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ABSTRACT Facility managers have an important job in today's competitive business world by caring for the backbone of the corporation's capital. Maintaining assets and the support efforts cause facility managers to fight an uphill battle to prove the worth of their organizations. This thesis will discuss the important and flexible use of measurement and leadership reports and the benefits of justifying the work required to maintain or upgrade a facility. The task is streamlined by invoking accountability to subject experts. The facility manager must trust in the ability of his or her work force to get the job done. However, with accountability comes increased risk. Even though accountability may not alleviate total control or cease reactionary actions, facility managers can develop key leadership based reports to reassign accountability and measure subject matter experts while simultaneously reducing reactionary actions leading to increased cost. Identifying and reassigning risk that are not controlled to subject matter experts is imperative for effective facility management leadership and allows facility managers to create an accurate and solid facility management plan, supports the organization's succession plan, and allows the organization to focus on key competencies.
As the execution of facilities management becomes ever more sophisticated, specialized skill in managing specific types of buildings has become necessary. The sector of maintaining historic structures and sites readily falls into this type of specialized classification. This paper is a case study review of the unique “best practices” at the Nauvoo Historic Site located in Nauvoo, Illinois. It outlines a facilities management model of common core practices that was developed by the author following an assessment of various similar historic preservation campuses and their responsibilities to accurately display historic culture while observing modern-day facilities management techniques. Although these best practices are of great value in Nauvoo, they are proposed to be valuable to other sites as well because of their effectiveness. As a part of the description of best practices, an overview of the unique history of Nauvoo that generated the modern-day interest in the site will be reviewed. Additionally, the Nauvoo Facilities Management (NFM) organization will be detailed and will focus on the unique challenges associated with historic restored and reconstructed structures. Finally, the paper will also examine the use of specific facilities management techniques, management of large-scale visitor events, livestock supervision, workforce dynamics, finance and capital improvements, managing NFM within the corporate structure of a worldwide religious organization, and the part that NFM plays in community relations.
For decades, load shifting control, one of the most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted attention from both researchers and engineers. Various load shifting controls have been developed and introduced in mainly commercial buildings. Utility companies typically penalize consumers with “demand rates”. This along with increased population and increased customer energy demand will only increase the need for load shifting. There have been many white papers, thesis papers and case studies written on the different types of Thermal Energy Storage and their uses. Previous papers have been written by Engineers, Manufacturers and Researchers. This thesis paper is unique because it will be presented from the application and applied perspective of the Facilities Manager. There is a need in the field of Facilities Management for relevant applications. This paper will present and discuss the methodology, process applications and challenges of load shifting using (TES) Thermal Energy Storage, mainly ice storage.
The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on the application of the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) quality improvement methodology and tools to study the analysis and improvement of facilities management (FM) services at a healthcare organization. Research literature was reviewed concerning whether or not LSS has been applied in healthcare-based FM, but no such studies have been published. This paper aims to address the lack of an applicable methodology for LSS intervention within the context of healthcare-based FM. The Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) framework was followed to test the hypothesis that LSS can improve the service provided by an FM department responsible for the maintenance and repair of furniture and finishes at a large healthcare organization in the southwest United States of America. Quality improvement curricula and resources offered by the case study organization equipped the FM department to apply LSS over the course of a five-month period. Qualitative data were gathered from pre- and post-intervention surveys while quantitative data were gathered with the Organization’s computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) software. Overall, LSS application proved to be useful for the intended purpose. The author proposes that application of LSS by other FM departments to improve their services could also be successful, which is noteworthy and deserving of continued research.
