Matching Items (8)

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Novel colorimetric sensors with extended lifetime for personal exposure monitoring

Description

Air pollution has been linked to various health problems but how different air pollutants and exposure levels contribute to those diseases remain largely unknown. Researchers have mainly relied on data

Air pollution has been linked to various health problems but how different air pollutants and exposure levels contribute to those diseases remain largely unknown. Researchers have mainly relied on data from government air monitoring stations to study the health effects of air pollution exposure. The limited information provided by sparse stations has low spatial and temporal resolution, which is not able to represent the actual exposure of individuals. A tool that can accurately monitor personal exposure provides valuable data for epidemiologists to understand the relationship between air pollution and certain diseases. It also allows individuals to be aware of any ambient air quality issues and prevent air pollution exposure. To build such a tool, sensors with features of fast response, small size, long lifetime, high sensitivity, high selectivity, and multi-analyte sensing are of great importance.

In order to meet these requirements, three generations of novel colorimetric sensors have been developed. The first generation is mosaic colorimetric sensors based on tiny sensor blocks and by detecting absorbance change after each air sample injection, the target analyte concentration can be measured. The second generation is a gradient-based colorimetric sensor. Lateral transport of analytes across the colorimetric sensor surface creates a color gradient that shifts along the transport direction over time, and the sensor tracks the gradient shift and converts it into analyte concentration in real-time. The third generation is gradient-based colorimetric arrays fabricated by inkjet-printing method that integrates multiple sensors on a miniaturized sensor chip. Unlike traditional colorimetric sensors, such as detection tubes and optoelectronic nose, that are typically for one-time use, the presented three generations of colorimetric sensors aim to continuously monitor multiple air pollutants and the sensor lifetime and fabrication methods have been improved over each generation. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and carbon monoxide are chosen as analytes of interest. The performance of sensors has been validated in the lab and field tests, proving the capability of the sensors to be used for personal exposure monitoring.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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MWIR and visible nBn photodetectors and their monolithically-integration for two-color photodetector applications

Description

This work demonstrates novel nBn photodetectors including mid-wave infrared (MWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) with charge as the output signal, and visible nBn photodetectors based on

This work demonstrates novel nBn photodetectors including mid-wave infrared (MWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) with charge as the output signal, and visible nBn photodetectors based on CdTe with current output. Furthermore, visible/MWIR two-color photodetectors (2CPDs) are fabricated through monolithic integration of the CdTe nBn photodetector and an InSb photodiode.

The MWIR nBn photodetectors have a potential well for holes present in the barrier layer. At low voltages of < −0.2 V, which ensure low dark current <10-5 A/cm2 at 77 K, photogenerated holes are collected in this well with a storage lifetime of 40 s. This charge collection process is an in-device signal integration process that reduces the random noise significantly. Since the stored holes can be readout laterally as in charge-coupled devices, it is therefore possible to make charge-output nBn with much lower noise than conventional current-output nBn photodetectors.

The visible nBn photodetectors have a CdTe absorber layer and a ZnTe barrier layer with an aligned valence band edge. By using a novel ITO/undoped-CdTe top contact design, it has achieved a high specific detectivity of 3×1013 cm-Hz1/2/W at room temperature. Particularly, this CdTe nBn photodetector grown on InSb substrates enables the monolithic integration of CdTe and InSb photodetectors, and provides a platform to study in-depth device physics of nBn photodetectors at room temperature.

Furthermore, the visible/MWIR 2CPD has been developed by the monolithic integration of the CdTe nBn and an InSb photodiode through an n-CdTe/p-InSb tunnel junction. At 77 K, the photoresponse of the 2CPD can be switched between a 1-5.5 μm MWIR band and a 350-780 nm visible band by illuminating the device with an external light source or not, and applying with proper voltages. Under optimum conditions, the 2CPD has achieved a MWIR peak responsivity of 0.75 A/W with a band rejection ratio (BRR) of 52 dB, and a visible peak responsivity of 0.3 A/W with a BRR of 18 dB. This 2CPD has enabled future compact image sensors with high fill-factor and responsivity switchable between visible and MWIR colors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

Description

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, consisting of a remotely interrogating array of dipoles, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002.

