Matching Items (8)

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Injection methods and instrumentation for serial X-ray free electron laser experiments

Description

Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These

Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These new methods include serial femtosecond crystallography, single particle imaging, solution scattering, and time resolved techniques.

The XFEL is characterized by high intensity pulses, which are only about 50 femtoseconds in duration. The intensity allows for scattering from microscopic particles, while the short pulses offer a way to outrun radiation damage. XFELs are powerful enough to obliterate most samples in a single pulse. While this allows for a “diffract and destroy” methodology, it also requires instrumentation that can position microscopic particles into the X-ray beam (which may also be microscopic), continuously renew the sample after each pulse, and maintain sample viability during data collection.

Typically these experiments have used liquid microjets to continuously renew sample. The high flow rate associated with liquid microjets requires large amounts of sample, most of which runs to waste between pulses. An injector designed to stream a viscous gel-like material called lipidic cubic phase (LCP) was developed to address this problem. LCP, commonly used as a growth medium for membrane protein crystals, lends itself to low flow rate jetting and so reduces the amount of sample wasted significantly.

This work discusses sample delivery and injection for XFEL experiments. It reviews the liquid microjet method extensively, and presents the LCP injector as a novel device for serial crystallography, including detailed protocols for the LCP injector and anti-settler operation.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Sample injector fabrication and delivery method development for serial crystallography using synchrotrons and X-ray free electron lasers

Description

Sample delivery is an essential component in biological imaging using serial diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotrons. Recent developments have made possible the near-atomic resolution structure

Sample delivery is an essential component in biological imaging using serial diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotrons. Recent developments have made possible the near-atomic resolution structure determination of several important proteins, including one G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug target, whose structure could not easily have been determined otherwise (Appendix A). In this thesis I describe new sample delivery developments that are paramount to advancing this field beyond what has been accomplished to date. Soft Lithography was used to implement sample conservation in the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). A PDMS/glass composite microfluidic injector was created and given the capability of millisecond fluidic switching of a GDVN liquid jet within the divergent section of a 2D Laval-like GDVN nozzle, providing a means of collecting sample between the pulses of current XFELs. An oil/water droplet immersion jet was prototyped that suspends small sample droplets within an oil jet such that the sample droplet frequency may match the XFEL pulse repetition rate. A similar device was designed to use gas bubbles for synchronized “on/off” jet behavior and for active micromixing. 3D printing based on 2-Photon Polymerization (2PP) was used to directly fabricate reproducible GDVN injectors at high resolution, introducing the possibility of systematic nozzle research and highly complex GDVN injectors. Viscous sample delivery using the “LCP injector” was improved with a method for dealing with poorly extruding sample mediums when using full beam transmission from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and a new viscous crystal-carrying medium was characterized for use in both vacuum and atmospheric environments: high molecular weight Polyethylene Glycol.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Time-resolved crystallography using X-ray free-electron laser

Description

Photosystem II (PSII) is a large protein-cofactor complex. The first step in

photosynthesis involves the harvesting of light energy from the sun by the antenna (made

of pigments) of the PSII trans-membrane

Photosystem II (PSII) is a large protein-cofactor complex. The first step in

photosynthesis involves the harvesting of light energy from the sun by the antenna (made

of pigments) of the PSII trans-membrane complex. The harvested excitation energy is

transferred from the antenna complex to the reaction center of the PSII, which leads to a

light-driven charge separation event, from water to plastoquinone. This phenomenal

process has been producing the oxygen that maintains the oxygenic environment of our

planet for the past 2.5 billion years.

The oxygen molecule formation involves the light-driven extraction of 4 electrons

and protons from two water molecules through a multistep reaction, in which the Oxygen

Evolving Center (OEC) of PSII cycles through 5 different oxidation states, S0 to S4.

Unraveling the water-splitting mechanism remains as a grant challenge in the field of

photosynthesis research. This requires the development of an entirely new capability, the

ability to produce molecular movies. This dissertation advances a novel technique, Serial

Femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX), into a new realm whereby such time-resolved

molecular movies may be attained. The ultimate goal is to make a “molecular movie” that

reveals the dynamics of the water splitting mechanism using time-resolved SFX (TRSFX)

experiments and the uniquely enabling features of X-ray Free-Electron Laser

(XFEL) for the study of biological processes.

This thesis presents the development of SFX techniques, including development of

new methods to analyze millions of diffraction patterns (~100 terabytes of data per XFEL

experiment) with the goal of solving the X-ray structures in different transition states.

ii

The research comprises significant advancements to XFEL software packages (e.g.,

Cheetah and CrystFEL). Initially these programs could evaluate only 8-10% of all the

data acquired successfully. This research demonstrates that with manual optimizations,

the evaluation success rate was enhanced to 40-50%. These improvements have enabled

TR-SFX, for the first time, to examine the double excited state (S3) of PSII at 5.5-Å. This

breakthrough demonstrated the first indication of conformational changes between the

ground (S1) and the double-excited (S3) states, a result fully consistent with theoretical

predictions.

