Matching Items (11)

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Reconstruction methods In free electron laser X-ray diffraction

Description

One of the most important issues in femtosecond free electron laser X-ray diraction is to reconstruct the 3D charge density of molecule from a mass of diraction snapshots. In order to determine the orientation of single molecule from diraction patterns,

One of the most important issues in femtosecond free electron laser X-ray diraction is to reconstruct the 3D charge density of molecule from a mass of diraction snapshots. In order to determine the orientation of single molecule from diraction patterns, we rst determine the moments and products of inertia of this from 2D experiment data (diraction patterns or EM images to obtain the elements of the inertia tensor. If diraction patterns from uniformly random orientations or some preferred orientations are collected, the principal axes of the molecule can be extracted, together with the Euler angles which relate the principal axes of the molecule to the laboratory frame axes. This is achieved by nding the maximum and minimum values for the measured moments from many single-molecule patterns. Simulations for GroEL protein indicates that the calculation of the autocorrelation help eliminate the Poisson noise in Cryo- EM images and can make correct orientation determination. The eect of water jacket surrounding the protein molecule is studied based on molecular dynamics simulation result. The intensities from water and interference is found to suppress those from protein itself. A method is proposed and applied to the simulation data to show the possibility for it to overcome the water background problem. The scattering between Bragg re ections from nanocrystals is used to aid solution of the phase problem. We describe a method for reconstructing the charge density of a typical molecule within a single unit cell, if suciently nely-sampled diraction data are available from many nanocrystals of dierent sizes lying in the same orientations without knowledge of the distribution of particle size or requiring atomic-resolution data. Triple correlation of the diraction patterns are made use of to reconiii

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2011

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Femtosecond x-ray protein nanocrystallography and correlated fluctuation small-angle x-ray scattering

Description

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage altogether when using single X-ray pulses so brief that they

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage altogether when using single X-ray pulses so brief that they terminate before atomic motion commences. This dissertation concerns the application of XFELs to biomolecular imaging in an effort to overcome the severe challenges associated with radiation damage and macroscopic protein crystal growth. The method of femtosecond protein nanocrystallography (fsPNX) is investigated, and a new method for extracting crystallographic structure factors is demonstrated on simulated data and on the first experimental fsPNX data obtained at an XFEL. Errors are assessed based on standard metrics familiar to the crystallography community. It is shown that resulting structure factors match the quality of those measured conventionally, at least to 9 angstrom resolution. A new method for ab-initio phasing of coherently-illuminated nanocrystals is then demonstrated on simulated data. The method of correlated fluctuation small-angle X-ray scattering (CFSAXS) is also investigated as an alternative route to biomolecular structure determination, without the use of crystals. It is demonstrated that, for a constrained two-dimensional geometry, a projection image of a single particle can be formed, ab-initio and without modeling parameters, from measured diffracted intensity correlations arising from disordered ensembles of identical particles illuminated simultaneously. The method is demonstrated experimentally, based on soft X-ray diffraction from disordered but identical nanoparticles, providing the first experimental proof-of-principle result. Finally, the fundamental limitations of CFSAXS is investigated through both theory and simulations. It is found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for CFSAXS data is essentially independent of the number of particles exposed in each diffraction pattern. The dependence of SNR on particle size and resolution is considered, and realistic estimates are made (with the inclusion of solvent scatter) of the SNR for protein solution scattering experiments utilizing an XFEL source.

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2011

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Investigating beta-sheet nanocrystal ordering and correlation with small-angle X-ray scattering

Description

In disordered soft matter system, amorphous and crystalline components might be coexisted. The interaction between the two distinct structures and the correlation within the crystalline components are crucial to the macroscopic property of the such material. The spider dragline silk

In disordered soft matter system, amorphous and crystalline components might be coexisted. The interaction between the two distinct structures and the correlation within the crystalline components are crucial to the macroscopic property of the such material. The spider dragline silk biopolymer, is one of such soft matter material that exhibits exceptional mechanical strength though its mass density is considerably small compare to structural metal. Through wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), the research community learned that the silk fiber is mainly composed of amorphous backbone and $\beta$-sheet nano-crystals. However, the morphology of the crystalline system within the fiber is still not clear. Therefore, a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering experiments and stochastic simulation is designed here to reveal the nano-crystalline ordering in spider silk biopolymer. In addition, several density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to help understanding the interaction between amorphous backbone and the crystalline $\beta$-sheets.

