Matching Items (5)

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Benzene and toluene biodegradation with different dissolved oxygen concentrations

Description

This study reports on benzene and toluene biodegradation under different dissolved oxygen conditions, and the goal of this study is to evaluate and model their removal.

Benzene and toluene were tested

This study reports on benzene and toluene biodegradation under different dissolved oxygen conditions, and the goal of this study is to evaluate and model their removal.

Benzene and toluene were tested for obligate anaerobic degradation in batch reactors with sulfate as the electron acceptor. A group of sulfate-reducing bacteria capable of toluene degradation was enriched after 252 days of incubation. Those cultures, originated from anaerobic digester, were able to degrade toluene coupled to sulfate reduction with benzene coexistence, while they were not able to utilize benzene. Methanogens also were present, although their contribution to toluene biodegradation was not defined.

Aerobic biodegradation of benzene and toluene by Pseudomonas putida F1 occurred, and biomass production lagged behind substrate loss and continued after complete substrate removal. This pattern suggests that biodegradation of intermediates, rather than direct benzene and toluene transformation, caused bacterial growth. Supporting this explanation is that the calculated biomass growth from a two-step model basically fit the experimental biomass results during benzene and toluene degradation with depleted dissolved oxygen.

Catechol was tested for anaerobic biodegradation in batch experiments and in a column study. Sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacteria enriched from a wastewater treatment plant hardly degraded catechol within 20 days. However, an inoculum from a contaminated site was able to remove 90% of the initial 16.5 mg/L catechol, and Chemical Oxygen Demand was oxidized in parallel. Catechol biodegradation was inhibited when nitrite accumulated, presumably by a toxic catechol-nitrite complex.

The membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) offers the potential for biodegrading benzene in a linked aerobic and anaerobic pathway by controlling the O2 delivery. At an average benzene surface loading of 1.3 g/m2-day and an average hydraulic retention time of 2.2 day, an MBfR supplied with pure O2 successfully achieved 99% benzene removal at steady state. A lower oxygen partial pressure led to decreased benzene removal, and nitrate removal increased, indicating multiple mechanisms, including oxygenation and nitrate reduction, were involved in the system being responsible for benzene removal. Microbial community analysis indicated that Comamonadaceae, a known aerobic benzene-degrader and denitrifier, dominated the biofilm at the end of operation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Synergistic reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethene and aerobic degradation of 1,4-dioxane

Description

Widespread use of chlorinated solvents for commercial and industrial purposes makes co-occurring contamination by 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) a serious problem for groundwater. TCE and TCA

Widespread use of chlorinated solvents for commercial and industrial purposes makes co-occurring contamination by 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) a serious problem for groundwater. TCE and TCA often are treated by reductive dechlorination, while 1,4-D resists reductive treatment. Aerobic bacteria are able to oxidize 1,4-D, but the biological oxidation of 1,4-D could be inhibited TCA, TCE, and their reductive transformation products. To overcome the challenges from co-occurring contamination, I propose a two-stage synergistic system. First, anaerobic reduction of the chlorinated hydrocarbons takes place in a H2-based hollow-fiber “X-film” (biofilm or catalyst-coated film) reactor (MXfR), where “X-film” can be a “bio-film” (MBfR) or an abiotic “palladium-film” (MPfR). Then, aerobic removal of 1,4-D and other organic compounds takes place in an O2-based MBfR. For the reductive part, I tested reductive bio-dechlorination of TCA and TCE simultaneously in an MBfR. I found that the community of anaerobic bacteria can rapidly reduce TCE to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), but further reductions of cis-DCE to vinyl chloride (VC) and VC to ethene were inhibited by TCA. Also, it took months to grow a strong biofilm that could reduce TCA and TCE. Another problem with reductive dechlorination in the MBfR is that mono-chloroethane (MCA) was not reduced to ethane. In contrast, a film of palladium nano-particles (PdNPs), i.e., an MPfR, could the simultaneous reductions of TCA and TCE to mainly ethane, with only small amounts of intermediates: 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA) (~3% of total influent TCA and TCE) and MCA (~1%) in continuous operation. For aerobic oxidation, I enriched an ethanotrophic culture that could oxidize 1,4-D with ethane as the primary electron donor. An O2-based MBfR, inoculated with the enriched ethanotrophic culture, achieved over 99% 1,4-D removal with ethane as the primary electron donor in continuous operation. Finally, I evaluated two-stage treatment with a H2-based MPfR followed by an O2-MBfR. The two-stage system gave complete removal of TCA, TCE, and 1,4-D in continuous operation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Soot black carbon dynamics in arid/urban ecosystem

Description

Black carbon (BC) is the product of incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. It is found ubiquitously in nature and is relevant to studies in atmospheric science, soil science,

