Matching Items (6)

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Medical implant receiver system

Description

The medical industry has benefited greatly by electronic integration resulting in the explosive growth of active medical implants. These devices often treat and monitor chronic health conditions and require very

The medical industry has benefited greatly by electronic integration resulting in the explosive growth of active medical implants. These devices often treat and monitor chronic health conditions and require very minimal power usage. A key part of these medical implants is an ultra-low power two way wireless communication system. This enables both control of the implant as well as relay of information collected. This research has focused on a high performance receiver for medical implant applications. One commonly quoted specification to compare receivers is energy per bit required. This metric is useful, but incomplete in that it ignores Sensitivity level, bit error rate, and immunity to interferers. In this study exploration of receiver architectures and convergence upon a comprehensive solution is done. This analysis is used to design and build a system for validation. The Direct Conversion Receiver architecture implemented for the MICS standard in 0.18 µm CMOS process consumes approximately 2 mW is competitive with published research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Sustainable solutions for medical devices and services

Description

In the burgeoning field of sustainability, there is a pressing need for healthcare to understand the increased environmental and economic impact of healthcare products and services. The overall aim of

In the burgeoning field of sustainability, there is a pressing need for healthcare to understand the increased environmental and economic impact of healthcare products and services. The overall aim of this dissertation is to assess the sustainability of commonly used medical products, devices, and services as well as to identify strategies for making easy, low cost changes that result in environmental and economic savings for healthcare systems. Life cycle environmental assessments (LCAs) and life cycle costing assessments (LCCAs) will be used to quantitatively evaluate life-cycle scenarios for commonly utilized products, devices, and services. This dissertation will focus on several strategic and high impact areas that have potential for significant life-cycle environmental and economic improvements: 1) increased deployment of reprocessed medical devices in favor of disposable medical devices, 2) innovations to expand the use of biopolymers in healthcare materials and devices, and 3) assess the environmental and economic impacts of various medical devices and services in order to give healthcare administrators and employees the ability to make more informed decisions about the sustainability of their utilized materials, devices, and services.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

Applications of miniaturized ultrasound powered wireless nerve stimulators for pain management

Description

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) is a debilitating chronic disease of the lower extremities particularly affecting older adults and diabetics. It results in reduction of the blood flow to peripheral tissue

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) is a debilitating chronic disease of the lower extremities particularly affecting older adults and diabetics. It results in reduction of the blood flow to peripheral tissue and sometimes causing tissue damage such that PVD patients suffer from pain in the lower legs, thigh and buttocks after activities. Electrical neurostimulation based on the "Gate Theory of Pain" is a known to way to reduce pain but current devices to do this are bulky and not well suited to implantation in peripheral tissues. There is also an increased risk associated with surgery which limits the use of these devices. This research has designed and constructed wireless ultrasound powered microstimulators that are much smaller and injectable and so involve less implantation trauma. These devices are small enough to fit through an 18 gauge syringe needle increasing their potential for clinical use. These piezoelectric microdevices convert mechanical energy into electrical energy that then is used to block pain. The design and performance of these miniaturized devices was modeled by computer while constructed devices were evaluated in animal experiments. The devices are capable of producing 500ms pulses with an intensity of 2 mA into a 2 kilo-ohms load. Using the rat as an animal model, a series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the in-vivo performance of the devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Total dose simulation for high reliability electronics

Description

New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these

New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these technologies is high reliability electronics devised to meet stringent design goals and to operate consistently for many years deployed in the field. An on-going concern for engineers is the consequences of ionizing radiation exposure, specifically total dose effects. For many of the different applications, there is a likelihood of exposure to radiation, which can result in device degradation and potentially failure. While the total dose effects and the resulting degradation are a well-studied field and methodologies to help mitigate degradation have been developed, there is still a need for simulation techniques to help designers understand total dose effects within their design. To that end, the work presented here details simulation techniques to analyze as well as predict the total dose response of a circuit. In this dissertation the total dose effects are broken into two sub-categories, intra-device and inter-device effects in CMOS technology. Intra-device effects degrade the performance of both n-channel and p-channel transistors, while inter-device effects result in loss of device isolation. In this work, multiple case studies are presented for which total dose degradation is of concern. Through the simulation techniques, the individual device and circuit responses are modeled post-irradiation. The use of these simulation techniques by circuit designers allow predictive simulation of total dose effects, allowing focused design changes to be implemented to increase radiation tolerance of high reliability electronics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Validating a laser for measuring supine and standing heights against current measures in adults

Description

The stadiometer is the gold standard human height measure, but recent studies have begun to question whether laser technology is a better tool to measure height. The purpose of this

The stadiometer is the gold standard human height measure, but recent studies have begun to question whether laser technology is a better tool to measure height. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the laser device has inter-rater reliability, how the laser-device measures supine height in comparison to standard methods, and if the laser device will be consistent in measuring human height shorter, as seen in previous studies. Two investigators measured a total of 80 adults independently. Measurements included knee height, arm span, demi span, supine height by laser, standing height by laser and standing height by stadiometer. There was a strong inter-rater reliability for the laser height measurement: excluding one outlier r=0.998. Supine height measures done with a laser were strongly correlated with arm span, but mean values were closest between supine height and knee height (171.3cm and 171.2cm). The laser measured standing height 0.5cm shorter, on average, than the stadiometer. It is concluded that the laser device is a reliable, validated tool to measure human height, standing or supine.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Research, design and validation of a cognitive aid to support the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes

Description

The objective of this project was to evaluate human factors based cognitive aids on endoscope reprocessing. The project stems from recent failures in reprocessing (cleaning) endoscopes, contributing to the

The objective of this project was to evaluate human factors based cognitive aids on endoscope reprocessing. The project stems from recent failures in reprocessing (cleaning) endoscopes, contributing to the spread of harmful bacterial and viral agents between patients. Three themes were found to represent a majority of problems: 1) lack of visibility (parts and tools were difficult to identify), 2) high memory demands, and 3) insufficient user feedback. In an effort to improve completion rate and eliminate error, cognitive aids were designed utilizing human factors principles that would replace existing manufacturer visual aids. Then, a usability test was conducted, which compared the endoscope reprocessing performance of novices using the standard manufacturer-provided visual aids and the new cognitive aids. Participants successfully completed 87.1% of the reprocessing procedure in the experimental condition with the use of the cognitive aids, compared to 46.3% in the control condition using only existing support materials. Twenty-five of sixty subtasks showed significant improvement in completion rates. When given a cognitive aid designed with human factors principles, participants were able to more successfully complete the reprocessing task. This resulted in an endoscope that was more likely to be safe for patient use.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011