Matching Items (31)

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An innovative method for evaluating power distribution system reliability

Description

The reliability assessment of future distribution networks is an important issue in power engineering for both utilities and customers. This is due to the increasing demand for more reliable service with less interruption frequency and duration. This research consists of

The reliability assessment of future distribution networks is an important issue in power engineering for both utilities and customers. This is due to the increasing demand for more reliable service with less interruption frequency and duration. This research consists of two main parts related to the evaluation of the future distribution system reliability. An innovative algorithm named the encoded Markov cut set (EMCS) is proposed to evaluate the reliability of the networked power distribution system. The proposed algorithm is based on the identification of circuit minimal tie sets using the concept of Petri nets. Prime number encoding and unique prime factorization are then utilized to add more flexibility in communicating between the systems states, and to classify the states as tie sets, cut sets, or minimal cut sets. Different reduction and truncation techniques are proposed to reduce the size of the state space. The Markov model is used to compute the availability, mean time to failure, and failure frequency of the network. A well-known Test Bed is used to illustrate the analysis (the Roy Billinton test system (RBTS)), and different load and system reliability indices are calculated. The method shown is algorithmic and appears suitable for off-line comparison of alternative secondary distribution system designs on the basis of their reliability. The second part assesses the impact of the conventional and renewable distributed generation (DG) on the reliability of the future distribution system. This takes into account the variability of the power output of the renewable DG, such as wind and solar DGs, and the chronological nature of the load demand. The stochastic nature of the renewable resources and its influence on the reliability of the system are modeled and studied by computing the adequacy transition rate. Then, an integrated Markov model that incorporates the DG adequacy transition rate, DG mechanical failure, and starting and switching probability is proposed and utilized to give accurate results for the DG reliability impact. The main focus in this research is the conventional, solar, and wind DG units. However, the technique used appears to be applicable to any renewable energy source.

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2012

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Modeling of solid state transformer for the FREEDM system demonstration

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The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

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2014

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Novel directional protection sheme for the FREEDM smart grid system

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This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

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2015

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Distribution system modeling, analysis and design with high penetration of photovoltaic generation

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Present distribution infrastructure is designed mainly for uni-directional power flow with well-controlled generation. An increase in the inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems requires a thorough re-examination of the design, operation, protection and control of distribution systems. In order to understand the

Present distribution infrastructure is designed mainly for uni-directional power flow with well-controlled generation. An increase in the inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems requires a thorough re-examination of the design, operation, protection and control of distribution systems. In order to understand the impact of high penetration of PV generation, this work conducts an automated and detailed modeling of a power distribution system. The simulation results of the modeled distribution feeder have been verified with the field measurements.

Based on the feeder model, this work studies the impact of the PV systems on voltage profiles under various scenarios, including reallocation of the PV systems, reactive power support from the PV inverters, and settings of the load-tap changing transformers in coordination with the PV penetration. Design recommendations have been made based on the simulation results to improve the voltage profiles in the feeder studied.

To carry out dynamic studies related to high penetration of PV systems, this work proposes a differential algebraic equation (DAE) based dynamic modeling and analysis method. Different controllers including inverter current controllers, anti-islanding controllers and droop controllers, are designed and tested in large systems. The method extends the capability of the distribution system analysis tools, to help conduct dynamic analyses in large unbalanced distribution systems.

Another main contribution of this work is related to the investigation of the PV impacts on the feeder protection coordination. Various protection coordination types, including fuse-fuse, recloser-fuse, relay-fuse and relay-recloser have been studied. The analyses provide a better understanding of the relay and recloser settings under different configurations of the PV interconnection transformers, PV penetration levels, and fault types.

A decision tree and fuzzy logic based fault location identification process has also been proposed in this work. The process is composed of the off-line training of the decision tree, and the on-line analysis of the fault events. Fault current contribution from the PV systems, as well as the variation of the fault resistance have been taken into consideration. Two actual fault cases with the event data recorded were used to examine the effectiveness of the fault identification process.

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2016

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A cost to benefit analysis of a next generation electric power distribution system

Description

This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources onto the grid, it becomes necessary to

This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources onto the grid, it becomes necessary to have an infrastructure that allows for easy integration of these resources coupled with features like enhanced reliability of the system and fast pro-tection from faults. The Solid State Transformer (SST) and the Fault Isolation Device (FID) make for the core of the FREEDM system and have huge investment costs.

