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A cost to benefit analysis of a next generation electric power distribution system

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This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of

This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources onto the grid, it becomes necessary to have an infrastructure that allows for easy integration of these resources coupled with features like enhanced reliability of the system and fast pro-tection from faults. The Solid State Transformer (SST) and the Fault Isolation Device (FID) make for the core of the FREEDM system and have huge investment costs.

Some key features of the FREEDM system include improved power flow control, compact design and unity power factor operation. Customers may observe a reduction in the electricity bill by a certain fraction for using renewable sources of generation. There is also a possibility of huge subsidies given to encourage use of renewable energy. This thesis is an attempt to quantify the benefits offered by the FREEDM system in monetary terms and to calculate the time in years required to gain a return on investments made. The elevated cost of FIDs needs to be justified by the advantages they offer. The result of different rates of interest and how they influence the payback period is also studied. The payback periods calculated are observed for viability. A comparison is made between the active power losses on a certain distribution feeder that makes use of distribution level magnetic transformers versus one that makes use of SSTs. The reduction in the annual active power losses in the case of the feeder using SSTs is translated onto annual savings in terms of cost when compared to the conventional case with magnetic transformers. Since the FREEDM system encourages operation at unity power factor, the need for installing capacitor banks for improving the power factor is eliminated and this re-flects in savings in terms of cost. The FREEDM system offers enhanced reliability when compared to a conventional system. The payback periods observed support the concept of introducing the FREEDM system.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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A study of energy management systems and its failure modes in smart grid power distribution

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The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system

The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use.

In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique.

The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be the best method to detect bad data. An H-infinity robust control technique was applied for the first time to design discrete EMS controller for the FREEDM system.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Model development and analysis of distribution feeders with high penetration of PV generation resources

Description

An increase in the number of inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) generators on existing distribution feeders affects the design, operation, and control of the distri- bution systems. Existing distribution system analysis tools

An increase in the number of inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) generators on existing distribution feeders affects the design, operation, and control of the distri- bution systems. Existing distribution system analysis tools are capable of supporting only snapshot and quasi-static analyses. Capturing the dynamic effects of the PV generators during the variation in the distribution system states is necessary when studying the effects of controller bandwidths, multiple voltage correction devices, and anti-islanding. This work explores the use of dynamic phasors and differential algebraic equations (DAE) for impact analysis of the PV generators on the existing distribution feeders.

The voltage unbalance induced by PV generators can aggravate the existing unbalance due to load mismatch. An increased phase unbalance significantly adds to the neutral currents, excessive neutral to ground voltages and violate the standards for unbalance factor. The objective of this study is to analyze and quantify the impacts of unbalanced PV installations on a distribution feeder. Additionally, a power electronic converter solution is proposed to mitigate the identified impacts and validate the solution's effectiveness through detailed simulations in OpenDSS.

The benefits associated with the use of energy storage systems for electric- utility-related applications are also studied. This research provides a generalized framework for strategic deployment of a lithium-ion based energy storage system to increase their benefits in a distribution feeder. A significant amount of work has been performed for a detailed characterization of the life cycle costs of an energy storage system. The objectives include - reduction of the substation transformer losses, reduction of the life cycle cost for an energy storage system, and accommodate the PV variability.

The distribution feeder laterals in the distribution feeder with relatively high PV generation as compared to the load can be operated as microgrids to achieve reliability, power quality and economic benefits. However, the renewable resources are intermittent and stochastic in nature. A novel approach for sizing and scheduling the energy storage system and microtrubine is proposed for reliable operation of microgrids. The size and schedule of the energy storage system and microturbine are determined using Benders' decomposition, considering the PV generation as a stochastic resource.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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An innovative method for evaluating power distribution system reliability

Description

The reliability assessment of future distribution networks is an important issue in power engineering for both utilities and customers. This is due to the increasing demand for more reliable service