The power of the TR-SFX technique was further demonstrated with proof-of principle

experiments on Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP) micro-crystals that high

temporal (10-ns) and spatial (1.5-Å) resolution structures could be achieved.

In summary, this dissertation research heralds the development of the TR-SFX

technique, protocols, and associated data analysis methods that will usher into practice a

new era in structural biology for the recording of ‘molecular movies’ of any biomolecular

process.

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Date Created
  • 2015

Sample delivery enabled by 3D printing for reduced sample consumption and mix-and-inject serial crystallography at x-ray free electron lasers

Description

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on the order of hundreds of femtoseconds. However, currently available XFEL facility X-ray pulse structures waste the majority of continuously injected crystal sample, requiring a large quantity (up to grams) of crystal sample to solve a protein structure. Furthermore, mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) at XFEL facilities requires fast mixing for short (millisecond) reaction time points (𝑡"), and current sample delivery methods have complex fabrication and assembly requirements.

To reduce sample consumption during SFX, a 3D printed T-junction for generating segmented aqueous-in-oil droplets was developed. The device surface properties were characterized both with and without a surface coating for improved droplet generation stability. Additionally, the droplet generation frequency was characterized. The 3D printed device interfaced with gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVNs) at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and a relationship between the aqueous phase volume and the resulting crystal hit rate was developed. Furthermore, at the European XFEL (EuXFEL) a similar quantity and quality of diffraction data was collected for segmented sample delivery using ~60% less sample volume than continuous injection, and a structure of 3-deoxy-D-manno- octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS) delivered by segmented injection was solved that revealed new structural details to a resolution of 2.8 Å.

For MISC, a 3D printed hydrodynamic focusing mixer for fast mixing by diffusion was developed to automate device fabrication and simplify device assembly. The mixer was characterized with numerical models and fluorescence microscopy. A variety of devices were developed to reach reaction intermediate time points, 𝑡", on the order of 100 – 103 ms. These devices include 3D printed mixers coupled to glass or 3D printed GDVNs and two designs of mixers with GDVNs integrated into the one device. A 3D printed mixer coupled to a glass GDVN was utilized at LCLS to study the oxidation of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), and a structure of the CcO Pr intermediate was determined at 𝑡" = 8 s.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Methods and instrumentation of sample injection for XFEL experiments

Description

ABSTRACT

X-Ray crystallography and NMR are two major ways of achieving atomic

resolution of structure determination for macro biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, new developments of hard X-ray pulsed free electron laser

ABSTRACT

X-Ray crystallography and NMR are two major ways of achieving atomic

resolution of structure determination for macro biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, new developments of hard X-ray pulsed free electron laser XFEL opened up new possibilities to break the dilemma of radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffraction imaging by outrunning radiation damage with ultra high brightness femtosecond X-ray pulses, which is so short in time that the pulse terminates before atomic motion starts. A variety of experimental techniques for structure determination of macro biomolecules is now available including imaging of protein nanocrystals, single particles such as viruses, pump-probe experiments for time-resolved nanocrystallography, and snapshot wide- angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) from molecules in solution. However, due to the nature of the "diffract-then-destroy" process, each protein crystal would be destroyed once

probed. Hence a new sample delivery system is required to replenish the target crystal at a high rate. In this dissertation, the sample delivery systems for the application of XFELs to biomolecular imaging will be discussed and the severe challenges related to the delivering of macroscopic protein crystal in a stable controllable way with minimum waste of sample and maximum hit rate will be tackled with several different development of injector designs and approaches. New developments of the sample delivery system such as liquid mixing jet also opens up new experimental methods which gives opportunities to study of the chemical dynamics in biomolecules in a molecular structural level. The design and characterization of the system will be discussed along with future possible developments and applications. Finally, LCP injector will be discussed which is critical for the success in various applications.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Reconstruction methods In free electron laser X-ray diffraction

Description

One of the most important issues in femtosecond free electron laser X-ray diraction is to reconstruct the 3D charge density of molecule from a mass of diraction snapshots. In order