Some key features of the FREEDM system include improved power flow control, compact design and unity power factor operation. Customers may observe a reduction in the electricity bill by a certain fraction for using renewable sources of generation. There is also a possibility of huge subsidies given to encourage use of renewable energy. This thesis is an attempt to quantify the benefits offered by the FREEDM system in monetary terms and to calculate the time in years required to gain a return on investments made. The elevated cost of FIDs needs to be justified by the advantages they offer. The result of different rates of interest and how they influence the payback period is also studied. The payback periods calculated are observed for viability. A comparison is made between the active power losses on a certain distribution feeder that makes use of distribution level magnetic transformers versus one that makes use of SSTs. The reduction in the annual active power losses in the case of the feeder using SSTs is translated onto annual savings in terms of cost when compared to the conventional case with magnetic transformers. Since the FREEDM system encourages operation at unity power factor, the need for installing capacitor banks for improving the power factor is eliminated and this re-flects in savings in terms of cost. The FREEDM system offers enhanced reliability when compared to a conventional system. The payback periods observed support the concept of introducing the FREEDM system.

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2015

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Renewable energy penetration planning for remote power grid

Description

Power generation in remote isolated places is a tough problem. Presently, a common source for remote generation is diesel. However, diesel generation is costly and environmental unfriendly. It is promising to replace the diesel generation with some clean and economical

Power generation in remote isolated places is a tough problem. Presently, a common source for remote generation is diesel. However, diesel generation is costly and environmental unfriendly. It is promising to replace the diesel generation with some clean and economical generation sources. The concept of renewable generation offers a solution to remote generation. This thesis focuses on evaluation of renewable generation penetration in the remote isolated grid. A small town named Coober Pedy in South Australia is set as an example. The first task is to build the stochastic models of solar irradiation and wind speed based on the local historical data. With the stochastic models, generation fluctuations and generation planning are further discussed. Fluctuation analysis gives an evaluation of storage unit size and costs. Generation planning aims at finding the relationships between penetration level and costs under constraint of energy sufficiency. The results of this study provide the best penetration level that makes the minimum energy costs. In the case of Coober Pedy, cases of wind and photovoltaic penetrations are studied. The additional renewable sources and suspended diesel generation change the electricity costs. Results show that in remote isolated grid, compared to diesel generation, renewable generation can lower the energy costs.

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2012

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Applications and calculation of a distribution class locational marginal price

Description

This thesis presents an overview of the calculation and application of locational marginal prices in electric power systems particularly pertaining to the distribution system. The terminology proposed is a distribution locational marginal price or DLMP. The calculation of locational process

This thesis presents an overview of the calculation and application of locational marginal prices in electric power systems particularly pertaining to the distribution system. The terminology proposed is a distribution locational marginal price or DLMP. The calculation of locational process in distribution engineering is conjectured and discussed. The use of quadratic programming for this calculation is proposed and illustrated. A small four bus test bed exemplifies the concept and then the concept is expanded to the IEEE 34 bus distribution system. Alternatives for the calculation are presented, and approximations are reviewed. Active power losses in the system are modeled and incorporated by two different methods. These calculation methods are also applied to the 34 bus system. The results from each method are compared to results found using the PowerWorld simulator. The application of energy management using the DLMP to control load is analyzed as well. This analysis entails the use of the DLMP to cause certain controllable loads to decrease when the DLMP is high, and vice-versa. Tests are done to illustrate the impact of energy management using DLMPs for residential, commercial, and industrial controllable loads. Results showing the dynamics of the loads are shown. The use and characteristics of Matlab function FMINCON are presented in an appendix.

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2013

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Moving to a smart distribution grid through automatic dynamic loading of substation distribution transformers

Description

Dynamic loading is the term used for one way of optimally loading a transformer. Dynamic loading means the utility takes into account the thermal time constant of the transformer along with the cooling mode transitions, loading profile and ambient temperature

