Matching Items (3)

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Reduced order model-based prediction of the nonlinear geometric response of a panel under thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic loads

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This paper addresses some aspects of the development of fully coupled thermal-structural reduced order modeling of planned hypersonic vehicles. A general framework for the construction of the structural and thermal

This paper addresses some aspects of the development of fully coupled thermal-structural reduced order modeling of planned hypersonic vehicles. A general framework for the construction of the structural and thermal basis is presented and demonstrated on a representative panel considered in prior investigations. The thermal reduced order model is first developed using basis functions derived from appropriate conduction eigenvalue problems. The modal amplitudes are the solution of the governing equation, which is nonlinear due to the presence of radiation and temperature dependent capacitance and conductance matrices, and the predicted displacement field is validated using published data. A structural reduced order model was developed by first selecting normal modes of the system and then constructing associated dual modes for the capturing of nonlinear inplane displacements. This isothermal model was validated by comparison with full finite element results (Nastran) in static and dynamic loading environments. The coupling of this nonlinear structural reduced order model with the thermal reduced order model is next considered. Displacement-induced thermal modes are constructed in order to account for the effect that structural deflections will have on the thermal problem. This coupling also requires the enrichment of the structural basis to model the elastic deformations that may be produced consistently with the thermal reduced order model. The validation of the combined structural-thermal reduced order model is carried out with pure mechanical loads, pure thermal loads, and combined mechanical-thermal excitations. Such comparisons are performed here on static solutions with temperature increases up to 2200F and pressures up to 3 psi for which the maximum displacements are of the order of 3 thicknesses. The reduced order model predicted results agree well with the full order finite element predictions in all of these various cases. A fully coupled analysis was performed in which the solution of the structural-thermal-aerodynamic reduced order model was carried out for 300 seconds and validated against a full order model. Finally, a reduced order model of a thin, aluminum beam is extended to include linear variations with local temperature of the elasticity tensor and coefficients of thermal expansion.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Parametric analysis of a hypersonic inlet using computational fluid dynamics

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For CFD validation, hypersonic flow fields are simulated and compared with experimental data specifically designed to recreate conditions found by hypersonic vehicles. Simulated flow fields on a cone-ogive with flare

For CFD validation, hypersonic flow fields are simulated and compared with experimental data specifically designed to recreate conditions found by hypersonic vehicles. Simulated flow fields on a cone-ogive with flare at Mach 7.2 are compared with experimental data from NASA Ames Research Center 3.5" hypersonic wind tunnel. A parametric study of turbulence models is presented and concludes that the k-kl-omega transition and SST transition turbulence model have the best correlation. Downstream of the flare's shockwave, good correlation is found for all boundary layer profiles, with some slight discrepancies of the static temperature near the surface. Simulated flow fields on a blunt cone with flare above Mach 10 are compared with experimental data from CUBRC LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel. Lack of vibrational non-equilibrium calculations causes discrepancies in heat flux near the leading edge. Temperature profiles, where non-equilibrium effects are dominant, are compared with the dissociation of molecules to show the effects of dissociation on static temperature. Following the validation studies is a parametric analysis of a hypersonic inlet from Mach 6 to 20. Compressor performance is investigated for numerous cowl leading edge locations up to speeds of Mach 10. The variable cowl study showed positive trends in compressor performance parameters for a range of Mach numbers that arise from maximizing the intake of compressed flow. An interesting phenomenon due to the change in shock wave formation for different Mach numbers developed inside the cowl that had a negative influence on the total pressure recovery. Investigation of the hypersonic inlet at different altitudes is performed to study the effects of Reynolds number, and consequently, turbulent viscous effects on compressor performance. Turbulent boundary layer separation was noted as the cause for a change in compressor performance parameters due to a change in Reynolds number. This effect would not be noticeable if laminar flow was assumed. Mach numbers up to 20 are investigated to study the effects of vibrational and chemical non-equilibrium on compressor performance. A direct impact on the trends on the kinetic energy efficiency and compressor efficiency was found due to dissociation.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Thermoelastodynamic responses of panels through reduced order modeling: oscillating flux and temperature dependent properties

Description

This thesis focuses on the continued extension, validation, and application of combined thermal-structural reduced order models for nonlinear geometric problems. The first part of the thesis focuses on the determination

This thesis focuses on the continued extension, validation, and application of combined thermal-structural reduced order models for nonlinear geometric problems. The first part of the thesis focuses on the determination of the temperature distribution and structural response induced by an oscillating flux on the top surface of a flat panel. This flux is introduced here as a simplified representation of the thermal effects of an oscillating shock on a panel of a supersonic/hypersonic vehicle. Accordingly, a random acoustic excitation is also considered to act on the panel and the level of the thermo-acoustic excitation is assumed to be large enough to induce a nonlinear geometric response of the panel. Both temperature distribution and structural response are determined using recently proposed reduced order models and a complete one way, thermal-structural, coupling is enforced. A steady-state analysis of the thermal problem is first carried out that is then utilized in the structural reduced order model governing equations with and without the acoustic excitation. A detailed validation of the reduced order models is carried out by comparison with a few full finite element (Nastran) computations. The computational expedience of the reduced order models allows a detailed parametric study of the response as a function of the frequency of the oscillating flux. The nature of the corresponding structural ROM equations is seen to be of a Mathieu-type with Duffing nonlinearity (originating from the nonlinear geometric effects) with external harmonic excitation (associated with the thermal moments terms on the panel). A dominant resonance is observed and explained. The second part of the thesis is focused on extending the formulation of the combined thermal-structural reduced order modeling method to include temperature dependent structural properties, more specifically of the elasticity tensor and the coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties were assumed to vary linearly with local temperature and it was found that the linear stiffness coefficients and the "thermal moment" terms then are cubic functions of the temperature generalized coordinates while the quadratic and cubic stiffness coefficients were only linear functions of these coordinates. A first validation of this reduced order modeling strategy was successfully carried out.

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Date Created
  • 2011