Matching Items (16)

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Association of objectively measured physical activity with cognitive function in black and white older adults: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

Description

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly used to overcome limitations of self-report measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of objectively measured PA and sedentary time with cognitive function among older adults.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the parent REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. ActicalTM accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables, including moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), high light PA (HLPA), low light PA (LLPA) and sedentary time, for 4-7 consecutive days. Prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment were defined by the Six-Item Screener. Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall) were conducted to assess executive function and memory.

Results: Of the 7,339 participants who provided accelerometer wear data > 4 days (70.1 ± 8.6 yr, 54.2% women, 31.7% African American), 320 participants exhibited impaired cognition. In cross-sectional analysis, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 39% lower odds of cognitive impairment than those in the lowest quartile (OR: 0.61, 95% C.I.: 0.39-0.95) after full adjustment. Further analysis shows most quartiles of MVPA% and HLPA% were significantly associated with executive function and memory (P<0.01). During 2.7 ± 0.5 years of follow-up, 3,385 participants were included in the longitudinal analysis, with 157 incident cases of cognitive impairment. After adjustments, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 51% lower hazards of cognitive impairment (HR: 0.49, 95% C.I.: 0.28-0.86). Additionally, MVPA% was inversely associated with change in memory z-scores (P<0.01), while the highest quartile of HLPA% was inversely associated with change in executive function and memory z-scores (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA% were independently associated with lower prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment, and better memory and executive function in older adults. Higher levels of HLPA% were also independently associated with better memory and executive function. The amount of MVPA associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment (259 min/week) is >70% higher than the minimal amount of MVPA recommended by PA guidelines.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Yoga for HEART (Health Empowerment and Realizing Transformation) intervention to enhance motivation for physical activity in older adults

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. While physical activity can reduce CVD risk, most adults do not engage in adequate physical activity to

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. While physical activity can reduce CVD risk, most adults do not engage in adequate physical activity to maintain or improve health. Older adults are less likely to participate in physical activity and experience a greater burden of CVD compared to younger adults. Despite knowledge of motivators and barriers to physical activity, the challenge to reduce cardiovascular risk in the older adult population remains unmet. Older adults face unique and complex barriers to physical activity, including limited social contextual resources and behavioral change processes. Interventions to enhance wellness motivation have demonstrated potential in promoting health behavior change among older adults.

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of the Yoga for HEART (Health Empowerment and Realizing Transformation) Intervention to increase motivation for physical activity and improve cardiovascular health in older adults. A pilot randomized controlled trial design was used. The Intervention group received Yoga for HEART, a 12-week program to foster motivation for health behavior change. The Control group received a 12-week group yoga program that did not contain theory-based components. The intervention was based on Wellness Motivation Theory, conceptualizing health behavior change as dynamic process of intention formation and goal-directed behavior leading to the development of new and positive health patterns. Critical inputs (i.e., empowering education, motivational support, social network support) were designed to promote social contextual resources and behavioral change processes to increase motivation for physical activity and improve cardiovascular health.

Specific Aims were to: (a) examine intervention acceptability, demand, and fidelity, and (b) evaluate intervention efficacy in promoting physical activity and improving cardiovascular health through increased social contextual resources and behavioral change processes. Participants in the Intervention group realized a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) from baseline to 12 weeks when compared to participants in the Control group. Intervention group participants demonstrated improvement in theoretical mechanisms (i.e., self-knowledge, motivation appraisal, self-regulation, environmental resources) and intended outcomes (i.e., body composition) when compared to Control group participants. Findings from this study support the feasibility of the Yoga for HEART Intervention in older adults.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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A pilot study of the benefits of traditional and mindful community gardening for urban older adults' subjective well-being

Description

The population of older adults and the percentage of people living in urban areas are both increasing in the U.S. Finding ways to enhance city-dwelling, older adults' social integration, cognitive