Dynamic loading is the term used for one way of optimally loading a transformer. Dynamic loading means the utility takes into account the thermal time constant of the transformer along with the cooling mode transitions, loading profile and ambient temperature when determining the time-varying loading capability of a transformer. Knowing the maximum dynamic loading rating can increase utilization of the transformer while not reducing life-expectancy, delaying the replacement of the transformer. This document presents the progress on the transformer dynamic loading project sponsored by Salt River Project (SRP). A software application which performs dynamic loading for substation distribution transformers with appropriate transformer thermal models is developed in this project. Two kinds of thermal hottest-spot temperature (HST) and top-oil temperature (TOT) models that will be used in the application--the ASU HST/TOT models and the ANSI models--are presented. Brief validations of the ASU models are presented, showing that the ASU models are accurate in simulating the thermal processes of the transformers. For this production grade application, both the ANSI and the ASU models are built and tested to select the most appropriate models to be used in the dynamic loading calculations. An existing application to build and select the TOT model was used as a starting point for the enhancements developed in this work. These enhancements include:  Adding the ability to develop HST models to the existing application,  Adding metrics to evaluate the models accuracy and selecting which model will be used in dynamic loading calculation  Adding the capability to perform dynamic loading calculations,  Production of a maximum dynamic load profile that the transformer can tolerate without acceleration of the insulation aging,  Provide suitable output (plots and text) for the results of the dynamic loading calculation. Other challenges discussed include: modification to the input data format, data-quality control, cooling mode estimation. Efforts to overcome these challenges are discussed in this work.

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2011

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Transmission expansion planning with large scale renewable resource integration

Description

Due to economic and environmental reasons, several states in the United States of America have a mandated renewable portfolio standard which requires that a certain percentage of the load served has to be met by renewable resources of energy such

Due to economic and environmental reasons, several states in the United States of America have a mandated renewable portfolio standard which requires that a certain percentage of the load served has to be met by renewable resources of energy such as solar, wind and biomass. Renewable resources provide energy at a low variable cost and produce less greenhouse gases as compared to conventional generators. However, some of the complex issues with renewable resource integration are due to their intermittent and non-dispatchable characteristics. Furthermore, most renewable resources are location constrained and are usually located in regions with insufficient transmission facilities. In order to deal with the challenges presented by renewable resources as compared to conventional resources, the transmission network expansion planning procedures need to be modified. New high voltage lines need to be constructed to connect the remote renewable resources to the existing transmission network to serve the load centers. Moreover, the existing transmission facilities may need to be reinforced to accommodate the large scale penetration of renewable resource. This thesis proposes a methodology for transmission expansion planning with large-scale integration of renewable resources, mainly solar and wind generation. An optimization model is used to determine the lines to be constructed or upgraded for several scenarios of varying levels of renewable resource penetration. The various scenarios to be considered are obtained from a production cost model that analyses the effects that renewable resources have on the transmission network over the planning horizon. A realistic test bed was created using the data for solar and wind resource penetration in the state of Arizona. The results of the production cost model and the optimization model were subjected to tests to ensure that the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) mandated N-1 contingency criterion is satisfied. Furthermore, a cost versus benefit analysis was performed to ensure that the proposed transmission plan is economically beneficial.

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Date Created
2012

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Design and development of a novel fast pilot protection system for future renewable electric energy distribution management project

Description

In the future electrical distribution system, it can be predicted that local power generators such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbines will play an important role in local distribution network. The local energy generation and local energy storage device can

In the future electrical distribution system, it can be predicted that local power generators such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbines will play an important role in local distribution network. The local energy generation and local energy storage device can cause indeterminable power flow, and this could cause severe protection problems to existing simple overcurrent coordinated distribution protection system. An accurate, fast and reliable protection system based on pilot protection concept is proposed in this thesis. A comprehensive protection design specialized for the FREEDM system - the intelligent fault management (IFM) is presented in detail. In IFM, the pilot-differential protective method is employed as primary protection while the overcurrent protective method is employed as a backup protection. The IFM has been implemented by a real time monitoring program on LabVIEW. A complete sensitivity and selectivity analysis based on simulation is performed to evaluate the protection program performance under various system operating conditions. Followed by the sensitivity analysis, a case study of multiple-terminal model is presented with the possible challenges and potential limitation of the proposed protection system. Furthermore, a micro controller based on a protection system as hardware implementation is studied on a scaled physical test bed. The communication block and signal processing block are accomplished to establish cooperation between the micro-controller hardware and the IFM program. Various fault cases are tested. The result obtained shows that the proposed protection system successfully identifies faults on the test bed and the response time is approximately 1 cycle which is fast compared to the existing commercial protection systems and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement. In the end, an advanced system with faster, dedicated communication media is accomplished. By verifying with the virtual FREEDM system on RTDS, the correctness and the advantages of the proposed method are verified. An ultra fast protection system response time of 4ms is achieved, which is the fastest protection system for a distribution level electrical system.

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2012