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Photovoltaic sub-module integrated converter analysis

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With the rapid expansion of the photovoltaic industry over the last decade, there has been a huge demand in the PV installations in the residential sector. This thesis focuses on the analysis and implementation of a dc-dc boost converter at

With the rapid expansion of the photovoltaic industry over the last decade, there has been a huge demand in the PV installations in the residential sector. This thesis focuses on the analysis and implementation of a dc-dc boost converter at photovoltaic sub-module level. The thesis also analyses the various topologies like switched capacitors and extended duty ratio which can be practically implemented in the photovoltaic panels. The results obtained in this work have concentrated on the use of novel strategies to substitute the use of central dc-dc converter used in PV module string connection. The implementation of distributed MPPT at the PV sub-module level is also an integral part of this thesis. Using extensive PLECS simulations, this thesis came to the conclusion that with the design of a proper compensation at the dc interconnection of a series or parallel PV Module Integrated Converter string, the central dc-dc converter can be substituted. The dc-ac interconnection voltage remains regulated at all irradiance level even without a dc-dc central converter at the string end. The foundation work for the hardware implementation has also been carried out. Design of parameters for future hardware implementation has also been presented in detail in this thesis.

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2012

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On-chip transformer design and modeling for fully integrated isolated DC/DC converters

Description

Isolated DC/DC converters are used to provide electrical isolation between two supply domain systems. A fully integrated isolated DC/DC converter having no board-level components and fabricated using standard integrated circuits (IC) process is highly desirable in order to increase the

Isolated DC/DC converters are used to provide electrical isolation between two supply domain systems. A fully integrated isolated DC/DC converter having no board-level components and fabricated using standard integrated circuits (IC) process is highly desirable in order to increase the system reliability and reduce costs. The isolation between the low-voltage side and high-voltage side of the converter is realized by a transformer that transfers energy while blocking the DC loop. The resonant mode power oscillator is used to enable high efficiency power transfer. The on-chip transformer is expected to have high coil inductance, high quality factors and high coupling coefficient to reduce the loss in the oscillation. The performance of a transformer is highly dependent on the vertical structure, horizontal geometry and other indispensable structures that make it compatible with the IC process such as metal fills and patterned ground shield (PGS). With the help of three-dimensional (3-D) electro-magnetic (EM) simulation software, the 3-D transformer model is simulated and the simulation result is got with high accuracy.

In this thesis an on-chip transformer for a fully integrated DC/DC converter using standard IC process is developed. Different types of transformers are modeled and simulated in HFSS. The performances are compared to select the optimum design. The effects of the additional structures including PGS and metal fills are also simulated. The transformer is tested with a network analyzer and the testing results show a good consistency with the simulation results when taking the chip traces, printed circuit board (PCB) traces, bond wires and SMA connectors into account.

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Date Created
2014

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A fast settling oversampled digital sliding-mode controller for DC-DC buck converters

Description

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An All-Digital Sliding-Mode (ADSM) controlled DC-DC converter, utilizing single-bit oversampled frequency

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An All-Digital Sliding-Mode (ADSM) controlled DC-DC converter, utilizing single-bit oversampled frequency domain digitizers is proposed. In the proposed approach, feedback and reference digitizing Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) are based on a single-bit, first order Sigma-Delta frequency to digital converter, running at 32MHz over-sampling rate. The ADSM regulator achieves 1% settling time in less than 5uSec for a load variation of 600mA. The sliding-mode controller utilizes a high-bandwidth hysteretic differentiator and an integrator to perform the sliding control law in digital domain. The proposed approach overcomes the steady state error (or DC offset), and limits the switching frequency range, which are the two common problems associated with sliding-mode controllers. The IC is designed and fabricated on a 0.35um CMOS process occupying an active area of 2.72mm-squared. Measured peak efficiency is 83%.

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Date Created
2013

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DC optimizer for PV module

Description

As residential photovoltaic (PV) systems become more and more common and widespread, their system architectures are being developed to maximize power extraction while keeping the cost of associated electronics to a minimum. An architecture that has become popular in

As residential photovoltaic (PV) systems become more and more common and widespread, their system architectures are being developed to maximize power extraction while keeping the cost of associated electronics to a minimum. An architecture that has become popular in recent years is the "DC optimizer" architecture, wherein one DC-DC converter is connected to the output of each PV module. The DC optimizer architecture has the advantage of performing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) at the module level, without the high cost of using an inverter on each module (the "microinverter" architecture). This work details the design of a proposed DC optimizer. The design incorporates a series-input parallel-output topology to implement MPPT at the sub-module level. This topology has some advantages over the more common series-output DC optimizer, including relaxed requirements for the system's inverter. An autonomous control scheme is proposed for the series-connected converters, so that no external control signals are needed for the system to operate, other than sunlight. The DC optimizer in this work is designed with an emphasis on efficiency, and to that end it uses GaN FETs and an active clamp technique to reduce switching and conduction losses. As with any parallel-output converter, phase interleaving is essential to minimize output RMS current losses. This work proposes a novel phase-locked loop (PLL) technique to achieve interleaving among the series-input converters.

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Date Created
2014

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Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

Description

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

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Date Created
2012

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Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

Description

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

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Date Created
2013