In the present work a remotely interrogating slot antenna inside a 60nm silver slab is designed which increases the signal to noise ratio of the original system. The antenna is tuned to resonance at 600nm range by taking advantage of the plasmon resonance properties of the metal’s negative permittivity and judicious shaping of the slot element. Full-physics simulations show the capability of detecting an 8nm particle using red light illumination. The sensitivity to the λ/78 particle is attained by detecting the change induced on the antenna’s far field signature by the proximate particle, a change that is 15dB greater than the scattering signature of the particle by itself.

To verify the capabilities of this technology in a readily accessible experimental environment, a radiofrequency scale model is designed using a meta-material to mimic the optical properties of silver in the 2GHz to 5GHz range. Various approaches to the replication of the metal’s behavior are explored in a trade-off between fidelity to the metal’s natural plasmon response, desired bandwidth of the demonstration, and

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manufacturability of the meta-material. The simulation and experimental results successfully verify the capability of the proposed near-field sensor in sub-wavelength detection and imaging not only as a proof of concept for optical frequencies but also as a potential imaging device for radio frequencies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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One dimensional modeling of mercury cadmium telluride photodetectors operated at low temperatures

Description

The long wavelength infrared region (LWIR) and mid wavelength infrared region (MWIR) are of great interest as detection in this region offers a wide range of real time applications. Optoelectronic

The long wavelength infrared region (LWIR) and mid wavelength infrared region (MWIR) are of great interest as detection in this region offers a wide range of real time applications. Optoelectronic devices operating in the LWIR and MWIR region offer potential applications such as; optical gas sensing, free-space optical communications, infrared counter-measures, biomedical and thermal imaging etc. HgCdTe is a prominent narrow bandgap material that operates in the LWIR region. The focus of this research work is to simulate and analyze the characteristics of a Hg1-xCdxTe photodetector. To achieve this, the tool `OPTODET' has been developed, where various device parameters can be varied and the resultant output can be analyzed. By the study of output characteristics in response to various changes in device parameters will allow users to understand the considerations that must be made in order to reach the optimum working point of an infrared detector. The tool which has been developed is a 1-D drift diffusion based simulator which solves the 1-D Poisson equation to determine potentials and utilizes the results of the 1-D electron and hole continuity equations to determine current. Parameters such as absorption co-efficient, quantum efficiency, dark current, noise, Transit time and detectivity can be simulated. All major recombination mechanisms such as SRH, Radiative and Auger recombination have been considered. Effects of band to band tunnelling have also been considered to correctly model the dark current characteristics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Electrochemical sensors and on-chip optical sensors

Description

The microelectronics technology has seen a tremendous growth over the past sixty years. The advancements in microelectronics, which shows the capability of yielding highly reliable and reproducible structures, have made

The microelectronics technology has seen a tremendous growth over the past sixty years. The advancements in microelectronics, which shows the capability of yielding highly reliable and reproducible structures, have made the mass production of integrated electronic components feasible. Miniaturized, low-cost, and accurate sensors became available due to the rise of the microelectronics industry. A variety of sensors are being used extensively in many portable applications. These sensors are promising not only in research area but also in daily routine applications.

However, many sensing systems are relatively bulky, complicated, and expensive and main advantages of new sensors do not play an important role in practical applications. Many challenges arise due to intricacies for sensor packaging, especially operation in a solution environment. Additional problems emerge when interfacing sensors with external off-chip components. A large amount of research in the field of sensors has been focused on how to improve the system integration.

