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Effects of coconut oil supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation

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ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effect a daily coconut oil supplement (2 grams) would have on a common serum marker of systemic inflammation

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effect a daily coconut oil supplement (2 grams) would have on a common serum marker of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein) and an indicator of oxidative stress (TBARS) when compared to the control group receiving a placebo capsule (white flour) in healthy, sedentary adults between the ages of 18-40 in Phoenix, Arizona.

Design: This study was designed as secondary analyses of blood samples originally collected to study the effects of coconut oil supplementation on blood lipids and body composition. The original study consisted of 32 healthy, adult volunteers recruited from the Arizona State University campus in Phoenix, Arizona. Participants followed no food restrictions or special diets, exercised less than 150 minutes per week, had no diagnoses of chronic disease, were not taking statin medications, were non-smokers, and no female participants were pregnant. Participants were randomized into either the Coconut Oil group (CO) or the Placebo group (PL) at week 0, and baseline blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Each participant completed an 8-week protocol consisting of two supplement capsules daily (coconut oil or placebo). Final fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were taken at week 8. This study analyzed the blood samples for measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARS).

Results: Eight weeks of 2 grams per day coconut oil supplementation, in comparison to placebo treatment, did not significantly reduce serum CRP ( -13% and +51% respectively, p=0.183) but did significantly increase TBARS ( +16% and -27% respectively, p=0.049).

Conclusions: Coconut oil supplementation (2 g/day) may impact lipid peroxidation as indicated by an increase in plasma TBARS concentration. Future trials are necessary to corroborate these results using other indices of fatty peroxide formation.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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The investigation of sucrose and fructose in spot versus 24-hour urine as biomarkers of sugars intake

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Background: Twenty-four hour urinary sucrose and fructose (24uSF) has been developed as a dietary biomarker for total sugars intake. Collection of 24-h urine is associated with high costs and

Background: Twenty-four hour urinary sucrose and fructose (24uSF) has been developed as a dietary biomarker for total sugars intake. Collection of 24-h urine is associated with high costs and heavy participant burden, while collection of spot urine samples can be easily implemented in research protocols. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the utility of uSF biomarker measured in spot urine. Methods: 15 participants age 22 to 49 years completed a 15-day feeding study in which they consumed their usual diet under controlled conditions, and recorded the time each meal was consumed. Two nonconsecutive 24-hour urines, where each urine void was collected in a separate container, were collected. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, and next day) were identified based on time of void and meal time. Urine samples were measured for sucrose, fructose and creatinine. Variability of uSF excretion was assessed by coefficient of variation (%CV) and variance ratios. Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were used to investigate the association between uSF in each timed void and corresponding 24uSF excretion. Results: The two-day mean uSF was 50.6 mg (SD=29.5) for the 24-h urine, and ranged from 4.5 to 7.5 mg/void for the timed voids. The afternoon void uSF had the lowest within-subject variability (49.1%), and lowest within- to between-subject variance ratio (0.2). The morning and afternoon void uSF had the strongest correlation with 24-h uSF for both mg/void (r=0.80 and r=0.72) and mg/creatinine (r=0.72 and r=0.67), respectively. Finally, the afternoon void uSF along with other covariates had the strongest predictive ability of 24-h uSF excretion (mg/void) (Adjusted R2= 0.69; p=0.002), whereas the morning void had the strongest predictive ability of 24-h uSF excretion (mg/g creatinine) (adjusted R2= 0.58; p=0.008). Conclusions: The afternoon void uSF had the most favorable reproducibility estimates, strong correlation with 24uSF excretion, and explained greatest proportion of the variability in 24uSF. USF in mg/void may be better to use than uSF in mg/g creatinine as a biomarker in spot urine. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study, and in a study population with a wide range of sugars intake.

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Date Created
  • 2018