the design and synthesis of a library of pyrimidinol analogues. Compounds of this type have demonstrated the ability to quench reactive oxygen species and sustain mitochondrial membrane potential. Described herein are our efforts to increase their metabolic stability and total ATP production. It is crucial to understand the nature of interaction between a potential drug molecule and the mitochondrial electron transport chain to enable the design and synthesis a better therapeutic candidates. Chapter 4 describes a part of the enzymatic

binding studies between a molecular library synthesized in our laboratory and the mitochondrial electron transport chain using sub mitochondrial particles (SMP).

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2015

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Progress towards the synthesis of polyalthenol

Description

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents.

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylcoccus aureus (MRSA) continues to plague the United States as well as throughout the world, at least in part because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Therefore, scientists continue to scour natural products as potential leads, either directly or indirectly, for antibiotics to treat MRSA. The structure of the indole sesquiterpene, polyalthenol, was discovered in 1976 and recent work shows a 4µg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a variety of strains of MRSA. Given the unique framework of this natural product and its biological activity against MRSA, the total synthesis becomes the next logical step. Presently a racemic synthesis has successfully afforded an indole ketone with the correct relative stereochemistry of polyalthenol, however, the completion of the total synthesis of polyalthenol presents several challenges. Herein, the work towards the synthesis is described in addition to the proposed completion of the synthesis.

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2012

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Theoretical and experimental studies of cryogenic and hydrothermal organic geochemistry

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This dissertation examines two topics of emerging interest in the field of organic geochemistry. The topic of the first portion of the dissertation is cold organic geochemistry on Saturn's moon Titan. Titan has an atmosphere and surface that are rich

This dissertation examines two topics of emerging interest in the field of organic geochemistry. The topic of the first portion of the dissertation is cold organic geochemistry on Saturn's moon Titan. Titan has an atmosphere and surface that are rich in organic compounds. Liquid hydrocarbons exist on the surface, most famously as lakes. Photochemical reactions produce solid organics in Titan's atmosphere, and these materials settle onto the surface. At the surface, liquids can interact with solids, and geochemical processes can occur. To better understand these processes, I developed a thermodynamic model that can be used to calculate the solubilities of gases and solids in liquid hydrocarbons at cryogenic temperatures. The model was parameterized using experimental data, and provides a good fit to the data. Application of the model to Titan reveals that the equilibrium composition of surface liquids depends on the abundance of methane in the local atmosphere. The model also indicates that solid acetylene should be quite soluble in surface liquids, which implies that acetylene-rich rocks should be susceptible to chemical erosion, and acetylene evaporites may form on Titan. In the latter half of this dissertation, I focus on hot organic geochemistry below the surface of the Earth. Organic compounds are common in sediments. Burial of sediments leads to changes in physical and chemical conditions, promoting organic reactions. An important organic reaction in subsurface environments is decarboxylation, which generates hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide from simple organic acids. Fundamental knowledge about decarboxylation is required to better understand how the organic and inorganic compositions of sediments evolve in response to changing geochemical conditions. I performed experiments with the model compound phenylacetic acid to obtain information about mechanisms of decarboxylation in hydrothermal fluids. Patterns in rates of decarboxylation of substituted phenylacetic acids point to a mechanism that proceeds through a ring-protonated zwitterion of phenylacetic acid. In contrast, substituted sodium phenylacetates exhibit a different kinetic pattern, one that is consistent with the formation of the benzyl anion as an intermediate. Results from experiments with added hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide, and deuterated water agree with these interpretations. Thus, speciation dictates mechanism of decarboxylation.

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2012

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Synthesis of benzoquinone antioxidants and a bleomycin disaccharide library

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Healthy mitochondria are essential for cell survival. Described herein is the synthesis of a family of novel aminoquinone antioxidants designed to alleviate oxidative stress and prevent the impairment of cellular function. In addition, a library of bleomycin disaccharide analogues has