This work presents new methods for the design, fabrication, and integration of sensor systems. This thesis addresses these challenges, for example, interfacing microelectronic system to a liquid environment and developing a new technique for impedimetric measurement. This work also shows a new design for on-chip optical sensor without any other extra components or post-processing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Underwater optical sensorbot for in situ pH monitoring

Description

Continuous underwater observation is a challenging engineering task that could be accomplished by development and deployment of a sensor array that can survive harsh underwater conditions. One approach to this

Continuous underwater observation is a challenging engineering task that could be accomplished by development and deployment of a sensor array that can survive harsh underwater conditions. One approach to this challenge is a swarm of micro underwater robots, known as Sensorbots, that are equipped with biogeochemical sensors that can relay information among themselves in real-time. This innovative method for underwater exploration can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the ocean by not limiting sampling to a single point and time. In this thesis, Sensorbot Beta, a low-cost fully enclosed Sensorbot prototype for bench-top characterization and short-term field testing, is presented in a modular format that provides flexibility and the potential for rapid design. Sensorbot Beta is designed around a microcontroller driven platform comprised of commercial off-the-shelf components for all hardware to reduce cost and development time. The primary sensor incorporated into Sensorbot Beta is an in situ fluorescent pH sensor. Design considerations have been made for easy adoption of other fluorescent or phosphorescent sensors, such as dissolved oxygen or temperature. Optical components are designed in a format that enables additional sensors. A real-time data acquisition system, utilizing Bluetooth, allows for characterization of the sensor in bench top experiments. The Sensorbot Beta demonstrates rapid calibration and future work will include deployment for large scale experiments in a lake or ocean.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Integrated waveform-agile multi-modal track-before-detect algorithms for tracking low observable targets

Description

In this thesis, an integrated waveform-agile multi-modal tracking-beforedetect sensing system is investigated and the performance is evaluated using an experimental platform. The sensing system of adapting asymmetric multi-modal sensing operation

In this thesis, an integrated waveform-agile multi-modal tracking-beforedetect sensing system is investigated and the performance is evaluated using an experimental platform. The sensing system of adapting asymmetric multi-modal sensing operation platforms using radio frequency (RF) radar and electro-optical (EO) sensors allows for integration of complementary information from different sensors. However, there are many challenges to overcome, including tracking low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) targets, waveform configurations that can optimize tracking performance and statistically dependent measurements. Address some of these challenges, a particle filter (PF) based recursive waveformagile track-before-detect (TBD) algorithm is developed to avoid information loss caused by conventional detection under low SNR environments. Furthermore, a waveform-agile selection technique is integrated into the PF-TBD to allow for adaptive waveform configurations. The embedded exponential family (EEF) approach is used to approximate distributions of parameters of dependent RF and EO measurements and to further improve target detection rate and tracking performance. The performance of the integrated algorithm is evaluated using real data from three experimental scenarios.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Non-invasive method to detect the changes of glucose concentration in whole blood using photometric technique

Description

A noninvasive optical method is developed to monitor rapid changes in blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. The system depends on an optical cell built with a LED that emits

A noninvasive optical method is developed to monitor rapid changes in blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. The system depends on an optical cell built with a LED that emits light of wavelength 535nm that is a peak absorbance of hemoglobin. As the glucose concentration in the blood decreases, its osmolarity also decreases and the RBCs swell and decrease the path length absorption coefficient. Decreasing absorption coefficient increases the transmission of light through the whole blood. The system was tested with a constructed optical cell that held whole blood in a capillary tube. As expected the light transmitted to the photodiode increases with decreasing glucose concentration. The average response time of the system was between 30-40 seconds. The changes in size of the RBC cells in response to glucose concentration changes were confirmed using a cell counter and also visually under microscope. This method does not allow measuring the glucose concentration with an absolute concentration calibration. It is directed towards development of a device to monitor the changes in glucose concentration as an aid to diabetic management. This method might be improvised for precision and resolution and be developed as a ring or an earring that patients can wear.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013