Matching Items (31)

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Detection of cyber attacks in power distribution energy management systems

Description

The objective of this thesis is to detect certain cyber attacks in a power distribution ener-gy management system in a Smart Grid infrastructure. In the Smart Grid, signals are sent

The objective of this thesis is to detect certain cyber attacks in a power distribution ener-gy management system in a Smart Grid infrastructure. In the Smart Grid, signals are sent be-tween the distribution operator and the customer on a real-time basis. Signals are used for auto-mated energy management, protection and energy metering. This thesis aims at making use of various signals in the system to detect cyber attacks. The focus of the thesis is on a cyber attack that changes the parameters of the energy management system. The attacks considered change the set points, thresholds for energy management decisions, signal multipliers, and other digitally stored parameters that ultimately determine the transfer functions of the components. Since the distribution energy management system is assumed to be in a Smart Grid infrastructure, customer demand is elastic to the price of energy. The energy pricing is represented by a distribution loca-tional marginal price. A closed loop control system is utilized as representative of the energy management system. Each element of the system is represented by a linear transfer function. Studies are done via simulations and these simulations are performed in Matlab SimuLink. The analytical calculations are done using Matlab.

Signals from the system are used to obtain the frequency response of the component transfer functions. The magnitude and phase angle of the transfer functions are obtained using the fast Fourier transform. The transfer function phase angles of base cases (no attack) are stored and are compared with the phase angles calculated at regular time intervals. If the difference in the phase characteristics is greater than a set threshold, an alarm is issued indicating the detection of a cyber attack.

The developed algorithm is designed for use in the envisioned Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Examples are shown for the noise free and noisy cases.

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  • 2014

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Novel directional protection sheme for the FREEDM smart grid system

Description

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Implementation of pilot protection system for large scale distribution system like the future renewable electric energy distribution management project

Description

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with the 10 sample average window pilot protection system and the effects of CT saturation on the pilot protection system are also shown in this thesis. The implementation of the 10 sample average window pilot protection system is done to multiple distribution grids like Green Hub v4.3, IEEE 34, LSSS loop and modified LSSS loop. Case studies of these multi-terminal model are presented, and the results are also shown in this thesis. The result obtained shows that the new algorithm for the previously proposed protection system successfully identifies fault on the test bed and the results for both hardware and software simulations match and the response time is approximately less than quarter of a cycle which is fast as compared to the present commercial protection system and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement.

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  • 2014

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Modeling of solid state transformer for the FREEDM system demonstration

Description

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL)

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Dynamic loading of substation distribution transformers: an application for use in a production grade environment

Description

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending the life of this critical and costly equipment for the purpose of maximizing profits. Optimal utilization of a transformer can be achieved through the use of dynamic loading. A benefit of dynamic loading is that it allows better utilization of the transformer capacity, thus increasing the flexibility and reliability of the power system. This document presents the progress on a software application which can estimate the maximum time-varying loading capability of transformers. This information can be used to load devices closer to their limits without exceeding the manufacturer specified operating limits. The maximally efficient dynamic loading of transformers requires a model that can accurately predict both top-oil temperatures (TOTs) and hottest-spot temperatures (HSTs). In the previous work, two kinds of thermal TOT and HST models have been studied and used in the application: the IEEE TOT/HST models and the ASU TOT/HST models. And, several metrics have been applied to evaluate the model acceptability and determine the most appropriate models for using in the dynamic loading calculations. In this work, an investigation to improve the existing transformer thermal models performance is presented. Some factors that may affect the model performance such as improper fan status and the error caused by the poor performance of IEEE models are discussed. Additional methods to determine the reliability of transformer thermal models using metrics such as time constant and the model parameters are also provided. A new production grade application for real-time dynamic loading operating purpose is introduced. This application is developed by using an existing planning application, TTeMP, as a start point, which is designed for the dispatchers and load specialists. To overcome the limitations of TTeMP, the new application can perform dynamic loading under emergency conditions, such as loss-of transformer loading. It also has the capability to determine the emergency rating of the transformers for a real-time estimation.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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A cost to benefit analysis of a next generation electric power distribution system

Description

This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of

This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources onto the grid, it becomes necessary to have an infrastructure that allows for easy integration of these resources coupled with features like enhanced reliability of the system and fast pro-tection from faults. The Solid State Transformer (SST) and the Fault Isolation Device (FID) make for the core of the FREEDM system and have huge investment costs.