The population of older adults and the percentage of people living in urban areas are both increasing in the U.S. Finding ways to enhance city-dwelling, older adults' social integration, cognitive vitality, and connectedness to nature were conceptualized as critical pathways to maximizing their subjective well-being (SWB) and overall health. Past research has found that gardening is associated with increased social contact and reduced risk of dementia, and that higher levels of social support, cognitive functioning, mindfulness, and connectedness to nature are positively related to various aspects of SWB. The present study was a pilot study to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized, controlled trial of community gardening and to provide an initial assessment of a new intervention--"Mindful Community Gardening," or mindfulness training in the context of gardening. In addition, this study examined whether community gardening, with or without mindfulness training, enhanced SWB among older adults and increased social support, attention and mindfulness, and connectedness to nature. Fifty community-dwelling adults between the ages of 55 and 79 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Traditional Community Gardening (TCG), Mindful Community Gardening (MCG), or Wait-List Control. The TCG and MCG arms each consisted of two groups of 7 to 10 participants meeting weekly for nine weeks. TCG involved typical gardening activities undertaken collaboratively. MCG involved the same, but with the addition of guided development of non-judgmental, present-focused awareness. There was a statistically significant increase in different aspects of mindfulness for the TCG and the MCG arms. The interventions did not measurably impact social support, attention, or connectedness to nature in this small, high functioning, pilot sample. Qualitative analysis of interview data from 12 participants in the TCG and MCG groups revealed that both groups helped some participants to better cope with adversity. It was concluded that it is feasible to conduct randomized, controlled trials of community gardening with urban older adults, and considerations for implementing such interventions are delineated.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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A feasibility study of Tai Chi Easy for spousally bereaved older adults

Description

Spousal bereavement is one of the most stressful life events, resulting in increased morbidities and mortality risk. Negative health outcomes include depressive episodes, anxiety, sleep disruption, and overall poorer physical

Spousal bereavement is one of the most stressful life events, resulting in increased morbidities and mortality risk. Negative health outcomes include depressive episodes, anxiety, sleep disruption, and overall poorer physical health. The older adult population is rapidly increasing and over 30% of the US population 65 years and older are widowed. Current studies regarding older adults and spousal bereavement treatment have been limited to psychological and educational interventions. Meditative movement practices (e.g. Tai Chi) have shown benefits such as mood elevation, anxiety reduction, and other physical function improvements. A feasibility study applying an 8-week Tai Chi Easy intervention was examined to address the sequelae of spousal bereavement among adults 65 and older. Grounded in geriatric nursing as a discipline that addresses the unique needs of older adults' psychological and physiological health needs and related theoretical constructs, this project also draws from exercise science, mental health, and social psychology. Theoretical premises include Orem's Self Care Deficit Theory (nursing), Stroebe and Schut's Dual Process Model (thanatology), and Peter Salmon's Unifying Theory (exercise). Aims of the study examined feasibility as well as pre-post-intervention changes in grief, and the degree of loss orientation relative to restoration orientation (Inventory of Daily Widowed Life). A trend in the direction of improvement was found in measured subscales, as well as a statistically significant change within the loss orientation subscale. Based upon these encouraging findings, effect sizes may be used to power a future larger study of similar nature.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Music intervention to prevent delirium among older patients admitted to a Trauma Intensive Care Unit and a Trauma Orthopedic Unit

Description

Greater than half of older adults who are admitted to an acute care setting experience delirium with an estimated cost between four to twenty billion dollars annually in the United

Greater than half of older adults who are admitted to an acute care setting experience delirium with an estimated cost between four to twenty billion dollars annually in the United States. As a strategy to address the gap between research and practice, this feasibility study used the Roy Adaptation Model to provide a theoretical perspective for intervention design and evaluation, with a focus on modifying contextual stimuli in a Trauma Intensive Care and a Trauma Orthopedic Unit setting. The study sample included older hospitalized patients in a Trauma Intensive Care and a Trauma Orthopedic setting where there is a greater incidence for delirium. Study participants included two groups, with one group assigned to receive either a music intervention or usual care. The music intervention included pre-recorded music, delivered using an iPod player with soft headsets, with music self-selected from a collection of music compositions with musical elements of slow tempo and simple repetitive rhythm that influence delirium prevention. For the proposed study a music intervention dose included intervention delivery for 60 minutes, twice a day, over a three day period following admission. Physiologic variables measured included systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate, which were electronically monitored every four hours for the study. The Confusion Assessment Method was used as a screening tool to identify delirium in the admitted patients. Specific aims of this feasibility study were to (a) examine the feasibility of a music intervention designed to prevent delirium among older adults, and (b) evaluate the effects of a music intervention designed to prevent delirium among older adults. Findings indicate there was a significant music group by time interaction effect which suggests that change over time was different for the music and usual care group.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Muscle quality, muscle mass, muscle strength, and pulse wave velocity between healthy young and elderly adults

