A design methodology for a new breed of launch vehicle capable of lofting small satellites to orbit is discussed. The growing need for such a rocket is great: the United States has no capabilities in place to quickly launch and reconstitute satellite constellations. A loss of just one satellite, natural or induced, could significantly degrade or entirely eliminate critical space-based assets which would need to be quickly replaced. Furthermore a rocket capable of meeting the requirements for operationally responsive space missions would be an ideal launch platform for small commercial satellites. The proposed architecture to alleviate this lack of an affordable dedicated small-satellite launch vehicle relies upon a combination of expendable medium-range military surplus solid rocket motor assets. The dissertation discusses in detail the current operational capabilities of these military boosters and provides an outline for necessary refurbishments required to successfully place a small payload in orbit. A custom 3DOF trajectory script is used to evaluate the performance of these designs. Concurrently, a parametric cost-mass-performance response surface methodology is employed as an optimization tool to minimize life cycle costs of the proposed vehicles. This optimization scheme is centered on reducing life cycle costs per payload mass delivered rather than raw performance increases. Lastly, a novel upper-stage engine configuration using Hydroxlammonium Nitrate (HAN) is introduced and experimentally static test fired to illustrate the inherent simplicity and high performance of this high density, nontoxic propellant. The motor was operated in both pulse and small duration tests using a newly developed proprietary mixture that is hypergolic with HAN upon contact. This new propellant is demonstrated as a favorable replacement for current space vehicles relying on the heritage use of hydrazine. The end result is a preliminary design of a vehicle built from demilitarized booster assets that complements, rather than replaces, traditional space launch vehicles. This dissertation proves that such capabilities exist and more importantly that the resulting architecture can serve as a viable platform for immediate and affordable access to low Earth orbit.