Healthy mitochondria are essential for cell survival. Described herein is the synthesis of a family of novel aminoquinone antioxidants designed to alleviate oxidative stress and prevent the impairment of cellular function. In addition, a library of bleomycin disaccharide analogues has also been synthesized to better probe the tumor targeting properties of bleomycin. The first study involves the synthesis of a benzoquinone natural product and analogues that closely resemble the redox core of the natural product geldanamycin. The synthesized 5-amino-3-tridecyl-1,4-benzoquinone antioxidants were tested for their ability to protect Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) lymphocytes from induced oxidative stress. Some of the analogues synthesized conferred cytoprotection in a dose-dependent manner in FRDA lymphocytes at micromolar concentrations. The biological assays suggest that the modification of the 2-hydroxyl and N-(3-carboxypropyl) groups in the natural product can improve its antioxidant activity and significantly enhance its ability to protect mitochondrial function under conditions of oxidative stress. The second project focused on the synthesis of a library of bleomycin disaccharide-dye conjugates and monitored their cellular uptake by fluorescence microscopy. The studies reveal that the position of the carbamoyl group plays an important role in modulating the cellular uptake of the disaccharide. It also led to the discovery of novel disaccharides with improved tumor selectivity.

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Date Created
2013

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Probing receptors and enzymes with synthetic small molecules

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ABSTRACT Manipulation of biological targets using synthetic or naturally occurring organic compounds has been the focal point of medicinal chemistry. The work described herein centers on the synthesis of organic small molecules that are targeted either to cell surface receptors,

ABSTRACT Manipulation of biological targets using synthetic or naturally occurring organic compounds has been the focal point of medicinal chemistry. The work described herein centers on the synthesis of organic small molecules that are targeted either to cell surface receptors, to the ribosomal catalytic center or to human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase. Bleomycins (BLMs) are a family of naturally occurring glycopeptidic antitumor agents with an inherent selectivity towards cancer cells. DeglycoBLM, which lacks the sugar moiety of bleomycin, has much lower cytotoxicity in cellular assays. A recent study using microbbuble conjugates of BLM and deglycoBLM showed that BLM was able to selectively bind to breast cancer cells, whereas the deglyco analogue was unable to target either the cancer or normal cells. This prompted us to further investigate the role of the carbohydrate moiety in bleomycin. Fluorescent conjugates of BLM, deglycoBLM and the BLM carbohydrate were studied for their ability to target cancer cells. Work presented here describes the synthesis of the fluorescent carbohydrate conjugate. Cell culture assays showed that the sugar moiety was able to selectively target various cancer cells. A second conjugate was prepared to study the importance of the C-3 carbamoyl group present on the mannose residue of the carbohydrate. Three additional fluorescent probes were prepared to improve the uptake of this carbohydrate moiety into cancer cells. Encouraged by the results from the fluorescence experiments, the sugar moiety was conjugated to a cytotoxic molecule to selectively deliver this drug into cancer cells. The nonsense codon suppression technique has enabled researchers to site specifically incorporate noncanonical amino acids into proteins. The amino acids successfully incorporated this way are mostly α-L-amino acids. The non-α-L-amino acids are not utilized as substrates by ribosome catalytic center. Hoping that mutations near the ribosome peptidyltransferase site might alleviate its bias towards α-L-amino acids, a library of modified ribosomes was generated. Analogues of the naturally occurring antibiotic puromycin were used to select promising candidates that would allow incorporation of non-α-L-amino acids into proteins. Syntheses of three different puromycin analogues are described here. The reverse transcriptase enzyme from HIV-1 (HIV-1 RT) has been a popular target of HIV therapeutic agents due to its crucial role in viral replication. The 4-chlorophenyl hydrazone of mesoxalic acid (CPHM) was identified in a screen designed to find inhibitors of strand transfer reactions catalyzed by HIV-1 RT. Our collaborators designed several analogues of CPHM with different substituents on the aromatic ring using molecular docking simulations. Work presented here describes the synthesis of eight different analogues of CPHM.

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2013

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Combretastatin A-2 synthetic modifications

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Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) represents one of the most promising antineoplastic and cancer vascular targeting stilbenes that have been isolated from the South African bush willow, Combretum Caffrum Kuntze. In order to further explore the bioactivity of this molecule, a

Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) represents one of the most promising antineoplastic and cancer vascular targeting stilbenes that have been isolated from the South African bush willow, Combretum Caffrum Kuntze. In order to further explore the bioactivity of this molecule, a diiodo derivative of CA-4, as well as its phosphate prodrug, was synthesized and analyzed for its biological activity; although only a scale up synthesis of this compound was performed herein for ongoing analysis. In general, no increased specificity was noted for the human cancer cell lines. Antiangiogenic properties were similar to the untreated control. The diiodocombstatin was active against M. luteus, and its phosphate prodrugs were very active against N. gonorrhoeae. Combretastain A-2 is another biologically active stilbene isolated from Combretum Caffrum Kuntze. In an attempt to increase biological activity of this molecule both mono-iodo and diiodo derivatives have been partially synthesized. The initial step involving the iodination of piperonal utilizes a novel, cost effective and mild reaction. The iodo stilbenes were obtained via a Wittig reaction using phosphonium salts 25 and 27 along with 2,3-Bis-[tert-butyldimethylsiloxy]-4-methoxy benzaldehyde 29. Deprotection of the subsequent z-stilbenes, non-isolated mono-iodo stilbene and the diiodo 30 produced two synthetic objective z-stilbenes 16 and 17. Synthesis as well as biological analysis is ongoing.