Some key features of the FREEDM system include improved power flow control, compact design and unity power factor operation. Customers may observe a reduction in the electricity bill by a certain fraction for using renewable sources of generation. There is also a possibility of huge subsidies given to encourage use of renewable energy. This thesis is an attempt to quantify the benefits offered by the FREEDM system in monetary terms and to calculate the time in years required to gain a return on investments made. The elevated cost of FIDs needs to be justified by the advantages they offer. The result of different rates of interest and how they influence the payback period is also studied. The payback periods calculated are observed for viability. A comparison is made between the active power losses on a certain distribution feeder that makes use of distribution level magnetic transformers versus one that makes use of SSTs. The reduction in the annual active power losses in the case of the feeder using SSTs is translated onto annual savings in terms of cost when compared to the conventional case with magnetic transformers. Since the FREEDM system encourages operation at unity power factor, the need for installing capacitor banks for improving the power factor is eliminated and this re-flects in savings in terms of cost. The FREEDM system offers enhanced reliability when compared to a conventional system. The payback periods observed support the concept of introducing the FREEDM system.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Development of software for calculating electromagnetic fields near high-voltage power lines

Description

The electromagnetic fields near power lines that may produce adverse effects on humans are of increasing interest in a variety of situations, thus making it worthwhile to develop general-purpose software

The electromagnetic fields near power lines that may produce adverse effects on humans are of increasing interest in a variety of situations, thus making it worthwhile to develop general-purpose software that estimates both the electric and magnetic fields accurately. This study deals with the simulations of the electric and magnetic fields near high-voltage power lines for the triangular, horizontal and vertical conductor arrangements under both balanced and unbalanced conditions.

For all three conductor arrangements, the shapes of the electric field distribution curves are different with the vertical arrangement best for minimizing right of way consideration, while the shapes of the magnetic field distributions curves are similar. Except for the horizontal arrangement, the maximum electric field magnitudes with shield conductors are larger than those without shield conductors. Among the three different arrangements, the maximum field value of the vertical arrangement is most vulnerable to the unbalanced conditions.

For both the electric and magnetic fields, increasing the heights of phase conductors gradually results in diminishing return in terms of the field reduction. In this work, both the maximum electric field magnitudes and the maximum magnetic field magnitudes produced by 500 kV power lines at 1 m height from the ground are all within the permissible exposure levels for the general public. At last, the dynamic trajectories of both fields with time are simulated and interpreted, with each field represented by a vector rotating in a plane describing an ellipse, where the vector values can be compared to high-speed vector measurements.

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Date Created
  • 2015

Effect of various holomorphic embeddings on convergence rate and condition number as applied to the power flow problem

Description

Power flow calculation plays a significant role in power system studies and operation. To ensure the reliable prediction of system states during planning studies and in the operating environment, a

Power flow calculation plays a significant role in power system studies and operation. To ensure the reliable prediction of system states during planning studies and in the operating environment, a reliable power flow algorithm is desired. However, the traditional power flow methods (such as the Gauss Seidel method and the Newton-Raphson method) are not guaranteed to obtain a converged solution when the system is heavily loaded.

This thesis describes a novel non-iterative holomorphic embedding (HE) method to solve the power flow problem that eliminates the convergence issues and the uncertainty of the existence of the solution. It is guaranteed to find a converged solution if the solution exists, and will signal by an oscillation of the result if there is no solution exists. Furthermore, it does not require a guess of the initial voltage solution.

By embedding the complex-valued parameter α into the voltage function, the power balance equations become holomorphic functions. Then the embedded voltage functions are expanded as a Maclaurin power series, V(α). The diagonal Padé approximant calculated from V(α) gives the maximal analytic continuation of V(α), and produces a reliable solution of voltages. The connection between mathematical theory and its application to power flow calculation is described in detail.