By taking advantage of the prior information obtained from WAXS, a rather crude nano-crystalline model was initialized for further numerical reconstruction. Using Markov-Chain stochastic method, a hundreds of nanometer size $\beta$-sheet distribution model was reconstructed from experimental SAXS data, including silk fiber sampled from \textit{Latrodectus hesperus}, \textit{Nephila clavipes}, \textit{Argiope aurantia} and \textit{Araneus gemmoides}. The reconstruction method was implemented using MATLAB and C++ programming language and can be extended to study a broad range of disordered material systems.

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2015

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Phasing two-dimensional crystal diffraction pattern with iterative projection algorithms

Description

Phase problem has been long-standing in x-ray diffractive imaging. It is originated from the fact that only the amplitude of the scattered wave can be recorded by the detector, losing the phase information. The measurement of amplitude alone is insufficient

Phase problem has been long-standing in x-ray diffractive imaging. It is originated from the fact that only the amplitude of the scattered wave can be recorded by the detector, losing the phase information. The measurement of amplitude alone is insufficient to solve the structure. Therefore, phase retrieval is essential to structure determination with X-ray diffractive imaging. So far, many experimental as well as algorithmic approaches have been developed to address the phase problem. The experimental phasing methods, such as MAD, SAD etc, exploit the phase relation in vector space. They usually demand a lot of efforts to prepare the samples and require much more data. On the other hand, iterative phasing algorithms make use of the prior knowledge and various constraints in real and reciprocal space. In this thesis, new approaches to the problem of direct digital phasing of X-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional organic crystals were presented. The phase problem for Bragg diffraction from two-dimensional (2D) crystalline monolayer in transmission may be solved by imposing a compact support that sets the density to zero outside the monolayer. By iterating between the measured stucture factor magnitudes along reciprocal space rods (starting with random phases) and a density of the correct sign, the complex scattered amplitudes may be found (J. Struct Biol 144, 209 (2003)). However this one-dimensional support function fails to link the rod phases correctly unless a low-resolution real-space map is also available. Minimum prior information required for successful three-dimensional (3D) structure retrieval from a 2D crystal XFEL diffraction dataset were investigated, when using the HIO algorithm. This method provides an alternative way to phase 2D crystal dataset, with less dependence on the high quality model used in the molecular replacement method.

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2016

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Dela Rosa Final Project (Spring 2022)

Description

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was to model initial simulations predicting the output signal of the future compact x-ray free electron laser (CXFEL) XPCI source. The signal was reported in tonal values (“counts”), where MATLAB and MATLAB App Designer were the computing environments used to develop the simulations. The experimental setup’s components included a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) scintillating screen, mirror, and Mako G-507C camera with a Sony IMX264 sensor. The main function of the setup was to aim the X-rays at the YAG screen, then measure its scintillation through the photons emitted that hit the camera sensor. The resulting quantity used to assess the signal strength was tonal values (“counts”) per pixel on the sensor. Data for X-ray transmission through water, air, and polyimide was sourced from The Center for X-ray Optics’s simulations website, after which the data was interpolated and referenced in MATLAB. Matrices were an integral part of the saturation calculations; field-of-view (FOV), magnification and photon energies were also necessary. All the calculations were compiled into a graphical user interface (GUI) using App Designer. The code used to build this GUI can be used as a template for later, more complex GUIs and is a great starting point for future work in XPCI research at CXFEL.

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2022-05

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CXFEL Screens

Description

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was to model initial simulations predicting the output signal of the future compact x-ray free electron laser (CXFEL) XPCI source. The signal was reported in tonal values (“counts”), where MATLAB and MATLAB App Designer were the computing environments used to develop the simulations. The experimental setup’s components included a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) scintillating screen, mirror, and Mako G-507C camera with a Sony IMX264 sensor. The main function of the setup was to aim the X-rays at the YAG screen, then measure its scintillation through the photons emitted that hit the camera sensor. The resulting quantity used to assess the signal strength was tonal values (“counts”) per pixel on the sensor. Data for X-ray transmission through water, air, and polyimide was sourced from The Center for X-ray Optics’s simulations website, after which the data was interpolated and referenced in MATLAB. Matrices were an integral part of the saturation calculations; field-of-view (FOV), magnification and photon energies were also necessary. All the calculations were compiled into a graphical user interface (GUI) using App Designer. The code used to build this GUI can be used as a template for later, more complex GUIs and is a great starting point for future work in XPCI research at CXFEL.

