Matching Items (5)

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Studies of epitaxial silicon nanowire growth at low temperature

Description

Silicon nanowires were grown epitaxially on Si (100) and (111) surfaces using the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism under both thermal and plasma enhanced growth conditions. Nanowire morphology was investigated as a function of temperature, time, disilane partial pressure and substrate preparation.

Silicon nanowires were grown epitaxially on Si (100) and (111) surfaces using the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism under both thermal and plasma enhanced growth conditions. Nanowire morphology was investigated as a function of temperature, time, disilane partial pressure and substrate preparation. Silicon nanowires synthesized in low temperature plasma typically curved compared to the linear nanowires grown under simple thermal conditions. The nanowires tended bend more with increasing disilane partial gas pressure up to 25 x10-3 mTorr. The nanowire curvature measured geometrically is correlated with the shift of the main silicon peak obtained in Raman spectroscopy. A mechanistic hypothesis was proposed to explain the bending during plasma activated growth. Additional driving forces related to electrostatic and Van der Waals forces were also discussed. Deduced from a systematic variation of a three-step experimental protocol, the mechanism for bending was associated with asymmetric deposition rate along the outer and inner wall of nanowire. The conditions leading to nanowire branching were also examined using a two-step growth process. Branching morphologies were examined as a function of plasma powers between 1.5 W and 3.5 W. Post-annealing thermal and plasma-assisted treatments in hydrogen were compared to understand the influences in the absence of an external silicon source (otherwise supplied by disilane). Longer and thicker nanowires were associated with longer annealing times due to an Ostwald-like ripening effect. The roles of surface diffusion, gas diffusion, etching and deposition rates were examined.

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Date Created
2011

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Modeling and calibration of a MEMS tensile stage for elevated temperature experiments on freestanding metallic thin films

Description

Mechanical behavior of metallic thin films at room temperature (RT) is relatively well characterized. However, measuring the high temperature mechanical properties of thin films poses several challenges. These include ensuring uniformity in sample temperature and minimizing temporal fluctuations due to

Mechanical behavior of metallic thin films at room temperature (RT) is relatively well characterized. However, measuring the high temperature mechanical properties of thin films poses several challenges. These include ensuring uniformity in sample temperature and minimizing temporal fluctuations due to ambient heat loss, in addition to difficulties involved in mechanical testing of microscale samples. To address these issues, we designed and analyzed a MEMS-based high temperature tensile testing stage made from single crystal silicon. The freestanding thin film specimens were co-fabricated with the stage to ensure uniaxial loading. Multi-physics simulations of Joule heating, incorporating both radiation and convection heat transfer, were carried out using COMSOL to map the temperature distribution across the stage and the specimen. The simulations were validated using temperature measurements from a thermoreflectance microscope.

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Date Created
2016

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Design of a thermally stable nano-crystalline alloy with superior tensile creep and fatigue behavior

Description

Materials have been the backbone of every major invention in the history of mankind, e.g. satellites and space shuttles would not exist without advancement in materials development. Integral to this, is the development of nanocrystalline (NC) materials that promise multitude

Materials have been the backbone of every major invention in the history of mankind, e.g. satellites and space shuttles would not exist without advancement in materials development. Integral to this, is the development of nanocrystalline (NC) materials that promise multitude of properties for advanced applications. However, they do not tend to preserve structural integrity under intense cyclic loading or long-term temperature exposures. Therefore, it is imperative to understand factors that alter the sub-features controlling both structural and functional properties under extreme conditions, particularly fatigue and creep. Thus, this dissertation systematically studies the tensile creep and fatigue behaviour of a chemically optimized and microstructurally stable bulk NC copper (Cu)-3at.% tantalum (Ta) alloy.

Strategic engineering of nanometer sized clusters of Ta into the alloy’s microstructure were found to suppress the microstructure instability and render remarkable improvement in the high temperature tensile creep resistance up to 0.64 times the melting temperature of Cu. Primary creep in this alloy was found to be governed by the relaxation of the microstructure under the applied stress. Further, during the secondary creep, short circuit diffusion of grain boundary atoms resulted in the negligible steady-state creep rate in the alloy. Under fatigue loading, the alloy showed higher resistance for crack nucleation owing to the inherent microstructural stability, and the interaction of the dislocations with the Ta nanoclusters. The underlying mechanism was found to be related to the diffused damage accumulation, i.e., during cyclic loading many grains participate in the plasticity process (nucleation of discrete grain boundary dislocations) resulting in homogenous accumulation rather than localized one as typically observed in coarse-grained materials. Overall, the engineered Ta nanoclusters were responsible for governing the underlying anomalous high temperature creep and fatigue deformation mechanisms in the alloy.