Black carbon (BC) is the product of incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. It is found ubiquitously in nature and is relevant to studies in atmospheric science, soil science, oceanography, and anthropology. Black carbon is best described using a combustion continuum that sub-classifies BC into slightly charred biomass, char, charcoal and soot. These sub-classifications range in particle size, formation temperature, and relative reactivity. Interest in BC has increased because of its role in the long-term storage of organic matter and the biogeochemistry of urban areas. The global BC budget is unbalanced. Production of BC greatly outweighs decomposition of BC. This suggests that there are unknown or underestimated BC removal processes, and it is likely that some of these processes are occurring in soils. However, little is known about BC reactivity in soil and especially in desert soil. This work focuses on soot BC, which is formed at higher temperatures and has a lower relative reactivity than other forms of BC. Here, I assess the contribution of soot BC to central AZ soils and use the isotopic composition of soot BC to identify sources of soot BC. Soot BC is a significant (31%) fraction of the soil organic matter in central AZ and this work suggests that desert and urban soils may be a storage reservoir for soot BC. I further identify previously unknown removal processes of soot BC found naturally in soil and demonstrate that soil soot BC undergoes abiotic (photo-oxidation) and biotic reactions. Not only is soot BC degraded by these processes, but its chemical composition is altered, suggesting that soot BC contains some chemical moieties that are more reactive than others. Because soot BC demonstrates both refractory and reactive character, it is likely that the structure of soot BC; therefore, its interactions in the environment are complex and it is not simply a recalcitrant material.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Transport and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors in the subsurface: a laboratory soil column study

Description

In this work, the vapor transport and aerobic bio-attenuation of compounds from a multi-component petroleum vapor mixture were studied for six idealized lithologies in 1.8-m tall laboratory soil columns. Columns

In this work, the vapor transport and aerobic bio-attenuation of compounds from a multi-component petroleum vapor mixture were studied for six idealized lithologies in 1.8-m tall laboratory soil columns. Columns representing different geological settings were prepared using 20-40 mesh sand (medium-grained) and 16-minus mesh crushed granite (fine-grained). The contaminant vapor source was a liquid composed of twelve petroleum hydrocarbons common in weathered gasoline. It was placed in a chamber at the bottom of each column and the vapors diffused upward through the soil to the top where they were swept away with humidified gas. The experiment was conducted in three phases: i) nitrogen sweep gas; ii) air sweep gas; iii) vapor source concentrations decreased by ten times from the original concentrations and under air sweep gas. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon concentrations were monitored over time. The data allowed determination of times to reach steady conditions, effluent mass emissions and concentration profiles. Times to reach near-steady conditions were consistent with theory and chemical-specific properties. First-order degradation rates were highest for straight-chain alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Normalized effluent mass emissions were lower for lower source concentration and aerobic conditions. At the end of the study, soil core samples were taken every 6 in. Soil moisture content analyses showed that water had redistributed in the soil during the experiment. The soil at the bottom of the columns generally had higher moisture contents than initial values, and soil at the top had lower moisture contents. Profiles of the number of colony forming units of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria/g-soil indicated that the highest concentrations of degraders were located at the vertical intervals where maximum degradation activity was suggested by CO2 profiles. Finally, the near-steady conditions of each phase of the study were simulated using a three-dimensional transient numerical model. The model was fit to the Phase I data by adjusting soil properties, and then fit to Phase III data to obtain compound-specific first-order biodegradation rate constants ranging from 0.0 to 5.7x103 d-1.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Intimate coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation on a novel TiO2-coated biofilm carrier

Description

Intimate coupling of Ti2 photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) offers potential for degrading biorecalcitrant and toxic organic compounds much better than possible with conventional wastewater treatments. This study reports on using

Intimate coupling of Ti2 photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) offers potential for degrading biorecalcitrant and toxic organic compounds much better than possible with conventional wastewater treatments. This study reports on using a novel sponge-type, Ti2-coated biofilm carrier that shows significant adherence of Ti2 to its exterior and the ability to accumulate biomass in its interior (protected from UV light and free radicals). First, this carrier was tested for ICPB in a continuous-flow photocatalytic circulating-bed biofilm reactor (PCBBR) to mineralize biorecalcitrant organic: 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP). Four mechanisms possibly acting of ICPB were tested separately: TCP adsorption, UV photolysis/photocatalysis, and biodegradation. The carrier exhibited strong TCP adsorption, while photolysis was negligible. Photocatalysis produced TCP-degradation products that could be mineralized and the strong adsorption of TCP to the carrier enhanced biodegradation by relieving toxicity. Validating the ICPB concept, biofilm was protected inside the carriers from UV light and free radicals. ICPB significantly lowered the diversity of the bacterial community, but five genera known to biodegrade chlorinated phenols were markedly enriched. Secondly, decolorization and mineralization of reactive dyes by ICPB were investigated on a refined Ti2-coated biofilm carrier in a PCBBR. Two typical reactive dyes: Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Yellow 86 (RY86), showed similar first-order kinetics when being photocatalytically decolorized at low pH (~4-5), which was inhibited at neutral pH in the presence of phosphate or carbonate buffer, presumably due to electrostatic repulsion from negatively charged surface sites on Ti2, radical scavenging by phosphate or carbonate, or both. In the PCBBR, photocatalysis alone with Ti2-coated carriers could remove RB5 and COD by 97% and 47%, respectively. Addition of biofilm inside macroporous carriers maintained a similar RB5 removal efficiency, but COD removal increased to 65%, which is evidence of ICPB despite the low pH. A proposed ICPB pathway for RB5 suggests that a major intermediate, a naphthol derivative, was responsible for most of the residual COD. Finally, three low-temperature sintering methods, called O, D and DN, were compared based on photocatalytic efficiency and Ti2 adherence. The DN method had the best Ti2-coating properties and was a successful carrier for ICPB of RB5 in a PCBBR.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011