Facilities Management (FM) around the globe at different companies in different industries are often forced to make difficult decisions on whether or not to transition a workplace environment and how to decide what factors of a workplace environment can benefit or hinder a company's productivity. The data and research presented within this paper are targeted at aiding and educating FM in determining what factors to consider in a workplace transition to an open-seating design and validate the importance of recognizing how these factors impact the productivity of the individual and the organization. Data contained in this paper was gathered through two different survey samples: 1) a semiconductor company that transitioned its employees from cubicles and offices to an open-seating environment; and 2) a general study open to professionals and their experiences and opinions on workplace environments. This data was used to validate or disprove the views on open-seating workspace held by the FM industry today. Data on the topic of how employees react to being transitioned to open-seating environments and looking at the breakdown of the results between engineers and non-engineers is examined within this research. Also covered within the research is data on transitions to other seating environments outside of open-seating concepts to evaluate and compare transition types. Lastly, data was gathered and discussed on the amount of time needed to adapt after a transition and what environment types were linked to being the most productive. This research provides insight on workplace environments and transitions and how they have an impact on productivity and can be used in the decision process when considering transitioning environments.
Public institution facility operations and maintenance is a significant factor enabling an institution to achieve its stated objectives in the delivery of public service. To meet the societal need, Facility Directors must make increasingly complex decisions managing the demands of building infrastructure performance expectations with limited resources. The ability to effectively measure a return-on-investment, specific to facility maintenance indirect expenditures, has, therefore, become progressively more critical given the scale of public institutions, the collective age of existing facilities, and the role these institutions play in society.
This research centers on understanding the method of prioritizing routine work in support of indirect institutional facility maintenance expense through the lens of K-12 public education in the state of Arizona. The methodology documented herein utilizes a mixed method approach to understand current facility maintenance practices and assess the influence of human behavior when prioritizing routine work. An evidence-based decision support tool, leveraging prior academic research, was developed to coalesce previously disparate academic studies. The resulting process provides a decision framework for prioritizing decision factors most frequently correlated with academic outcomes.
A purposeful sample of K-12 unified districts, representing approximately one-third of the state’s student population and spend, resulted in a moderate to a strong negative correlation between facility operations and student outcomes. Correlation results highlight an opportunity to improve decision making, specific to the academic needs of the student. This research documents a methodology for constructing, validation, and testing of a decision support tool for prioritizing routine work orders. Findings from a repeated measures crossover study suggest the decision support tool significantly influenced decision making specific to certain work orders as well as the Plumbing and Mechanical functional areas. However, the decision support tool was less effective when prioritizing Electrical and General Maintenance work orders.
Moreover, as decision making transitioned away from subjective experience-based judgment, the prioritization of work orders became increasingly more consistent. The resulting prioritization, therefore, effectively leveraged prior empirical, evidence-based decision factors when utilizing the tool. The results provide a system for balancing the practical experience of the Facility Director with the objective guidance of the decision support tool.
The performance of the Alpha Sprayed Polyurethane Foam (SPF) roofing system is perceived as not an economical option when compared to a 20-year modified bitumen roofing system. Today, the majority of roofs are being replaced, rather than newly installed. The coating manufacturer, Neogard, implemented the Alpha roofing program to identify the best contractors in the industry and to measure their roof performance. The Alpha roof system has shown consistent high performance on over 230 million square feet of surveyed roof. The author proposes to identify if the Alpha roof system is renewable, has proven performance that competes with the traditional modified roofing system, and is a more economical option by evaluating an Alpha roof system installation and the performance of a 29-year-old Alpha roof system. The Dallas Independent School District utilized the Alpha program for William Lipscomb Elementary School in 2016. Dallas Fort Worth Urethane installed the Alpha SPF roof system with high customer satisfaction ratings. This roofing installation showed the value of the Alpha roof system by saving over 20% on costs for the installation and will save approximately 69% of costs on the recoating of the roof in 20 years. The Casa View Elementary School roof system was installed with a Neogard Permathane roof system in 1987. This roof was hail tested with ten drops from 17 feet 9 inches of 1-3/4-inch steel ball (9 out of 10 passed) and four drops from 17 feet 9 inches with a 3-inch diameter steel ball (2 out of 4 passed). The analysis of the passing and failing core samples show that the thickness of the top and base Alpha SPF coating is one of the major differences in a roof passing or failing the FM-SH hail test. Over the 40-year service life, the main difference of purchasing a 61,000 square feet Alpha SPF roof versus modified bitumen roof are savings of approximately $1,067,500. Past hail tests on Alpha SPF roof systems show its cost effectiveness with high customer satisfaction (9.8 out of 10), an over 40-year service life after a $6.00/SF recoat and savings of over $1M for DISD.