The reliability assessment of future distribution networks is an important issue in power engineering for both utilities and customers. This is due to the increasing demand for more reliable service with less interruption frequency and duration. This research consists of two main parts related to the evaluation of the future distribution system reliability. An innovative algorithm named the encoded Markov cut set (EMCS) is proposed to evaluate the reliability of the networked power distribution system. The proposed algorithm is based on the identification of circuit minimal tie sets using the concept of Petri nets. Prime number encoding and unique prime factorization are then utilized to add more flexibility in communicating between the systems states, and to classify the states as tie sets, cut sets, or minimal cut sets. Different reduction and truncation techniques are proposed to reduce the size of the state space. The Markov model is used to compute the availability, mean time to failure, and failure frequency of the network. A well-known Test Bed is used to illustrate the analysis (the Roy Billinton test system (RBTS)), and different load and system reliability indices are calculated. The method shown is algorithmic and appears suitable for off-line comparison of alternative secondary distribution system designs on the basis of their reliability. The second part assesses the impact of the conventional and renewable distributed generation (DG) on the reliability of the future distribution system. This takes into account the variability of the power output of the renewable DG, such as wind and solar DGs, and the chronological nature of the load demand. The stochastic nature of the renewable resources and its influence on the reliability of the system are modeled and studied by computing the adequacy transition rate. Then, an integrated Markov model that incorporates the DG adequacy transition rate, DG mechanical failure, and starting and switching probability is proposed and utilized to give accurate results for the DG reliability impact. The main focus in this research is the conventional, solar, and wind DG units. However, the technique used appears to be applicable to any renewable energy source.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Distribution system modeling, analysis and design with high penetration of photovoltaic generation

Description

Present distribution infrastructure is designed mainly for uni-directional power flow with well-controlled generation. An increase in the inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems requires a thorough re-examination of the design, operation, protection

Present distribution infrastructure is designed mainly for uni-directional power flow with well-controlled generation. An increase in the inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems requires a thorough re-examination of the design, operation, protection and control of distribution systems. In order to understand the impact of high penetration of PV generation, this work conducts an automated and detailed modeling of a power distribution system. The simulation results of the modeled distribution feeder have been verified with the field measurements.

Based on the feeder model, this work studies the impact of the PV systems on voltage profiles under various scenarios, including reallocation of the PV systems, reactive power support from the PV inverters, and settings of the load-tap changing transformers in coordination with the PV penetration. Design recommendations have been made based on the simulation results to improve the voltage profiles in the feeder studied.

To carry out dynamic studies related to high penetration of PV systems, this work proposes a differential algebraic equation (DAE) based dynamic modeling and analysis method. Different controllers including inverter current controllers, anti-islanding controllers and droop controllers, are designed and tested in large systems. The method extends the capability of the distribution system analysis tools, to help conduct dynamic analyses in large unbalanced distribution systems.

Another main contribution of this work is related to the investigation of the PV impacts on the feeder protection coordination. Various protection coordination types, including fuse-fuse, recloser-fuse, relay-fuse and relay-recloser have been studied. The analyses provide a better understanding of the relay and recloser settings under different configurations of the PV interconnection transformers, PV penetration levels, and fault types.

A decision tree and fuzzy logic based fault location identification process has also been proposed in this work. The process is composed of the off-line training of the decision tree, and the on-line analysis of the fault events. Fault current contribution from the PV systems, as well as the variation of the fault resistance have been taken into consideration. Two actual fault cases with the event data recorded were used to examine the effectiveness of the fault identification process.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Transmission expansion planning with large scale renewable resource integration

Description

Due to economic and environmental reasons, several states in the United States of America have a mandated renewable portfolio standard which requires that a certain percentage of the load served

Due to economic and environmental reasons, several states in the United States of America have a mandated renewable portfolio standard which requires that a certain percentage of the load served has to be met by renewable resources of energy such as solar, wind and biomass. Renewable resources provide energy at a low variable cost and produce less greenhouse gases as compared to conventional generators. However, some of the complex issues with renewable resource integration are due to their intermittent and non-dispatchable characteristics. Furthermore, most renewable resources are location constrained and are usually located in regions with insufficient transmission facilities. In order to deal with the challenges presented by renewable resources as compared to conventional resources, the transmission network expansion planning procedures need to be modified. New high voltage lines need to be constructed to connect the remote renewable resources to the existing transmission network to serve the load centers. Moreover, the existing transmission facilities may need to be reinforced to accommodate the large scale penetration of renewable resource. This thesis proposes a methodology for transmission expansion planning with large-scale integration of renewable resources, mainly solar and wind generation. An optimization model is used to determine the lines to be constructed or upgraded for several scenarios of varying levels of renewable resource penetration. The various scenarios to be considered are obtained from a production cost model that analyses the effects that renewable resources have on the transmission network over the planning horizon. A realistic test bed was created using the data for solar and wind resource penetration in the state of Arizona. The results of the production cost model and the optimization model were subjected to tests to ensure that the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) mandated N-1 contingency criterion is satisfied. Furthermore, a cost versus benefit analysis was performed to ensure that the proposed transmission plan is economically beneficial.

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Date Created
  • 2012