One of the most important issues in femtosecond free electron laser X-ray diraction is to reconstruct the 3D charge density of molecule from a mass of diraction snapshots. In order to determine the orientation of single molecule from diraction patterns, we rst determine the moments and products of inertia of this from 2D experiment data (diraction patterns or EM images to obtain the elements of the inertia tensor. If diraction patterns from uniformly random orientations or some preferred orientations are collected, the principal axes of the molecule can be extracted, together with the Euler angles which relate the principal axes of the molecule to the laboratory frame axes. This is achieved by nding the maximum and minimum values for the measured moments from many single-molecule patterns. Simulations for GroEL protein indicates that the calculation of the autocorrelation help eliminate the Poisson noise in Cryo- EM images and can make correct orientation determination. The eect of water jacket surrounding the protein molecule is studied based on molecular dynamics simulation result. The intensities from water and interference is found to suppress those from protein itself. A method is proposed and applied to the simulation data to show the possibility for it to overcome the water background problem. The scattering between Bragg re ections from nanocrystals is used to aid solution of the phase problem. We describe a method for reconstructing the charge density of a typical molecule within a single unit cell, if suciently nely-sampled diraction data are available from many nanocrystals of dierent sizes lying in the same orientations without knowledge of the distribution of particle size or requiring atomic-resolution data. Triple correlation of the diraction patterns are made use of to reconiii

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography of membrane proteins

Description

Membrane proteins are very important for all living cells, being involved in respiration, photosynthesis, cellular uptake and signal transduction, amongst other vital functions. However, less than 300 unique membrane protein

Membrane proteins are very important for all living cells, being involved in respiration, photosynthesis, cellular uptake and signal transduction, amongst other vital functions. However, less than 300 unique membrane protein structures have been determined to date, often due to difficulties associated with the growth of sufficiently large and well-ordered crystals. This work has been focused on showing the first proof of concept for using membrane protein nanocrystals and microcrystals for high-resolution structure determination. Upon determining that crystals of the membrane protein Photosystem I, which is the largest and most complex membrane protein crystallized to date, exist with only a hundred unit cells with sizes of less than 200 nm on an edge, work was done to develop a technique that could exploit the growth of the Photosystem I nanocrystals and microcrystals. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography was developed for use at the first high-energy X-ray free electron laser, the LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in which a liquid jet would bring fully hydrated Photosystem I nanocrystals into the interaction region of the pulsed X-ray source. Diffraction patterns were recorded from millions of individual PSI nanocrystals and data from thousands of different, randomly oriented crystallites were integrated using Monte Carlo integration of the peak intensities. The short pulses ( 70 fs) provided by the LCLS allowed the possibility to collect the diffraction data before the onset of radiation damage, exploiting the diffract-before-destroy principle. At the initial experiments at the AMO beamline using 6.9- Å wavelength, Bragg peaks were recorded to 8.5- Å resolution, and an electron-density map was determined that did not show any effects of X-ray-induced radiation damage. Recently, femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography experiments were done at the CXI beamline of the LCLS using 1.3- Å wavelength, and Bragg reflections were recorded to 3- Å resolution; the data are currently being processed. Many additional techniques still need to be developed to explore the femtosecond nanocrystallography technique for experimental phasing and time-resolved X-ray crystallography experiments. The first proof-of-principle results for the femtosecond nanocrystallography technique indicate the incredible potential of the technique to offer a new route to the structure determination of membrane proteins.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Femtosecond x-ray protein nanocrystallography and correlated fluctuation small-angle x-ray scattering

Description

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage altogether when using single X-ray pulses so brief that they terminate before atomic motion commences. This dissertation concerns the application of XFELs to biomolecular imaging in an effort to overcome the severe challenges associated with radiation damage and macroscopic protein crystal growth. The method of femtosecond protein nanocrystallography (fsPNX) is investigated, and a new method for extracting crystallographic structure factors is demonstrated on simulated data and on the first experimental fsPNX data obtained at an XFEL. Errors are assessed based on standard metrics familiar to the crystallography community. It is shown that resulting structure factors match the quality of those measured conventionally, at least to 9 angstrom resolution. A new method for ab-initio phasing of coherently-illuminated nanocrystals is then demonstrated on simulated data. The method of correlated fluctuation small-angle X-ray scattering (CFSAXS) is also investigated as an alternative route to biomolecular structure determination, without the use of crystals. It is demonstrated that, for a constrained two-dimensional geometry, a projection image of a single particle can be formed, ab-initio and without modeling parameters, from measured diffracted intensity correlations arising from disordered ensembles of identical particles illuminated simultaneously. The method is demonstrated experimentally, based on soft X-ray diffraction from disordered but identical nanoparticles, providing the first experimental proof-of-principle result. Finally, the fundamental limitations of CFSAXS is investigated through both theory and simulations. It is found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for CFSAXS data is essentially independent of the number of particles exposed in each diffraction pattern. The dependence of SNR on particle size and resolution is considered, and realistic estimates are made (with the inclusion of solvent scatter) of the SNR for protein solution scattering experiments utilizing an XFEL source.

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Date Created
  • 2011