Matching Items (11)

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Finite element analysis of micro-cantilever beam experiments in UO2

Description

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict its performance. In particular, evaluating mechanical properties, such as elasticity, plasticity and creep at sub-grain length scales is key to developing this understanding as well as building multi-scale models of fuel behavior with predicting capabilities. In this work, modeling techniques were developed to study effects of microstructure on Young’s modulus, which was selected as a key representative property that affects overall mechanical behavior, using experimental data obtained from micro-cantilever bending testing as benchmarks. Beam theory was firstly introduced to calculate Young's modulus of UO2 from the experimental data and then three-dimensional finite element models of the micro-cantilever beams were constructed to simulate bending tests in UO2 at room temperature. The influence of the pore distribution was studied to explain the discrepancy between predicted values and experimental results. Results indicate that results of tests are significantly affected by porosity given that both pore size and spacing in the samples are of the order of the micro-beam dimensions. Microstructure reconstruction was conducted with images collected from three-dimensional serial sectioning using focused ion beam (FIB) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and pore clusters were placed at different locations along the length of the beam. Results indicate that the presence of pore clusters close to the substrate, i.e., the clamp of the micro-cantilever beam, has the strongest effect on load-deflection behavior, leading to a reduction of stiffness that is the largest for any location of the pore cluster. Furthermore, it was also found from both numerical and i

analytical models that pore clusters located towards the middle of the span and close to the end of the beam only have a very small effect on the load-deflection behavior, and it is concluded that better estimates of Young's modulus can be obtained from micro- cantilever experiments by using microstructurally explicit models that account for porosity in about one half of the beam length close to the clamp. This, in turn, provides an avenue to simplify micro-scale experiments and their analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Four Dimensional (4D) Microstructural and Electrochemical Characterization of Dissimilar-metal Corrosion in Naval Structural Joints

Description

AA 7XXX alloys are used extensively in aircraft and naval structures due to their excellent strength to weight ratio. These alloys are often exposed to harsh corrosive environments and mechanical

AA 7XXX alloys are used extensively in aircraft and naval structures due to their excellent strength to weight ratio. These alloys are often exposed to harsh corrosive environments and mechanical stresses that can compromise their reliability in service. They are also coupled with fasteners that are composed of different materials such as Titanium alloys. Such dissimilar metal contact facilitates galvanic and crevice corrosion, which can further reduce their lifetimes. Despite decades of research in the area, the confluence of mechanical, microstructural, and electrochemical aspects of damage is still unclear. Traditionally, 2D and destructive methods have often been employed to study the corrosion and cracking behavior in these systems which can be severely limiting and lead to inaccurate conclusions. This dissertation is aimed at comprehensively studying the corrosion and cracking behavior of these systems using time-dependent 3D microstructural characterization, as well as correlative microscopy. The microstructural evolution of corrosion in AA 7075 was studied using a combination of potentiodynamic polarization, X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM). In both experiments, a strong emphasis was placed on studying localized corrosion attack at constituent particles and intergranular corrosion. With an understanding of the alloy’s corrosion behavior, a dissimilar alloy couple comprising AA 7075 / Ti-6Al-4V was then investigated. Ex situ and in situ x-ray microtomography was used extensively to investigate the evolution of pitting corrosion and corrosion fatigue in AA 7075 plates fastened separately with Ti-6Al-4V screws and rivets. The 4D tomography combined with the extensive fractography yielded valuable information pertaining the preferred sites of pit initiation, crack initiation and growth in these complex geometries. The use of correlative microscopy-based methodologies yielded multimodal characterization results that provided a unique and seminal insight on corrosion mechanisms in these materials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Multiscale modeling of mechanical shock behavior of environmentally-benign lead-free solders in electronic packaging

Description

With the increasing focus on developing environmentally benign electronic packages, lead-free solder alloys have received a great deal of attention. Mishandling of packages, during manufacture, assembly, or by the user