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Date Created
2022-05

Image Intensity Calculations for XPCI Simulations Using a MATLAB GUI

Description

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was to model initial simulations predicting the output signal of the future compact x-ray free electron laser (CXFEL) XPCI source. The signal was reported in tonal values (“counts”), where MATLAB and MATLAB App Designer were the computing environments used to develop the simulations. The experimental setup’s components included a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) scintillating screen, mirror, and Mako G-507C camera with a Sony IMX264 sensor. The main function of the setup was to aim the X-rays at the YAG screen, then measure its scintillation through the photons emitted that hit the camera sensor. The resulting quantity used to assess the signal strength was tonal values (“counts”) per pixel on the sensor. Data for X-ray transmission through water, air, and polyimide was sourced from The Center for X-ray Optics’s simulations website, after which the data was interpolated and referenced in MATLAB. Matrices were an integral part of the saturation calculations; field-of-view (FOV), magnification and photon energies were also necessary. All the calculations were compiled into a graphical user interface (GUI) using App Designer. The code used to build this GUI can be used as a template for later, more complex GUIs and is a great starting point for future work in XPCI research at CXFEL.

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2022-05

Hermann Joseph Muller's Study of X-rays as a Mutagen, (1926-1927)

Description

Hermann Joseph Muller conducted three experiments in 1926 and 1927 that demonstrated that exposure to x-rays, a form of high-energy radiation, can cause genetic mutations, changes to an organism's genome, particularly in egg and sperm cells. In his experiments, Muller

Hermann Joseph Muller conducted three experiments in 1926 and 1927 that demonstrated that exposure to x-rays, a form of high-energy radiation, can cause genetic mutations, changes to an organism's genome, particularly in egg and sperm cells. In his experiments, Muller exposed fruit flies (Drosophila) to x-rays, mated the flies, and observed the number of mutations in the offspring. In 1927, Muller described the results of his experiments in "Artificial Transmutation of the Gene" and "The Problem of Genic Modification". His discovery indicated the causes of mutation and for that research he later received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1946. Muller's experiments with x-rays established that x-rays mutated genes and that egg and sperm cells are especially susceptible to such genetic mutations.

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2017-03-07

Hermann Joseph Muller (1890-1967)

Description

Hermann Joseph Muller studied the effects of x-ray radiation on genetic material in the US during the twentieth century. At that time, scientists had yet to determine the dangers that x-rays presented. In 1927, Muller demonstrated that x-rays, a form

Hermann Joseph Muller studied the effects of x-ray radiation on genetic material in the US during the twentieth century. At that time, scientists had yet to determine the dangers that x-rays presented. In 1927, Muller demonstrated that x-rays, a form of high-energy radiation, can mutate the structure of genetic material. Muller warned others of the dangers of radiation, advising radiologists to protect themselves and their patients from radiation. He also opposed the indiscriminate use of radiation in medical and industrial fields. In 1946, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his lifetime work involving radiation and genetic mutation. Muller's worked enabled scientists to directly study mutations without having to rely on naturally occurring mutations. Furthermore, Muller showed that radiation, even in small doses, leads to genetic mutations primarily in germ cells, cells which give rise to sperm and egg cells.

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Date Created
2017-05-25

Theophilus Shickel Painter (1889-1969)

Description

Theophilus Shickel Painter studied the structure and
function of chromosomes in the US during in the early to mid-twentieth century. Painter worked at
the University of Texas at Austin in Austin, Texas. In the 1920s
and 1930s,

Theophilus Shickel Painter studied the structure and
function of chromosomes in the US during in the early to mid-twentieth century. Painter worked at
the University of Texas at Austin in Austin, Texas. In the 1920s
and 1930s, Painter studied the chromosomes of the salivary gland
giant chromosomes of the fruit fly (Drosophila
melanogaster), with Hermann J. Muller. Muller and Painter
studied the ability of X-rays to cause changes in the chromosomes
of fruit flies. Painter also studied chromosomes in mammals.
He investigated the development of the male gamete, a process
called spermatogenesis, in several invertebrates and vertebrates,
including mammals. In addition, Painter studied the role the
Y-chromosome plays in the determination and development of the male
embryo. Painter's research concluded that egg cells fertilized by
sperm cell bearing an X-chromosome resulted in a female embryo,
whereas egg cells fertilized by a sperm cell carrying a
Y-chromosome resulted in a male embryo. Painter's work with
chromosomes helped other researchers determine that X- and
Y-chromosomes are responsible for sex determination.

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Date Created
2014-11-22