Matching Items (6)

154026-Thumbnail Image.png

Moving obstacle avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles

Description

There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While

There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity

for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin’s curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate

these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

150105-Thumbnail Image.png

Design and analysis of stop-rotor multimode unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

Description

The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter mode to an airplane mode in mid-flight. Thus, this UAV

The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter mode to an airplane mode in mid-flight. Thus, this UAV can hover as a helicopter and achieve high mission range of an airplane. The stop-rotor concept implies that in mid-flight the lift generating helicopter rotor stops and rotates the blades into airplane wings. The thrust in airplane mode is then provided by a pusher propeller. The aircraft configuration presents unique challenges in flight dynamics, modeling and control. In this thesis a mathematical model along with the design and simulations of a hover control will be presented. In addition, the discussion of the performance in fixed-wing flight, and the autopilot architecture of the UAV will be presented. Also presented, are some experimental "conversion" results where the Stop-Rotor aircraft was dropped from a hot air balloon and performed a successful conversion from helicopter to airplane mode.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

152741-Thumbnail Image.png

Novel waypoint generation method for increased mapping efficiency

Description

This project is to develop a new method to generate GPS waypoints for better terrain mapping efficiency using an UAV. To create a map of a desired terrain, an UAV is used to capture images at particular GPS locations. These

This project is to develop a new method to generate GPS waypoints for better terrain mapping efficiency using an UAV. To create a map of a desired terrain, an UAV is used to capture images at particular GPS locations. These images are then stitched together to form a complete map of the terrain. To generate a good map using image stitching, the images are desired to have a certain percentage of overlap between them. In high windy condition, an UAV may not capture image at desired GPS location, which in turn interferes with the desired percentage of overlap between images; both frontal and sideways; thus causing discrepancies while stitching the images together. The information about the exact GPS locations at which the images are captured can be found on the flight logs that are stored in the Ground Control Station and the Auto pilot board. The objective is to look at the flight logs, predict the waypoints at which the UAV might have swayed from the desired flight path. If there are locations where flight swayed from intended path, the code should generate a new set of waypoints for a correction flight. This will save the time required for stitching the images together, thus making the whole process faster and more efficient.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

154276-Thumbnail Image.png

Design and synthesis of a hierarchical hybrid controller for quadrotor navigation

Description

There has been exciting progress in the area of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the last decade, especially for quadrotors due to their nature of easy manipulation and simple structure. A lot of research has been done on achieving autonomous

There has been exciting progress in the area of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the last decade, especially for quadrotors due to their nature of easy manipulation and simple structure. A lot of research has been done on achieving autonomous and robust control for quadrotors. Recently researchers have been utilizing linear temporal logic as mission specification language for robot motion planning due to its expressiveness and scalability. Several algorithms have been proposed to achieve autonomous temporal logic planning. Also, several frameworks are designed to compose those discrete planners and continuous controllers to make sure the actual trajectory also satisfies the mission specification. However, most of these works use first-order kinematic models which are not accurate when quadrotors fly at high speed and cannot fully utilize the potential of quadrotors.

This thesis work describes a new design for a hierarchical hybrid controller that is based on a dynamic model and seeks to achieve better performance in terms of speed and accuracy compared with some previous works. Furthermore, the proposed hierarchical controller is making progress towards guaranteed satisfaction of mission specification expressed in Linear Temporal Logic for dynamic systems. An event-driven receding horizon planner is also utilized that aims at distributed and decentralized planning for large-scale navigation scenarios. The benefits of this approach will be demonstrated using simulations results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

154699-Thumbnail Image.png

Dynamics, modeling, simulation and control of mid-flight coupling of quadrotors

Description

Unmanned aerial vehicles have received increased attention in the last decade due to their versatility, as well as the availability of inexpensive sensors (e.g. GPS, IMU) for their navigation and control. Multirotor vehicles, specifically quadrotors, have formed a fast growing

Unmanned aerial vehicles have received increased attention in the last decade due to their versatility, as well as the availability of inexpensive sensors (e.g. GPS, IMU) for their navigation and control. Multirotor vehicles, specifically quadrotors, have formed a fast growing field in robotics, with the range of applications spanning from surveil- lance and reconnaissance to agriculture and large area mapping. Although in most applications single quadrotors are used, there is an increasing interest in architectures controlling multiple quadrotors executing a collaborative task. This thesis introduces a new concept of control involving more than one quadrotors, according to which two quadrotors can be physically coupled in mid-flight. This concept equips the quadro- tors with new capabilities, e.g. increased payload or pursuit and capturing of other quadrotors. A comprehensive simulation of the approach is built to simulate coupled quadrotors. The dynamics and modeling of the coupled system is presented together with a discussion regarding the coupling mechanism, impact modeling and additional considerations that have been investigated. Simulation results are presented for cases of static coupling as well as enemy quadrotor pursuit and capture, together with an analysis of control methodology and gain tuning. Practical implementations are introduced as results show the feasibility of this design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

155055-Thumbnail Image.png

Power management for fuel cell and battery hybrid unmanned aerial vehicle applications

Description

As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential

As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight versus potential flight times. Combinations of the listed batteries, fuel cells, and storage tanks are plotted on the graph to evaluate various hybrid power system configurations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016