With the increasing focus on developing environmentally benign electronic packages, lead-free solder alloys have received a great deal of attention. Mishandling of packages, during manufacture, assembly, or by the user may cause failure of solder joint. A fundamental understanding of the behavior of lead-free solders under mechanical shock conditions is lacking. Reliable experimental and numerical analysis of lead-free solder joints in the intermediate strain rate regime need to be investigated. This dissertation mainly focuses on exploring the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder alloys via multiscale modeling and numerical simulations. First, the macroscopic stress/strain behaviors of three bulk lead-free tin-rich solders were tested over a range of strain rates from 0.001/s to 30/s. Finite element analysis was conducted to determine appropriate specimen geometry that could reach a homogeneous stress/strain field and a relatively high strain rate. A novel self-consistent true stress correction method is developed to compensate the inaccuracy caused by the triaxial stress state at the post-necking stage. Then the material property of micron-scale intermetallic was examined by micro-compression test. The accuracy of this measure is systematically validated by finite element analysis, and empirical adjustments are provided. Moreover, the interfacial property of the solder/intermetallic interface is investigated, and a continuum traction-separation law of this interface is developed from an atomistic-based cohesive element method. The macroscopic stress/strain relation and microstructural properties are combined together to form a multiscale material behavior via a stochastic approach for both solder and intermetallic. As a result, solder is modeled by porous plasticity with random voids, and intermetallic is characterized as brittle material with random vulnerable region. Thereafter, the porous plasticity fracture of the solders and the brittle fracture of the intermetallics are coupled together in one finite element model. Finally, this study yields a multiscale model to understand and predict the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder joints. Different fracture patterns are observed for various strain rates and/or intermetallic thicknesses. The predictions have a good agreement with the theory and experiments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Interval timing under a behavioral microscope: dissociating motivational and timing processes in fixed-interval performance

Description

Theories of interval timing have largely focused on accounting for the aggregate properties of behavior engendered by periodic reinforcement, such as sigmoidal psychophysical functions and their scalar property. Many theories

Theories of interval timing have largely focused on accounting for the aggregate properties of behavior engendered by periodic reinforcement, such as sigmoidal psychophysical functions and their scalar property. Many theories of timing also stipulate that timing and motivation are inseparable processes. Such a claim is challenged by fluctuations in and out of states of schedule control, making it unclear whether motivation directly affects states related to timing. The present paper seeks to advance our understanding of timing performance by analyzing and comparing the distribution of latencies and inter-response times (IRTs) of rats in two fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food reinforcement (FI 30-s and FI 90-s), and in two levels of food deprivation. Computational modeling revealed that each component was well described by mixture probability distributions embodying two-state Markov chains. Analysis of these models revealed that only a subset of latencies are sensitive to the periodicity of reinforcement, and pre-feeding only reduces the size of this subset. The distribution of IRTs suggests that behavior in FI schedules is organized in bouts that lengthen and ramp up in frequency with proximity to reinforcement. Pre-feeding slowed down the lengthening of bouts and increased the time between bouts. When concatenated, these models adequately reproduced sigmoidal FI response functions. These findings suggest that behavior in FI fluctuates in and out of schedule control; an account of such fluctuation suggests that timing and motivation are dissociable components of FI performance. These mixture-distribution models also provide novel insights on the motivational, associative, and timing processes expressed in FI performance, which need to be accounted for by causal theories of interval timing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Microstructurally explicit simulation of the transport behavior in uranium dioxide

Description

Fission products in nuclear fuel pellets can affect fuel performance as they change the fuel chemistry and structure. The behavior of the fission products and their release mechanisms are important

Fission products in nuclear fuel pellets can affect fuel performance as they change the fuel chemistry and structure. The behavior of the fission products and their release mechanisms are important to the operation of a power reactor. Research has shown that fission product release can occur through grain boundary (GB) at low burnups. Early fission gas release models, which assumed spherical grains with no effect of GB diffusion, did not capture the early stage of the release behavior well. In order to understand the phenomenon at low burnup and how it leads to the later release mechanism, a microstructurally explicit model is needed. This dissertation conducted finite element simulations of the transport behavior using 3-D microstructurally explicit models. It looks into the effects of GB character, with emphases on conditions that can lead to enhanced effective diffusion. Moreover, the relationship between temperature and fission product transport is coupled to reflect the high temperature environment.

The modeling work began with 3-D microstructure reconstruction for three uranium oxide samples with different oxygen stoichiometry: UO2.00 UO2.06 and UO2.14. The 3-D models were created based on the real microstructure of depleted UO2 samples characterized by Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) combined with serial sectioning. Mathematical equations on fission gas diffusion and heat conduction were studied and derived to simulate the fission gas transport under GB effect. Verification models showed that 2-D elements can be used to model GBs to reduce the number of elements. The effect of each variable, including fuel stoichiometry, temperature, GB diffusion, triple junction diffusion and GB thermal resistance, is verified, and they are coupled in multi-physics simulations to study the transport of fission gas at different radial location of a fuel pellet. It was demonstrated that the microstructural model can be used to incorporate the effect of different physics to study fission gas transport. The results suggested that the GB effect is the most significant at the edge of fuel pellet where the temperature is the lowest. In the high temperature region, the increase in bulk diffusivity due to excess oxygen diminished the effect of GB diffusion.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Microstructural characterization and corrosion behavior of Al 7075 alloys using X-ray synchrotron tomography

