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School-oriented development: a new paradigm for neighborhood planning

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Many school facility-planning theories have proposed an integrated role for schools within their surrounding neighborhood, advocating analogous approaches to creating "community schools" that involve social and community services at school sites that support both students and local residents. Despite the

Many school facility-planning theories have proposed an integrated role for schools within their surrounding neighborhood, advocating analogous approaches to creating "community schools" that involve social and community services at school sites that support both students and local residents. Despite the popularity of this concept in the education community, the idea of schools as community centers has not entered the mainstream of urban planning thought or practice. As the community schools movement continues to grow, planners should be engaged to support and leverage community school developments using their unique role as mediators of public and private interests. Furthermore, planners tend to have a broad perspective of communities that can facilitate synergistic partnerships and development patterns beyond the immediate school site. The aim of this research was to reframe the existing literature on community schools into a unified School-Oriented Development (SOD) neighborhood planning paradigm that 1) proposes a typology based on the relationships between schools and their surrounding communities, and 2) suggests urban form guidelines that will support these relationships in a child-friendly environment. These outcomes were achieved through the creation of a prototype SOD SmartCode Module that incorporates an SOD typology.

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2011

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A longitudinal study of the post-occupancy energy performance of K-12 school buildings in Arizona

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Energy performance and efficiency plays of major role in the operations of K-12 schools, as it is a significant expense and a source of budgetary pressure upon schools. Energy performance is tied to the physical infrastructure of schools, as well

Energy performance and efficiency plays of major role in the operations of K-12 schools, as it is a significant expense and a source of budgetary pressure upon schools. Energy performance is tied to the physical infrastructure of schools, as well as the operational and behavioral patterns they accommodate. Little documentation exists within the existing literature on the measured post-occupancy performance of schools once they have begun measuring and tracking their energy performance. Further, little is known about the patterns of change over time in regard to energy performance and whether there is differentiation in these patterns between school districts.

This paper examines the annual Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of 28 different K-12 schools within the Phoenix Metropolitan Region of Arizona over the span of five years and presents an analysis of changes in energy performance resulting from the measurement of energy use in K-12 schools. This paper also analyzes the patterns of change in energy use over time and provides a comparison of these patterns by school district.

An analysis of the energy performance data for the selected schools revealed a significant positive impact on the ability for schools to improve their energy performance through ongoing performance measurement. However, while schools tend to be able to make energy improvements through the implementation of energy measurement and performance tracking, deviation may exist in their ability to maintain ongoing energy performance over time. The results suggest that implementation of ongoing measurement is likely to produce positive impacts on the energy performance of schools, however further research is recommended to enhance and refine these results.

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2015