Matching Items (7)

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Bleomycin, from start to finish: total synthesis of novel analogues to in vitro fluorescence microscopy imaging

Description

The bleomycins are a family of glycopeptide-derived antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species and have been the subject of much attention from the scientific community as a consequence of their antitumor activity. Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of

The bleomycins are a family of glycopeptide-derived antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species and have been the subject of much attention from the scientific community as a consequence of their antitumor activity. Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of a number of combination chemotherapy regimens. It has previously been shown that bleomycin has the ability to selectively target tumor cells over their non-malignant counterparts. Pyrimidoblamic acid, the N-terminal metal ion binding domain of bleomycin is known to be the moiety that is responsible for O2 activation and the subsequent chemistry leading to DNA strand scission and overall antitumor activity. Chapter 1 describes bleomycin and related DNA targeting antitumor agents as well as the specific structural domains of bleomycin. Various structural analogues of pyrimidoblamic acid were synthesized and subsequently incorporated into their corresponding full deglycoBLM A6 derivatives by utilizing a solid support. Their activity was measured using a pSP64 DNA plasmid relaxation assay and is summarized in Chapter 2. The specifics of bleomycin—DNA interaction and kinetics were studied via surface plasmon resonance and are presented in Chapter 3. By utilizing carefully selected 64-nucleotide DNA hairpins with variable 16-mer regions whose sequences showed strong binding in past selection studies, a kinetic profile was obtained for several BLMs for the first time since bleomycin was discovered in 1966. The disaccharide moiety of bleomycin has been previously shown to be a specific tumor cell targeting element comprised of L-gulose-D-mannose, especially between MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) and MCF-10A ("normal" breast cells). This phenomenon was further investigated via fluorescence microscopy using multiple cancerous cell lines with matched "normal" counterparts and is fully described in Chapter 4.

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2013

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Synthesis of benzoquinone antioxidants and a bleomycin disaccharide library

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Healthy mitochondria are essential for cell survival. Described herein is the synthesis of a family of novel aminoquinone antioxidants designed to alleviate oxidative stress and prevent the impairment of cellular function. In addition, a library of bleomycin disaccharide analogues has

Healthy mitochondria are essential for cell survival. Described herein is the synthesis of a family of novel aminoquinone antioxidants designed to alleviate oxidative stress and prevent the impairment of cellular function. In addition, a library of bleomycin disaccharide analogues has also been synthesized to better probe the tumor targeting properties of bleomycin. The first study involves the synthesis of a benzoquinone natural product and analogues that closely resemble the redox core of the natural product geldanamycin. The synthesized 5-amino-3-tridecyl-1,4-benzoquinone antioxidants were tested for their ability to protect Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) lymphocytes from induced oxidative stress. Some of the analogues synthesized conferred cytoprotection in a dose-dependent manner in FRDA lymphocytes at micromolar concentrations. The biological assays suggest that the modification of the 2-hydroxyl and N-(3-carboxypropyl) groups in the natural product can improve its antioxidant activity and significantly enhance its ability to protect mitochondrial function under conditions of oxidative stress. The second project focused on the synthesis of a library of bleomycin disaccharide-dye conjugates and monitored their cellular uptake by fluorescence microscopy. The studies reveal that the position of the carbamoyl group plays an important role in modulating the cellular uptake of the disaccharide. It also led to the discovery of novel disaccharides with improved tumor selectivity.

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2013

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Probing receptors and enzymes with synthetic small molecules

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ABSTRACT Manipulation of biological targets using synthetic or naturally occurring organic compounds has been the focal point of medicinal chemistry. The work described herein centers on the synthesis of organic small molecules that are targeted either to cell surface receptors,