Description

Al 7075 alloys are used in a variety of structural applications, such as aircraft wings, automotive components, fuselage, spacecraft, missiles, etc. The mechanical and corrosion behavior of these alloys are

Al 7075 alloys are used in a variety of structural applications, such as aircraft wings, automotive components, fuselage, spacecraft, missiles, etc. The mechanical and corrosion behavior of these alloys are dependent on their microstructure and the environment. Therefore, a comprehensive study on microstructural characterization and stress-environment interaction is necessary. Traditionally, 2D techniques have been used to characterize microstructure, which are inaccurate and inadequate since the research has shown that the results obtained in the bulk are different from those obtained on the surface. There now exist several techniques in 3D, which can be used to characterize the microstructure. Al 7075 alloys contain second phase particles which can be classified as Fe-bearing inclusions, Si-bearing inclusions and precipitates. The variation in mechanical and corrosion properties of aluminum alloys has been attributed to the size, shape, distribution, corrosion properties and mechanical behavior of these precipitates and constituent particles. Therefore, in order to understand the performance of Al 7075 alloys, it is critical to investigate the size and distribution of inclusions and precipitates in the alloys along with their mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, hardness and stress-strain behavior. X-ray tomography and FIB tomography were used to visualize and quantify the microstructure of constituent particles (inclusions) and precipitates, respectively. Microscale mechanical characterization techniques, such as nanoindentation and micropillar compression, were used to obtain mechanical properties of inclusions. Over the years, studies have used surface measurements to understand corrosion behavior of materials. More recently, in situ mechanical testing has become more attractive and advantageous, as it enables visualization and quantification of microstructural changes as a function of time (4D). In this study, in situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was used to study the SCC behavior of Al 7075 alloys in moisture and deionized water. Furthermore, experiments were performed in EXCO solution to study the effect of applied stress on exfoliation behavior in 3D. Contrary to 2D measurements made at the surface which suggest non-uniform crack growth rates, three dimensional measurements of the crack length led to a much more accurate measurement of crack growth rates.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Effect on processing conditions on grain boundary character distribution and mobility in nuclear fuels

Description

The initial microstructure of oxide fuel pellets can play a key role in their performance. At low burnups, the transport of fission products has a strong dependence on oxygen content,

The initial microstructure of oxide fuel pellets can play a key role in their performance. At low burnups, the transport of fission products has a strong dependence on oxygen content, grain size distribution, porosity and grain boundary (GB) characteristics (crystallography, geometry and topology), all of which, in turn depend on processing conditions. These microstructural features can also affect the fuel densification, thermal conductivity and microstructure evolution inside the reactor. Understanding these effects can provide insight into microstructure evolution of fuels in-pile. In this work, mechanical and ion beam serial sectioning techniques were developed to obtain Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) data, both in 2-D and 3-D, for depleted UO2+X pellets manufactured under different conditions. The EBSD maps were used to relate processing conditions to microstructural features, with emphasis on special GBs according to the Coincident Site Lattice (CSL) model, as well as correlations between pore size and location in the microstructure. Furthermore, larger grains (at least 2.5 times the average grain size) were observed in all the samples and studied. Results indicate that larger grains, in samples manufactured under different conditions, dominate the overall crystallographic texture and have a fairly strong GB texture. Moreover, it seems that the preferential misorientation axis for these GBs, regardless of the O/M, is {001}. These results might be related to GB energy and structure and, suggest that the mechanism that controls grain growth seems to be independent of both processing conditions and stoichiometry. Additionally, a sample was heat treated to relate grain growth and crystallography. The results indicate that at least two mechanisms were involved. Lengthening of GBs was observed for larger grains. Another mechanism of grain growth was observed, in this case, grains rotate to match a neighboring grain forming a larger grain. In the new grain, the misorientation between the two neighboring grains decreases to less than 5 degrees, forming a new larger grain. The results presented in this work indicate that detailed studies of the initial microstructure of the fuel, with emphasis on the crystallography of grains and GBs could help to give insights on the in-pile microstructural evolution of the fuel.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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3D modeling of incipient spall damage in shocked FCC multicrystals