Finally, this study presents a design approach that involves alloying of pure metals in order to impart stability in NC materials and significantly enhance their structural properties, especially those at higher temperatures. Moreover, this design approach can be easily translated to other multicomponent systems for developing advanced high-performance structural materials.

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Date Created
2019

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Synthesis and applications of nanostructured zeolites from geopolymer chemistry

Description

Nanostructured zeolites, in particular nanocrystalline zeolites, are of great interest due to their efficient use in conventional catalysis, separations, and emerging applications. Despite the recent advances, fewer than 20 zeolite framework types have been synthesized in the form of

Nanostructured zeolites, in particular nanocrystalline zeolites, are of great interest due to their efficient use in conventional catalysis, separations, and emerging applications. Despite the recent advances, fewer than 20 zeolite framework types have been synthesized in the form of nanocrystallites and their scalable synthesis has yet to be developed and understood. Geopolymers, claimed to be “amorphous cousins of zeolites”, are a class of ceramic-like aluminosilicate materials with prominent application in construction due to their unique chemical and mechanical properties. Despite the monolith form, geopolymers are fundamentally nanostructured materials and contain zeolite nanocrystallites.

Herein, a new cost-effective and scalable synthesis of various types of nanocrystalline zeolites based on geopolymer chemistry is presented. The study includes the synthesis of highly crystalline discrete nanorods of a CAN zeolite framework structure that had not been achieved hitherto, the exploration of the Na−Al−Si−H2O kinetic phase diagram of hydrogels that gives SOD, CAN and FAU nanocrystalline zeolites, and the discovery of a unique formation mechanism of highly crystalline nanostructured FAU zeolite with intermediate gel products that possess an unprecedented uniform distribution of elements. This study demonstrated the possibility of using high-concentration hydrogels for the synthesis of nanocrystalline zeolites of additional framework structures.

Moreover, a comprehensive study on nanostructured FAU zeolites ion-exchanged with Ag+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+ for antibacterial applications is presented, which comprises metal ion release kinetics, antibacterial properties, and cytotoxicity. For the first time, superior metal ion release performance was confirmed for the nanostructured zeolites compared to their micron-sized counterparts. The metal ion-exchanged FAU nanostructured zeolites were established as new effective antibacterial materials featuring their unique physiochemical, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties.

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Date Created
2019

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Anomalous Dynamic Behavior of Stable Nanograined Materials

Description

The stability of nanocrystalline microstructural features allows structural materials to be synthesized and tested in ways that have heretofore been pursued only on a limited basis, especially under dynamic loading combined with temperature effects. Thus, a recently developed, stable nanocrystalline

The stability of nanocrystalline microstructural features allows structural materials to be synthesized and tested in ways that have heretofore been pursued only on a limited basis, especially under dynamic loading combined with temperature effects. Thus, a recently developed, stable nanocrystalline alloy is analyzed here for quasi-static (<100 s-1) and dynamic loading (103 to 104 s-1) under uniaxial compression and tension at multiple temperatures ranging from 298-1073 K. After mechanical tests, microstructures are analyzed and possible deformation mechanisms are proposed. Following this, strain and strain rate history effects on mechanical behavior are analyzed using a combination of quasi-static and dynamic strain rate Bauschinger testing. The stable nanocrystalline material is found to exhibit limited flow stress increase with increasing strain rate as compared to that of both pure, coarse grained and nanocrystalline Cu. Further, the material microstructural features, which includes Ta nano-dispersions, is seen to pin dislocation at quasi-static strain rates, but the deformation becomes dominated by twin nucleation at high strain rates. These twins are pinned from further growth past nucleation by the Ta nano-dispersions. Testing of thermal and load history effects on the mechanical behavior reveals that when thermal energy is increased beyond 200 °C, an upturn in flow stress is present at strain rates below 104 s-1. However, in this study, this simple assumption, established 50-years ago, is shown to break-down when the average grain size and microstructural length-scale is decreased and stabilized below 100nm. This divergent strain-rate behavior is attributed to a unique microstructure that alters slip-processes and their interactions with phonons; thus enabling materials response with a constant flow-stress even at extreme conditions. Hence, the present study provides a pathway for designing and synthesizing a new-level of tough and high-energy absorbing materials.

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Date Created
2017