Description

Although maintaining an optimal level of muscle quality in older persons is necessary to prevent falls and disability, there has been limited research on muscle quality across age and gender

Although maintaining an optimal level of muscle quality in older persons is necessary to prevent falls and disability, there has been limited research on muscle quality across age and gender groups. The associations of muscle quality, muscle strength, and muscle mass also remain less explored. Purpose: This study examined the muscle quality differences (arm and leg) between healthy young and elderly adults across gender groups. This study also examined the associations of muscle quality, muscle strength, and muscle mass in young and elderly adults, respectively. Methods: Seventy-one total subjects were recruited for this study within age groups 20-29 years old (20 females and 20 males) and 60-80 years old (18 females and 13 males). All participants completed anthropometric measures, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, pulse wave velocity, handgrip strength and leg strength tests, gait speed, and sit to stand test. Results: Young male adults had a greater leg muscle quality index (leg MQI) than did elderly male adults (21.8 Nm/kg vs. 16.3 Nm/kg, p = 0.001). Similarly, young female adults had a greater leg MQI than did old female adults (21.3 Nm/kg and 15.6 Nm/kg, p<0.001). For arm muscle quality index (arm MQI), there was a gender difference in young adults (p = 0.001), but not for the elderly adults. Among elderly adults, there was a positive association between leg MQI and isometric leg strength (r = 0.79, p<0.001). Notably, there was a negative association between leg MQI and leg lean mass (r = -0.70, p<0.001) and between arm MQI and arm lean mass (r = -0.58, p = 0.001). In young adults, there was also a positive association between arm MQI and handgrip strength (r = 0.53, p<0.001) and between leg MQI and isometric leg strength (r = 0.81, p<0.001). There was no association between muscle quality and muscle mass in young adults. Conclusion: Young adults had a greater leg muscle quality than did elderly adults in both men and women. Leg muscle quality is positively associated with leg muscle strength in both young and elderly adults but is inversely associated with leg muscle mass in the elderly adults.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Correlates of exercise self-efficacy in older adults with arthritis

Description

Purpose: This study explored the potential correlates of exercise self-efficacy among older adults with a self-reported diagnosis of arthritis. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis and used a

Purpose: This study explored the potential correlates of exercise self-efficacy among older adults with a self-reported diagnosis of arthritis. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis and used a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from a convenience sample of Non-Hispanic White and Non-Hispanic Black individuals between 2006-2008 (N=208). Descriptive statistics were run to assess means and frequencies within the sample. Bivariate statistics (Pearson and Spearman correlations, T-tests and one-way analysis of variance) were run to examine relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine independent predictors of self-efficacy for exercise (SEE) and barriers self-efficacy for exercise (BSE). Results: Participants were predominantly female (85.6%), white (62.9%), retired (58.1%) and had a mean age of 66.6 [10.7] years. For education level, 23.4% reported a Master’s degree or higher and 18.6% reported they had at most a high school degree or GED. Nearly 47% of the sample were classified as obese based on self-reported body mass index (BMI) and 68.3% of the sample were not meeting the American College of Sports Medicine physical activity (PA) recommendations. Participants reported a relatively high BSE (22.6) and an average SEE (22.7). Significant positive associations were seen with outcome expectation for exercise (EOE), social support, and total minutes of PA and negative associations with BMI, physical function, pain, and negative affect with SEE and BSE. Meeting the PA guidelines (t134.5=4.60, 95%CI= 4.7(6.71-2.68), p<0.001) and being white (t164=2.82, 95%CI=2.82(0.57-5.08), p=0.014) were associated with SEE and BSE (t165=3.42, 95%CI= 4.37(6.89-1.85), p=0.001) and (t164=2.34, 95%CI= 2.95(0.46-5.43), p=0.021), respectively. In regression analyses, significant predictors of SEE were education (p=.006), physical function (p=.006) and EOE (p<.001). Significant predictors of BSE were physical function (p=.020), social support (p=.031), EOE (p=<.001), education level (p=.037), and total minutes of PA (p=.022). The variables in the SEE model accounted for 50.5% (R=.737, R2=.505) of the total variance and the variables in BSE model accounted for 41.1% (R=.672, R2=.411) of the total variance of the model. Discussion: EOE appears to be an important predictor of SEE and BSE. Examining the temporal relationship between EOE and SEE is warranted.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The design and evaluation of a kinect-based postural symmetry assessment and training system