Description

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in the material microstructure where damage will nucleate and grow and to formulate continuum models that account for the variability of the damage process due to microstructural heterogeneity. The length scale of damage with respect to that of the surrounding microstructure has proven to be a key aspect in determining sites of failure initiation. Correlations have been found between the damage sites and the surrounding microstructure to determine the preferred sites of spall damage, since it tends to localize at and around the regions of intrinsic defects such as grain boundaries and triple points. However, considerable amount of work still has to be done in this regard to determine the physics driving the damage at these intrinsic weak sites in the microstructure. The main focus of this research work is to understand the physical mechanisms behind the damage localization at these preferred sites. A crystal plasticity constitutive model is implemented with different damage criteria to study the effects of stress concentration and strain localization at the grain boundaries. A cohesive zone modeling technique is used to include the intrinsic strength of the grain boundaries in the simulations. The constitutive model is verified using single elements tests, calibrated using single crystal impact experiments and validated using bicrystal and multicrystal impact experiments. The results indicate that strain localization is the predominant driving force for damage initiation and evolution. The microstructural effects on theses damage sites are studied to attribute the extent of damage to microstructural features such as grain orientation, misorientation, Taylor factor and the grain boundary planes. The finite element simulations show good correlation with the experimental results and can be used as the preliminary step in developing accurate probabilistic models for damage nucleation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Phase Change Materials in Infrastructural Concrete and Buildings: Material Design and Performance

Description

Phase change materials (PCMs) are combined sensible-and-latent thermal energy storage materials that can be used to store and dissipate energy in the form of heat. PCMs incorporated into wall-element systems

Phase change materials (PCMs) are combined sensible-and-latent thermal energy storage materials that can be used to store and dissipate energy in the form of heat. PCMs incorporated into wall-element systems have been well-studied with respect to energy efficiency of building envelopes. New applications of PCMs in infrastructural concrete, e.g., for mitigating early-age cracking and freeze-and-thaw induced damage, have also been proposed. Hence, the focus of this dissertation is to develop a detailed understanding of the physic-chemical and thermo-mechanical characteristics of cementitious systems and novel coating systems for wall-elements containing PCM. The initial phase of this work assesses the influence of interface properties and inter-inclusion interactions between microencapsulated PCM, macroencapsulated PCM, and the cementitious matrix. The fact that these inclusions within the composites are by themselves heterogeneous, and contain multiple components necessitate careful application of models to predict the thermal properties. The next phase observes the influence of PCM inclusions on the fracture and fatigue behavior of PCM-cementitious composites. The compliant nature of the inclusion creates less variability in the fatigue life for these composites subjected to cyclic loading. The incorporation of small amounts of PCM is found to slightly improve the fracture properties compared to PCM free cementitious composites. Inelastic deformations at the crack-tip in the direction of crack opening are influenced by the microscale PCM inclusions. After initial laboratory characterization of the microstructure and evaluation of the thermo-mechanical performance of these systems, field scale applicability and performance were evaluated. Wireless temperature and strain sensors for smart monitoring were embedded within a conventional portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) and a thermal control smart concrete pavement (TCSCP) containing PCM. The TCSCP exhibited enhanced thermal performance over multiple heating and cooling cycles. PCCP showed significant shrinkage behavior as a result of compressive strains in the reinforcement that were twice that of the TCSCP. For building applications, novel PCM-composites coatings were developed to improve and extend the thermal efficiency. These coatings demonstrated a delay in temperature by up to four hours and were found to be more cost-effective than traditional building insulating materials.

The results of this work prove the feasibility of PCMs as a temperature-regulating technology. Not only do PCMs reduce and control the temperature within cementitious systems without affecting the rate of early property development but they can also be used as an auto-adaptive technology capable of improving the thermal performance of building envelopes.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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A critical plane-energy model for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials

Description

A new critical plane-energy model is proposed in this thesis for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. Brief review of existing methods, especially on the critical plane-based

A new critical plane-energy model is proposed in this thesis for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. Brief review of existing methods, especially on the critical plane-based and energy-based methods, are given first. Special focus is on one critical plane approach which has been shown to work for both brittle and ductile metals. The key idea is to automatically change the critical plane orientation with respect to different materials and stress states. One potential drawback of the developed model is that it needs an empirical calibration parameter for non-proportional multiaxial loadings since only the strain terms are used and the out-of-phase hardening cannot be considered. The energy-based model using the critical plane concept is proposed with help of the Mroz-Garud hardening rule to explicitly include the effect of non-proportional hardening under fatigue cyclic loadings. Thus, the empirical calibration for non-proportional loading is not needed since the out-of-phase hardening is naturally included in the stress calculation. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from open literature and it is shown the proposed model can work for both proportional and non-proportional loadings without the empirical calibration. Next, the model is extended for the fatigue analysis of heterogeneous materials integrating with finite element method. Fatigue crack initiation of representative volume of heterogeneous materials is analyzed using the developed critical plane-energy model and special focus is on the microstructure effect on the multiaxial fatigue life predictions. Several conclusions and future work is drawn based on the proposed study.

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Date Created
  • 2016