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2011

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Design and synthesis of molecular models for photosynthetic photoprotection

Description

Most of the sunlight powering natural photosynthesis is absorbed by antenna arrays that transfer, and regulate the delivery of excitation energy to reaction centers in the chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place. Under intense sunlight the plants and certain organisms cannot

Most of the sunlight powering natural photosynthesis is absorbed by antenna arrays that transfer, and regulate the delivery of excitation energy to reaction centers in the chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place. Under intense sunlight the plants and certain organisms cannot fully utilize all of the sunlight received by antennas and excess redox species are formed which could potentially harm them. To prevent this, excess energy is dissipated by antennas before it reaches to the reaction centers to initiate electron transfer needed in the next steps of photosynthesis. This phenomenon is called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The mechanism of NPQ is not fully understood, but the process is believed to be initiated by a drop in the pH in thylakoid lumen in cells. This causes changes in otherwise nonresponsive energy acceptors which accept the excess energy, preventing oversensitization of the reaction center. To mimic this phenomenon and get insight into the mechanism of NPQ, a novel pH sensitive dye 3'6'-indolinorhodamine was designed and synthesized which in a neutral solution stays in a closed (colorless) form and does not absorb light while at low pH it opens (colored) and absorbs light. The absorption of the dye overlaps porphyrin emission, thus making energy transfer from the porphyrin to the dye thermodynamically possible. Several self-regulating molecular model systems were designed and synthesized consisting of this dye and zinc porphyrins organized on a hexaphenylbenzene framework to functionally mimic the role of the antenna in NPQ. When a dye-zinc porphyrin dyad is dissolved in an organic solvent, the zinc porphyrin antenna absorbs and emits light by normal photophysical processes. Time resolved fluorescence experiments using the single-photon-timing method with excitation at 425 nm and emission at 600 nm yielded a lifetime of 2.09 ns for the porphyrin first excited singlet state. When acetic acid is added to the solution of the dyad, the pH sensitive dye opens and quenches the zinc porphyrin emission decreasing the lifetime of the porphyrin first excited singlet state to 23 ps, and converting the excitation energy to heat. Under similar experimental conditions in a neutral solution, a model hexad containing the dye and five zinc porphyrins organized on a hexaphenylbenzene core decays exponentially with a time constant of 2.1 ns, which is essentially the same lifetime as observed for related monomeric zinc porphyrins. When a solution of the hexad is acidified, the dye opens and quenches all porphyrin first excited singlet states to <40 ps. This converts the excitation energy to heat and renders the porphyrins kinetically incompetent to readily donate electrons by photoinduced electron transfer, thereby mimicking the role of the antenna in photosynthetic photoprotection.

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2012

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Energy and electron transfer in photochromic molecules

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Photochromic molecules, which photoisomerize between two chemically and optically distinct states, are well suited for electron and energy transfer to covalently attached chromophores. This dissertation aims to manipulate electron and energy transfer by photochromic control in a number of organic

Photochromic molecules, which photoisomerize between two chemically and optically distinct states, are well suited for electron and energy transfer to covalently attached chromophores. This dissertation aims to manipulate electron and energy transfer by photochromic control in a number of organic molecular systems. Herein the synthesis, characterization and function of these organic molecular systems will be described. Electron and energy transfer were quantified by the use of steady state absorbance and fluorescence, as well as time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorbance. A dithienylethene-porphrin-fullerene triad was synthesized to investigate photochromic control of photo-induced electron transfer. Control of two distinct electron transfer pathways was achieved by photochromic switching. A molecular dyad was synthesized, in which fluorescence was modulated by energy transfer by photoinduced isomerization. Also described is a triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion system that covalently attaches fluorophores to improve quantum yield. Overall these studies demonstrate complex molecular switching systems, which may lead to advancement in organic electronic applications and organic based artificial photosynthesis systems.

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Date Created
2014