Description

The increased risk of falling and the worse ability to perform other daily physical activities in the elderly cause concern about monitoring and correcting basic everyday movement. In this thesis,

The increased risk of falling and the worse ability to perform other daily physical activities in the elderly cause concern about monitoring and correcting basic everyday movement. In this thesis, a Kinect-based system was designed to assess one of the most important factors in balance control of human body when doing Sit-to-Stand (STS) movement: the postural symmetry in mediolateral direction. A symmetry score, calculated by the data obtained from a Kinect RGB-D camera, was proposed to reflect the mediolateral postural symmetry degree and was used to drive a real-time audio feedback designed in MAX/MSP to help users adjust themselves to perform their movement in a more symmetrical way during STS. The symmetry score was verified by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient with the data obtained from Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor and got an average value at 0.732. Five healthy adults, four males and one female, with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment and the results showed that the low-cost Kinect-based system has the potential to train users to perform a more symmetrical movement in mediolateral direction during STS movement.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Posture, mobility, and 30-day hospital readmission in older adults with heart failure

Description

Background: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults and has the highest 30-day readmission rate of all diagnoses. An estimated 30 to 60 percent of older

Background: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults and has the highest 30-day readmission rate of all diagnoses. An estimated 30 to 60 percent of older adults lose some degree of physical function in the course of an acute hospital stay. Few studies have addressed the role of posture and mobility in contributing to, or improving, physical function in older hospitalized adults. No study to date that we are aware of has addressed this in the older heart failure population.

Purpose: To investigate the predictive value of mobility during a hospital stay and patterns of mobility during the month following discharge on hospital readmission and 30-day changes in functional status in older heart failure patients.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 21 older (ages 60+) patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. Patients wore two inclinometric accelerometers (rib area and thigh) to record posture and an accelerometer placed at the ankle to record ambulatory activity. Patients wore all sensors continuously during hospitalization and the ankle accelerometer for 30 days after hospital discharge. Function was assessed in all patients the day after hospital discharge and again at 30 days post-discharge.

Results: Five patients (23.8%) were readmitted within the 30 day post-discharge period. None of the hospital or post-discharge mobility measures were associated with readmission after adjustment for covariates. Higher percent lying time in the hospital was associated with slower Timed Up and Go (TUG) time (b = .08, p = .01) and poorer hand grip strength (b = -13.94, p = .02) at 30 days post-discharge. Higher daily stepping activity during the 30 day post-discharge period was marginally associated with improvements in SPPB scores at 30 days (b = <.001, p = .06).

Conclusion: For older heart failure patients, increased time lying while hospitalized is associated with slower walking time and poor hand grip strength 30 days after discharge. Higher daily stepping after discharge may be associated with improvements in physical function at 30 days.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The effects of assisted cycle therapy on executive and motor functioning in older adults

Description

This study examines cognitive and motor function in typical older adults following acute exercise. Ten older adults (Mage = 65.1) completed a single session of assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise

This study examines cognitive and motor function in typical older adults following acute exercise. Ten older adults (Mage = 65.1) completed a single session of assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. These sessions were randomized and separated by approximately one week. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for 30-minutes each session. These sessions were separated by at least two days. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and set shifting and motor testing including gross and fine motor performance at the beginning and at the end of each session. Consistent with our hypothesis concerning manual dexterity, the results showed that manual dexterity improved following the ACT session more than the VC or NC sessions. Improvements in set shifting were also found for the ACT session but not for the VC or NC sessions. The results are interpreted with respect to improvements in neurological function in older adults following acute cycling exercise. These improvements are balance, manual dexterity, and set shifting which have a positive effects on activities of daily living; such as, decrease risk of falls, improve movements like eating and handwriting, and increase ability to multitask.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015