Matching Items (3)

158817-Thumbnail Image.png

Building Invariant, Robust And Stable Machine Learning Systems Using Geometry and Topology

Description

Over the past decade, machine learning research has made great strides and significant impact in several fields. Its success is greatly attributed to the development of effective machine learning algorithms

Over the past decade, machine learning research has made great strides and significant impact in several fields. Its success is greatly attributed to the development of effective machine learning algorithms like deep neural networks (a.k.a. deep learning), availability of large-scale databases and access to specialized hardware like Graphic Processing Units. When designing and training machine learning systems, researchers often assume access to large quantities of data that capture different possible variations. Variations in the data is needed to incorporate desired invariance and robustness properties in the machine learning system, especially in the case of deep learning algorithms. However, it is very difficult to gather such data in a real-world setting. For example, in certain medical/healthcare applications, it is very challenging to have access to data from all possible scenarios or with the necessary amount of variations as required to train the system. Additionally, the over-parameterized and unconstrained nature of deep neural networks can cause them to be poorly trained and in many cases over-confident which, in turn, can hamper their reliability and generalizability. This dissertation is a compendium of my research efforts to address the above challenges. I propose building invariant feature representations by wedding concepts from topological data analysis and Riemannian geometry, that automatically incorporate the desired invariance properties for different computer vision applications. I discuss how deep learning can be used to address some of the common challenges faced when working with topological data analysis methods. I describe alternative learning strategies based on unsupervised learning and transfer learning to address issues like dataset shifts and limited training data. Finally, I discuss my preliminary work on applying simple orthogonal constraints on deep learning feature representations to help develop more reliable and better calibrated models.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

149971-Thumbnail Image.png

The sensitivity of confirmatory factor analytic fit indices to violations of factorial invariance across latent classes: a simulation study

Description

Although the issue of factorial invariance has received increasing attention in the literature, the focus is typically on differences in factor structure across groups that are directly observed, such as

Although the issue of factorial invariance has received increasing attention in the literature, the focus is typically on differences in factor structure across groups that are directly observed, such as those denoted by sex or ethnicity. While establishing factorial invariance across observed groups is a requisite step in making meaningful cross-group comparisons, failure to attend to possible sources of latent class heterogeneity in the form of class-based differences in factor structure has the potential to compromise conclusions with respect to observed groups and may result in misguided attempts at instrument development and theory refinement. The present studies examined the sensitivity of two widely used confirmatory factor analytic model fit indices, the chi-square test of model fit and RMSEA, to latent class differences in factor structure. Two primary questions were addressed. The first of these concerned the impact of latent class differences in factor loadings with respect to model fit in a single sample reflecting a mixture of classes. The second question concerned the impact of latent class differences in configural structure on tests of factorial invariance across observed groups. The results suggest that both indices are highly insensitive to class-based differences in factor loadings. Across sample size conditions, models with medium (0.2) sized loading differences were rejected by the chi-square test of model fit at rates just slightly higher than the nominal .05 rate of rejection that would be expected under a true null hypothesis. While rates of rejection increased somewhat when the magnitude of loading difference increased, even the largest sample size with equal class representation and the most extreme violations of loading invariance only had rejection rates of approximately 60%. RMSEA was also insensitive to class-based differences in factor loadings, with mean values across conditions suggesting a degree of fit that would generally be regarded as exceptionally good in practice. In contrast, both indices were sensitive to class-based differences in configural structure in the context of a multiple group analysis in which each observed group was a mixture of classes. However, preliminary evidence suggests that this sensitivity may contingent on the form of the cross-group model misspecification.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

157645-Thumbnail Image.png

Structured disentangling networks for learning deformation invariant latent spaces

Description

Disentangling latent spaces is an important research direction in the interpretability of unsupervised machine learning. Several recent works using deep learning are very effective at producing disentangled representations. However,

Disentangling latent spaces is an important research direction in the interpretability of unsupervised machine learning. Several recent works using deep learning are very effective at producing disentangled representations. However, in the unsupervised setting, there is no way to pre-specify which part of the latent space captures specific factors of variations. While this is generally a hard problem because of the non-existence of analytical expressions to capture these variations, there are certain factors like geometric

transforms that can be expressed analytically. Furthermore, in existing frameworks, the disentangled values are also not interpretable. The focus of this work is to disentangle these geometric factors of variations (which turn out to be nuisance factors for many applications) from the semantic content of the signal in an interpretable manner which in turn makes the features more discriminative. Experiments are designed to show the modularity of the approach with other disentangling strategies as well as on multiple one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) datasets, clearly indicating the efficacy of the proposed approach.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019