With the existing bus-type-switching routine, the models of phase shifters and three-winding transformers are proposed to enable the HE algorithm to solve practical large-scale systems. Additionally, sparsity techniques are used to store the sparse bus admittance matrix. The modified HE algorithm is programmed in MATLAB. A study parameter β is introduced in the embedding formula βα + (1- β)α^2. By varying the value of β, numerical tests of different embedding formulae are conducted on the three-bus, IEEE 14-bus, 118-bus, 300-bus, and the ERCOT systems, and the numerical performance as a function of β is analyzed to determine the “best” embedding formula. The obtained power-flow solutions are validated using MATPOWER.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Design and development of protection schemes for FREEDM smart grid systems

Description

This research work describes the design and validation of protection schemes developed to solve the problem of communication with an ability to detect and sectionalize the fault. Protection schemes have

This research work describes the design and validation of protection schemes developed to solve the problem of communication with an ability to detect and sectionalize the fault. Protection schemes have been designed according to the requirements of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Due to the presence of distributed generation (DG), power flow in the loop is bi-directional and conventional protection schemes may face the problem of unwanted tripping. Hence customized protection schemes have been developed specific to the FREEDM system. Former FREEDM students at ASU have developed ultrafast pilot differential protection using fast analog communication (Ethercat communication) and modified it in various ways to speed up the fault detecting capability of the algorithm. However, the National Science Foundation (NSF) criticized the use of Ethernet communication, as it is not compatible for long distances. FREEDM loop uses a fault current limiter (FCL) to limit the fault current and the substation solid state transformer (SST) reduces the system voltage to limit the fault current to 2 per unit. This allows the protection scheme to detect fault current in 2-3 cycles. However a much delayed fault detection is not encouraged as it will disrupt the power supply to healthy parts of the system for a longer duration. Time inverse directional overcurrent protection, pilot directional protection and PMU based protection are developed in this thesis work addressing the communication problem and at the same time with the ability to quickly detect the faults. Validation of the protection scheme is performed on the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) at the Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) using SEL relays and simulation models are developed in PSCAD.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Electromagnetic transient and electromechanical transient stability hybrid simulation: design, development and its applications

Description

Two significant trends of recent power system evolution are: (1) increasing installa-tion of dynamic loads and distributed generation resources in distribution systems; (2) large-scale renewable energy integration at the transmission

Two significant trends of recent power system evolution are: (1) increasing installa-tion of dynamic loads and distributed generation resources in distribution systems; (2) large-scale renewable energy integration at the transmission system level. A majority of these devices interface with power systems through power electronic converters. However, existing transient stability (TS) simulators are inadequate to represent the dynamic behavior of these devices accurately. On the other hand, simulating a large system using an electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulator is computationally impractical. EMT-TS hybrid simulation approach is an alternative to address these challenges. Furthermore, to thoroughly analyze the increased interactions among the transmission and distribution systems, an integrated modeling and simulation approach is essential.

The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part focuses on an improved hybrid simulation approach and software development. Compared to the previous work, the pro-posed approach has three salient features: three-sequence TS simulation algorithm, three-phase/three-sequence network equivalencing and flexible switching of the serial and par-allel interaction protocols.

The second part of the thesis concentrates on the applications of the hybrid simula-tion tool. The developed platform is first applied to conduct a detailed fault-induced de-layed voltage recovery (FIDVR) study on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. This study uncovers that after a normally cleared single line to ground fault at the transmission system could cause air conditioner motors to stall in the distribu-tion systems, and the motor stalling could further propagate to an unfaulted phase under certain conditions. The developed tool is also applied to simulate power systems inter-faced with HVDC systems, including classical HVDC and the new generation voltage source converter (VSC)-HVDC system.

The third part centers on the development of integrated transmission and distribution system simulation and an advanced hybrid simulation algorithm with a capability of switching from hybrid simulation mode to TS simulation. Firstly, a modeling framework suitable for integrated transmission and distribution systems is proposed. Secondly, a power flow algorithm and a diakoptics based dynamic simulation algorithm for the integrated transmission and distribution system are developed. Lastly, the EMT-TS hybrid simulation algorithm is combined with the diakoptics based dynamic simulation algorithm to realize flexible simulation mode switching to increase the simulation efficiency.

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Date Created
  • 2016