Matching Items (10)

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The use of short-term group music therapy for female college students with depression and anxiety

Description

There is a lack of music therapy services for college students who have problems with depression and/or anxiety. Even among universities and colleges that offer music therapy degrees, there are

There is a lack of music therapy services for college students who have problems with depression and/or anxiety. Even among universities and colleges that offer music therapy degrees, there are no known programs offering music therapy to the institution's students. Female college students are particularly vulnerable to depression and anxiety symptoms compared to their male counterparts. Many students who experience mental health problems do not receive treatment, because of lack of knowledge, lack of services, or refusal of treatment. Music therapy is proposed as a reliable and valid complement or even an alternative to traditional counseling and pharmacotherapy because of the appeal of music to young women and the potential for a music therapy group to help isolated students form supportive networks. The present study recruited 14 female university students to participate in a randomized controlled trial of short-term group music therapy to address symptoms of depression and anxiety. The students were randomly divided into either the treatment group or the control group. Over 4 weeks, each group completed surveys related to depression and anxiety. Results indicate that the treatment group's depression and anxiety scores gradually decreased over the span of the treatment protocol. The control group showed either maintenance or slight worsening of depression and anxiety scores. Although none of the results were statistically significant, the general trend indicates that group music therapy was beneficial for the students. A qualitative analysis was also conducted for the treatment group. Common themes were financial concerns, relationship problems, loneliness, and time management/academic stress. All participants indicated that they benefited from the sessions. The group progressed in its cohesion and the participants bonded to the extent that they formed a supportive network which lasted beyond the end of the protocol. The results of this study are by no means conclusive, but do indicate that colleges with music therapy degree programs should consider adding music therapy services for their general student bodies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Glottal fry in college aged females: an entrainment phenomenon?

Description

Glottal fry is a vocal register characterized by low frequency and increased signal perturbation, and is perceptually identified by its popping, creaky quality. Recently, the use of the glottal fry

Glottal fry is a vocal register characterized by low frequency and increased signal perturbation, and is perceptually identified by its popping, creaky quality. Recently, the use of the glottal fry vocal register has received growing awareness and attention in popular culture and media in the United States. The creaky quality that was originally associated with vocal pathologies is indeed becoming “trendy,” particularly among young women across the United States. But while existing studies have defined, quantified, and attempted to explain the use of glottal fry in conversational speech, there is currently no explanation for the increasing prevalence of the use of glottal fry amongst American women. This thesis, however, proposes that conversational entrainment—a communication phenomenon which describes the propensity to modify one’s behavior to align more closely with one’s communication partner—may provide a theoretical framework to explain the growing trend in the use of glottal fry amongst college-aged women in the United States. Female participants (n = 30) between the ages of 18 and 29 years (M = 20.6, SD = 2.95) had conversations with two conversation partners, one who used quantifiably more glottal fry than the other. The study utilized perceptual and quantifiable acoustic information to address the following key question: Does the amount of habitual glottal fry in a conversational partner influence one’s use of glottal fry in their own speech? Results yielded the following two findings: (1) according to perceptual annotations, the participants used a greater amount of glottal fry when speaking with the Fry conversation partner than with the Non Fry partner, (2) statistically significant differences were found in the acoustics of the participants’ vocal qualities based on conversation partner. While the current study demonstrates that young women are indeed speaking in glottal fry in everyday conversations, and that its use can be attributed in part to conversational entrainment, we still lack a clear explanation of the deeper motivations for women to speak in a lower vocal register. The current study opens avenues for continued analysis of the sociolinguistic functions of the glottal fry register.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Striving for skinny: exploring weight control as motivation for illicit stimulant use

Description

There is a growing trend among community samples of young, adult women to initiate drug use for weight loss (Boys, Marsden, & Strang, 2001; Mendieta-Tan, Hulbert-Williams, & Nicholls, 2013). Research

There is a growing trend among community samples of young, adult women to initiate drug use for weight loss (Boys, Marsden, & Strang, 2001; Mendieta-Tan, Hulbert-Williams, & Nicholls, 2013). Research has suggested that consequential weight loss may maintain drug use (Cohen, et al., 2010; Ersche, Stochl, Woodward, & Fletcher, 2013; Sirles, 2002), which is compounded by women's perception that drugs are convenient and guarantee weight loss (Mendieta-Tan, et al., 2013). Stimulants, including cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy, are notable drugs of use among college students (Johnston, et al., 2014; Teter, McCabe, LaGrange, Cranford, & Boyd, 2006). With known appetitive and metabolic effects, stimulants may be particularly attractive to college women, who are at elevated risk for increased body dissatisfaction and experimenting with extreme weight loss techniques (Grunewald, 1985; National Eating Disorder Association, 2013). A preliminary epidemiological study of 130 college women between 16- and 24-years old (Mage = 18.76, SDage = 1.09) was conducted to begin to investigate this phenomenon. Results showed women who reported use for weight control (n = 19, 14.6 %) predominantly used stimulants (68.4%), and this subgroup was severely elevated on global and subscales of eating pathology compared with college norms. Moreover, the odds of stimulant use were doubled when women engaged in a compensatory behavior, such as excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, and laxative use. Although preliminary, these results suggest that a desire for weight control may be associated with stimulant use among college women. Women engaging in more extreme weight loss behaviors are at high risk for initiating and maintaining illicit stimulant use for weight-related reasons.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Who can you trust?: the impact of procedural justice and police trust on women's sexual assault victimization reporting