ABSTRACT Manipulation of biological targets using synthetic or naturally occurring organic compounds has been the focal point of medicinal chemistry. The work described herein centers on the synthesis of organic small molecules that are targeted either to cell surface receptors, to the ribosomal catalytic center or to human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase. Bleomycins (BLMs) are a family of naturally occurring glycopeptidic antitumor agents with an inherent selectivity towards cancer cells. DeglycoBLM, which lacks the sugar moiety of bleomycin, has much lower cytotoxicity in cellular assays. A recent study using microbbuble conjugates of BLM and deglycoBLM showed that BLM was able to selectively bind to breast cancer cells, whereas the deglyco analogue was unable to target either the cancer or normal cells. This prompted us to further investigate the role of the carbohydrate moiety in bleomycin. Fluorescent conjugates of BLM, deglycoBLM and the BLM carbohydrate were studied for their ability to target cancer cells. Work presented here describes the synthesis of the fluorescent carbohydrate conjugate. Cell culture assays showed that the sugar moiety was able to selectively target various cancer cells. A second conjugate was prepared to study the importance of the C-3 carbamoyl group present on the mannose residue of the carbohydrate. Three additional fluorescent probes were prepared to improve the uptake of this carbohydrate moiety into cancer cells. Encouraged by the results from the fluorescence experiments, the sugar moiety was conjugated to a cytotoxic molecule to selectively deliver this drug into cancer cells. The nonsense codon suppression technique has enabled researchers to site specifically incorporate noncanonical amino acids into proteins. The amino acids successfully incorporated this way are mostly α-L-amino acids. The non-α-L-amino acids are not utilized as substrates by ribosome catalytic center. Hoping that mutations near the ribosome peptidyltransferase site might alleviate its bias towards α-L-amino acids, a library of modified ribosomes was generated. Analogues of the naturally occurring antibiotic puromycin were used to select promising candidates that would allow incorporation of non-α-L-amino acids into proteins. Syntheses of three different puromycin analogues are described here. The reverse transcriptase enzyme from HIV-1 (HIV-1 RT) has been a popular target of HIV therapeutic agents due to its crucial role in viral replication. The 4-chlorophenyl hydrazone of mesoxalic acid (CPHM) was identified in a screen designed to find inhibitors of strand transfer reactions catalyzed by HIV-1 RT. Our collaborators designed several analogues of CPHM with different substituents on the aromatic ring using molecular docking simulations. Work presented here describes the synthesis of eight different analogues of CPHM.

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2013

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Synthesis of redox-cycling therapeutic agents

Description

Cellular redox phenomena are essential for the life of organisms. Described here is a summary of the synthesis of a number of redox-cycling therapeutic agents. The work centers on the synthesis of antitumor antibiotic bleomycin congeners. In addition, the synthesis

Cellular redox phenomena are essential for the life of organisms. Described here is a summary of the synthesis of a number of redox-cycling therapeutic agents. The work centers on the synthesis of antitumor antibiotic bleomycin congeners. In addition, the synthesis of pyridinol analogues of alpha-tocopherol is also described. The bleomycins (BLMs) are a group of glycopeptide antibiotics that have been used clinically to treat several types of cancers. The antitumor activity of BLM is thought to be related to its degradation of DNA, and possibly RNA. Previous studies have indicated that the methylvalerate subunit of bleomycin plays an important role in facilitating DNA cleavage by bleomycin and deglycobleomycin. A series of methylvalerate analogues have been synthesized and incorporated into deglycobleomycin congeners by the use of solid-phase synthesis. All of the deglycobleomycin analogues were found to effect the relaxation of plasmid DNA. Those analogues having aromatic C4-substituents exhibited cleavage efficiency comparable to that of deglycoBLM A5. Some, but not all, of the deglycoBLM analogues were also capable of mediating sequence-selective DNA cleavage. The second project focused on the synthesis of bicyclic pyridinol analogues of alpha-tocopherol. Bicyclic pyridinol antioxidants have recently been reported to suppress the autoxidation of methyl linoleate more effectively than alpha-tocopherol. However, the complexity of the synthetic routes has hampered their further development as therapeutic agents. Described herein is a concise synthesis of two bicyclic pridinol antioxidants and a facile approach to their derivatives with simple alkyl chains attached to the antioxidant core. These analogues were shown to retain biological activity and exhibit tocopherol-like behaviour.

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2011

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Study of site specific cleavage of strongly bound hairpin DNAs by bleomycin

Description

Natural products that target the DNA of cancer cells have been an important source of knowledge and understanding in the development of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Bleomycin (BLM) exemplifies this class of DNA damaging agent. The ability of BLM to chelate

Natural products that target the DNA of cancer cells have been an important source of knowledge and understanding in the development of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Bleomycin (BLM) exemplifies this class of DNA damaging agent. The ability of BLM to chelate metal ions and effect oxidative damage of the deoxyribose sugar moiety of DNA has been studied extensively for four decades. Here, the study of BLM A5 was conducted using a previously isolated library of hairpin DNAs found to bind strongly to metal free BLM. The ability of BLM to effect single-stranded was then extensively characterized on both the 3′ and 5′-arms of the hairpin DNAs. The strongly bound DNAs were found to be efficient substrates for Fe·BLM A5-mediated cleavage. Surprisingly, the most prevalent site of damage by BLM was found to be a 5′-AT-3′ dinucleotide sequence. This dinucleotide sequence and others generally not cleaved by BLM when examined using arbitrarily chosen DNA substrate were found in examining the library of ten hairpin DNAs. In total, 111 sites of DNA damage were found to be produced by exposure of the hairpin DNA library to Fe·BLM A5. Also, an assay was developed with which to test the propensity of the hairpin DNAs to undergo double stranded DNA damage. Adapting methods previously described by the Povirk laboratory, one hairpin was characterized using this method. The results were in accordance with those previously reported.