Energy performance and efficiency plays of major role in the operations of K-12 schools, as it is a significant expense and a source of budgetary pressure upon schools. Energy performance is tied to the physical infrastructure of schools, as well as the operational and behavioral patterns they accommodate. Little documentation exists within the existing literature on the measured post-occupancy performance of schools once they have begun measuring and tracking their energy performance. Further, little is known about the patterns of change over time in regard to energy performance and whether there is differentiation in these patterns between school districts.
This paper examines the annual Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of 28 different K-12 schools within the Phoenix Metropolitan Region of Arizona over the span of five years and presents an analysis of changes in energy performance resulting from the measurement of energy use in K-12 schools. This paper also analyzes the patterns of change in energy use over time and provides a comparison of these patterns by school district.
An analysis of the energy performance data for the selected schools revealed a significant positive impact on the ability for schools to improve their energy performance through ongoing performance measurement. However, while schools tend to be able to make energy improvements through the implementation of energy measurement and performance tracking, deviation may exist in their ability to maintain ongoing energy performance over time. The results suggest that implementation of ongoing measurement is likely to produce positive impacts on the energy performance of schools, however further research is recommended to enhance and refine these results.
Commodity contracts are often awarded on the basis of price. A price-based methodology for making such awards fails to consider the suppliers' ability to minimize the risk of non-performance in terms of cost, schedule, or customer satisfaction. Literature suggests that nearly all risk in the delivery of commodities is in the interfacing of nodes within a supply chain. Therefore, commodity suppliers should be selected on the basis of their past performance, ability to identify and minimize risk, and capacity to preplan the delivery of services. Organizations that select commodity suppliers primarily on the basis of price may experience customer dissatisfaction, delayed services, low product quality, or some combination thereof. One area that is often considered a "commodity" is the delivery of furniture services. Arizona State University, on behalf of the Arizona Tri-University Furniture Consortium, approached the researcher and identified concerns with their current furnishing services contract. These concerns included misaligned customer expectations, minimal furniture supplier upfront involvement on large capital construction projects, and manufacturer design expertise was not being utilized during project preplanning. The Universities implemented a best value selection process and risk management structure. The system has resulted in a 9.3 / 10 customer satisfaction rating (24 percent increase over the previous system), for over 1,100 furniture projects totaling $19.3M.
Upon joining Arizona State University in July 2017, the author, a registered architect, inherited the oversight of the University Project Design Guidelines. During the following four years, revisions were made to the Project Design Guidelines and implemented for ongoing and future new construction and renovation work at all five Arizona State University campuses. During this time, it became evident that many projects were not following guidelines resulting in costly rework, or hastily submitted variance requests to avoid or replace the design guidelines, typically during, versus prior to, construction. Tracking of these variance requests began in Summer 2020 identifying some commonly requested variance items for discussion by the Project Guidelines Steering Committee. In June 2021, a progressive design-build solicitation was held for a new campus building. During the interview process it was evident that not all parties on the design-build team (owner, architect and general contractor) had the same understanding of the role, importance, or reasoning for project design guidelines. The confusion demonstrated during the variance and interview process made the author curious as to the overall sentiment of design standards in the industry. What areas of project guidelines are emphasized by universities? Is there a correlation between guideline information and the greatest/least amount of construction costs? Can universities be better served by focusing on a comprehensive understanding and implementation of project design guidelines that impact the greatest construction cost of the project?