Description

Sexual assault victimization is a pervasive issue affecting one in four college women. This staggering statistic causes concern for universities across the country to protect students and encourage victimization

Sexual assault victimization is a pervasive issue affecting one in four college women. This staggering statistic causes concern for universities across the country to protect students and encourage victimization reporting. Yet little known about college women’s reporting behaviors and what influences the decision to report. Previous research has established possible reasons influencing reporting behaviors such as fear of retaliation, shame, guilt, and not viewing the incident as a crime. However, few studies have explored the role of prior perceptions of police and the impact of procedural justice on victimization reporting. Using a factorial vignette design, this study tests the influence of prior perceptions of police, procedural unjust treatment, and the sex of the responding officer on the likelihood to report sexual assault. Self-report survey data were collected from 586 female participants attending a public university. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that positive prior perceptions of police significantly increased students’ likelihood to report sexual victimization. Being treated in a procedurally unjust manner by the police had the largest impact on victim decision making, even when controlling for prior perceptions of police; decreasing the likelihood that a student would report their victimization. Contrary to expectations, the sex of the responding officer had no effect on students’ decision to report their victimization. This study has important implications for current policing methods and policies aimed at police-victim interactions among the population at highest risk of sexual victimization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Introduction to social justice oriented arts-based inquiry

Description

ABSTRACT

This dissertation addresses the question of how participation in an arts-based sojourn influences university instructors’ perspectives and understanding as related to working with international female Muslim students (FMS). It also

ABSTRACT

This dissertation addresses the question of how participation in an arts-based sojourn influences university instructors’ perspectives and understanding as related to working with international female Muslim students (FMS). It also addresses what participation in a social justice oriented arts-based inquiry reveals about transformation of perspectives and practices of FMS in instructors’ long-term trajectories. Social justice oriented arts-based inquiry is a powerful tool to unearth issues and challenges associated with creating and sustaining equitable practices in the classroom. This type of inquiry provided instructor-participants with a platform that facilitated their use of “equity lenses” to examine and reflect on external phenomena which may influence their classroom practices as related to FMS. Participation in the art-based sojourn facilitated multiple opportunities for the instructor-participants to reflect critically on their practices, understanding, and perspectives of FMS. This study revealed that the most significant shifts in understanding and perspectives about FMS followed from long-term events and moments in the instructor-participants’ teaching careers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Predicting undergraduates' intent to persist in STEM: : self-efficacy, role salience and anticipated work-family conflict

Description

In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive

In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the model of Achievement Related Choices are two widely accepted career development theories. Both theories highlight the importance of self-efficacy and personal factors in career development; yet, neither of them has considered the predictive power of a specific outcome expectation, anticipated work family conflict (AWFC), in relation to the career development of men and women in STEM undergraduate programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the incremental validity of AWFC over and above that of self-efficacy and role salience, in predicting educational and occupational aspirations of undergraduate students in STEM programs at a large southwestern university. The study provides evidence that the factor structure of the AWFC scale does not hold up with the undergraduate population, and this finding was seen as reason to combine the AWFC subscales into one composite score. In a hierarchical multiple regression higher levels of STEM self-efficacy predicted higher intentions to persist in STEM. Role salience, AWFC, and the gender-AWFC interaction were not significantly related to intentions to persist. Although the study does not provide evidence for the incremental validity of AWFC, it does suggest that work-family balance considerations that have been observed in mature STEM populations may not yet be salient for students at the undergraduate level.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Growth mindset training to increase women's self-efficacy in science and engineering: a randomized-controlled trial

Description

Undeclared undergraduates participated in an experimental study designed to explore the impact of an Internet-delivered "growth mindset" training on indicators of women's engagement in science, engineering, technology, and mathematics ("STEM")