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2011

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An investigation of the interaction of DNA with selected peptides and proteins

Description

The communication of genetic material with biomolecules has been a major interest in cancer biology research for decades. Among its different levels of involvement, DNA is known to be a target of several antitumor agents. Additionally, tissue specific interaction between

The communication of genetic material with biomolecules has been a major interest in cancer biology research for decades. Among its different levels of involvement, DNA is known to be a target of several antitumor agents. Additionally, tissue specific interaction between macromolecules such as proteins and structurally important regions of DNA has been reported to define the onset of certain types of cancers.

Illustrated in Chapter 1 is the general history of research on the interaction of DNA and anticancer drugs, most importantly different congener of bleomycin (BLM). Additionally, several synthetic analogues of bleomycin, including the structural components and functionalities, are discussed.

Chapter 2 describes a new approach to study the double-strand DNA lesion caused by antitumor drug bleomycin. The hairpin DNA library used in this study displays numerous cleavage sites demonstrating the versatility of bleomycin interaction with DNA. Interestingly, some of those cleavage sites suggest a novel mechanism of bleomycin interaction, which has not been reported before.

Cytidine methylation has generally been found to decrease site-specific cleavage of DNA by BLM, possibly due to structural change and subsequent reduced bleomycin-mediated recognition of DNA. As illustrated in Chapter 3, three hairpin DNAs known to be strongly bound by bleomycin, and their methylated counterparts, were used to study the dynamics of bleomycin-induced degradation of DNAs in cancer cells. Interestingly, cytidine methylation on one of the DNAs has also shown a major shift in the intensity of bleomycin induced double-strand DNA cleavage pattern, which is known to be a more potent form of bleomycin induced cleavages.

DNA secondary structures are known to play important roles in gene regulation. Chapter 4 demonstrates a structural change of the BCL2 promoter element as a result of its dynamic interaction with the individual domains of hnRNP LL, which is essential to facilitate the transcription of BCL2. Furthermore, an in vitro protein synthesis technique has been employed to study the dynamic interaction between protein domains and the i-motif DNA within the promoter element. Several constructs were made involving replacement of a single amino acid with a fluorescent analogue, and these were used to study FRET between domain 1 and the i-motif, the later of which harbored a fluorescent acceptor nucleotide analogue.

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2014

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Small molecule probes for studying cellular receptors and enzymes

Description

Small molecules have proven to be very important tools for exploration of biological systems including diagnosis and treatment of lethal diseases like cancer. Fluorescent probes have been extensively used to further amplify the utilization of small molecules. The manipulation of

Small molecules have proven to be very important tools for exploration of biological systems including diagnosis and treatment of lethal diseases like cancer. Fluorescent probes have been extensively used to further amplify the utilization of small molecules. The manipulation of naturally occurring biological targets with the help of synthetic compounds is the focus of the work described in this thesis.

Bleomycins (BLMs) are a class of water soluble, glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consisting of a structurally complicated unnatural hexapeptide and a disaccharide, clinically used as an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent at an exceptionally low therapeutic dose. The efficiency of BLM is likely achieved both by selective localization within tumor cells and selective binding to DNA followed by efficient double-strand cleavage. The disaccharide moiety is responsible for the tumor cell targeting properties of BLM. A recent study showed that both BLM and its disaccharide, conjugated to the cyanine dye Cy5**, bound selectively to cancer cells. Thus, the disaccharide moiety alone recapitulates the tumor cell targeting properties of BLM. Work presented here describes the synthesis of the fluorescent carbohydrate conjugates. A number of dye-labeled modified disaccharides and monosaccharides were synthesized to study the nature of the participation of the carbamoyl moiety in the mechanism of tumor cell recognition and uptake by BLM saccharides. It was demonstrated that the carbamoylmannose moiety of BLM is the smallest structural entity capable for the cellular targeting and internalization, and the carbamoyl functionality is indispensible for tumor cell targeting. It was also confirmed that BLM is a modular molecule, composed of a tumor cell targeting moiety (the saccharide) attached to a cytotoxic DNA cleaving domain (the BLM aglycone). These finding encouraged us to further synthesize carbohydrate probes for PET imaging and to conjugate the saccharide moiety with cytotoxins for targeted delivery to tumor cells.

The misacylated suppressor tRNA technique has enabled the site-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into proteins. The focus of the present work was the synthesis of unnatural lysine analogues with nucleophilic properties for incorporation at position 72 of the lyase domain of human DNA polymerase beta, a multifunctional enzyme with dRP lyase and polymerase activity.

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2014