Undeclared undergraduates participated in an experimental study designed to explore the impact of an Internet-delivered "growth mindset" training on indicators of women's engagement in science, engineering, technology, and mathematics ("STEM") disciplines. This intervention was hypothesized to increase STEM self-efficacy and intentions to pursue STEM by strengthening beliefs in intelligence as malleable ("IQ attitude") and discrediting gender-math stereotypes (strengthening "stereotype disbelief"). Hypothesized relationships between these outcome variables were specified in a path model. The intervention was also hypothesized to bolster academic achievement. Participants consisted of 298 women and 191 men, the majority of whom were self-identified as White (62%) and 18 years old (85%) at the time of the study. Comparison group participants received training on persuasive writing styles and control group participants received no training. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment, comparison, or control groups. At posttest, treatment group scores on measures of IQ attitude, stereotype disbelief, and academic achievement were highest; the effects of group condition on these three outcomes were statistically significant as assessed by analysis of variance. Results of pairwise comparisons indicated that treatment group IQ attitude scores were significantly higher than the average IQ attitude scores of both comparison and control groups. Treatment group scores on stereotype disbelief were significantly higher than those of the comparison group but not those of the control group. GPAs of treatment group participants were significantly higher than those of control group participants but not those of comparison group participants. The effects of group condition on STEM self-efficacy or intentions to pursue STEM were not significant. Results of path analysis indicated that the hypothesized model of the relationships between variables fit to an acceptable degree. However, a model with gender-specific paths from IQ attitude and stereotype disbelief to STEM self-efficacy was found to be superior to the hypothesized model. IQ attitude and stereotype disbelief were positively related; IQ attitude was positively related to men's STEM self-efficacy; stereotype disbelief was positively related to women's STEM self-efficacy, and STEM self-efficacy was positively related to intentions to pursue STEM. Implications and study limitations are discussed, and directions for future research are proposed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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A longitudinal examination of the relationship between interest-major congruence and the academic persistence, satisfaction, and achievement of undergraduate students

Description

Using a sample of 931 undergraduate students, the current study examined the influential factors on undergraduate students' academic performance, satisfaction, and intentions to persist in their enrolled major. Specifically, the

Using a sample of 931 undergraduate students, the current study examined the influential factors on undergraduate students' academic performance, satisfaction, and intentions to persist in their enrolled major. Specifically, the current study investigated the salience of interest-major match in predicting academic success. Interest-major match has been found to be one of the most influential determinants of academic and occupational success. However, support for this relationship has been equivocal and modest at best. The present study was designed to improve upon the current understanding of this relation by examining the moderating effect of gender and employing a longitudinal design to investigate the reciprocal relation between interest-major match and academic outcomes. Correlational results suggested that women reported greater interest-major match and results of the path analyses demonstrated a moderating effect of gender. Although a reciprocal relation was not supported, the findings indicated that a student’s level of academic satisfaction may influence the degree of fit between his or her interest and academic major. The results also highlight the tendency for students further along in their academic tenure to persist to graduation despite poor fit. Implications for educators and administrators are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Girls should come up: gender and schooling in contemporary Bhutan

Description

The dissertation is based on 15 months of ethnographically-informed qualitative research at a liberal arts college in the Himalayan nation of Bhutan. It seeks to provide a sense of daily

The dissertation is based on 15 months of ethnographically-informed qualitative research at a liberal arts college in the Himalayan nation of Bhutan. It seeks to provide a sense of daily life and experience of schooling in general and for female students in particular. Access to literacy and the opportunities that formal education can provide are comparatively recent for most Bhutanese women. This dissertation will look at how state-sponsored schooling has shaped gender relations and experiences in Bhutan where non-monastic, co-educational institutions were unknown before the 1960s. While Bhutanese women continue to be under-represented in politics, upper level government positions and public life in general, it is frequently claimed at a variety of different levels (for instance in local media and government reports), that Bhutan, unlike it South Asian neighbors, has a high degree of gender equity. It is argued that any under-representation does not reflect access or opportunity but is instead the result of women's decision not to "come up" and participate. However this dissertation will dispute the claim that female students could choose to be more visible, vocal and mobile in classrooms and on campus without being challenged or discouraged. I will show that school is a gendered context, in which female students are consistently reminded of their "limitations" and their "appropriate place" through the use of familiar social practices such as teasing, gossip, and harassment. Schooling, particularly in developing nations like Bhutan, is usually implicitly and uncritically understood to be a neutral resource, often evaluated in relation to development aims such as creating a more educated and skilled workforce. While Bhutanese schools do seem to promote new kind of opportunity and new understandings of success, they also continue to recognize, maintain and reproduce conventional values around hierarchy, knowledge transmission, cooperation (or group identity) and gender norms. This dissertation will also show how emergent disparities in wealth and opportunity in the nation at large are beginning to be reflected and reproduced in both the experience of schooling and the job market in ways that Bhutanese development policy is not yet able to adequately address.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

Coping with dating violence as a function of violence frequency, severity, gender role beliefs and solution attribution: a structural modeling approach

Description

This study presents a structural model of coping with dating violence. The model integrates abuse frequency and solution attribution to determine a college woman's choice of coping strategy. Three hundred,

This study presents a structural model of coping with dating violence. The model integrates abuse frequency and solution attribution to determine a college woman's choice of coping strategy. Three hundred, twenty-four undergraduate women reported being targets of some physical abuse from a boyfriend and responded to questions regarding the abuse, their gender role beliefs, their solution attribution and the coping behaviors they executed. Though gender role beliefs and abuse severity were not significant predictors, solution attribution mediated between frequency of the abuse and coping. Abuse frequency had a positive effect on external solution attribution and external solution attribution had a positive effect on the level of use of active coping, utilization of social support, denial and acceptance.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011