Matching Items (5)

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Advances in Motion Estimators for Applications in Computer Vision

Description

Motion estimation is a core task in computer vision and many applications utilize optical flow methods as fundamental tools to analyze motion in images and videos. Optical flow is the

Motion estimation is a core task in computer vision and many applications utilize optical flow methods as fundamental tools to analyze motion in images and videos. Optical flow is the apparent motion of objects in image sequences that results from relative motion between the objects and the imaging perspective. Today, optical flow fields are utilized to solve problems in various areas such as object detection and tracking, interpolation, visual odometry, etc. In this dissertation, three problems from different areas of computer vision and the solutions that make use of modified optical flow methods are explained.

The contributions of this dissertation are approaches and frameworks that introduce i) a new optical flow-based interpolation method to achieve minimally divergent velocimetry data, ii) a framework that improves the accuracy of change detection algorithms in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and iii) a set of new methods to integrate Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRSI) data into threedimensional (3D) neuronavigation systems for tumor biopsies.

In the first application an optical flow-based approach for the interpolation of minimally divergent velocimetry data is proposed. The velocimetry data of incompressible fluids contain signals that describe the flow velocity. The approach uses the additional flow velocity information to guide the interpolation process towards reduced divergence in the interpolated data.

In the second application a framework that mainly consists of optical flow methods and other image processing and computer vision techniques to improve object extraction from synthetic aperture radar images is proposed. The proposed framework is used for distinguishing between actual motion and detected motion due to misregistration in SAR image sets and it can lead to more accurate and meaningful change detection and improve object extraction from a SAR datasets.

In the third application a set of new methods that aim to improve upon the current state-of-the-art in neuronavigation through the use of detailed three-dimensional (3D) 1H-MRSI data are proposed. The result is a progressive form of online MRSI-guided neuronavigation that is demonstrated through phantom validation and clinical application.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Spatial and multi-temporal visual change detection with application to SAR image analysis

Description

Thousands of high-resolution images are generated each day. Detecting and analyzing variations in these images are key steps in image understanding. This work focuses on spatial and multitemporal

visual change detection

Thousands of high-resolution images are generated each day. Detecting and analyzing variations in these images are key steps in image understanding. This work focuses on spatial and multitemporal

visual change detection and its applications in multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images.

The Canny edge detector is one of the most widely-used edge detection algorithms due to its superior performance in terms of SNR and edge localization and only one response to a single edge. In this work, we propose a mechanism to implement the Canny algorithm at the block level without any loss in edge detection performance as compared to the original frame-level Canny algorithm. The resulting block-based algorithm has significantly reduced memory requirements and can achieve a significantly reduced latency. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can be easily integrated with other block-based image processing systems. In addition, quantitative evaluations and subjective tests show that the edge detection performance of the proposed algorithm is better than the original frame-based algorithm, especially when noise is present in the images.

In the context of multi-temporal SAR images for earth monitoring applications, one critical issue is the detection of changes occurring after a natural or anthropic disaster. In this work, we propose a novel similarity measure for automatic change detection using a pair of SAR images

acquired at different times and apply it in both the spatial and wavelet domains. This measure is based on the evolution of the local statistics of the image between two dates. The local statistics are modeled as a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), which is more suitable and flexible to approximate the local distribution of the SAR image with distinct land-cover typologies. Tests on real datasets show that the proposed detectors outperform existing methods in terms of the quality of the similarity maps, which are assessed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and in terms of the total error rates of the final change detection maps. Furthermore, we proposed a new

similarity measure for automatic change detection based on a divisive normalization transform in order to reduce the computation complexity. Tests show that our proposed DNT-based change detector

exhibits competitive detection performance while achieving lower computational complexity as compared to previously suggested methods.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Recent techniques for regularization in partial differential equations and imaging

Description

Inverse problems model real world phenomena from data, where the data are often noisy and models contain errors. This leads to instabilities, multiple solution vectors and thus ill-posedness. To solve

Inverse problems model real world phenomena from data, where the data are often noisy and models contain errors. This leads to instabilities, multiple solution vectors and thus ill-posedness. To solve ill-posed inverse problems, regularization is typically used as a penalty function to induce stability and allow for the incorporation of a priori information about the desired solution. In this thesis, high order regularization techniques are developed for image and function reconstruction from noisy or misleading data. Specifically the incorporation of the Polynomial Annihilation operator allows for the accurate exploitation of the sparse representation of each function in the edge domain.

This dissertation tackles three main problems through the development of novel reconstruction techniques: (i) reconstructing one and two dimensional functions from multiple measurement vectors using variance based joint sparsity when a subset of the measurements contain false and/or misleading information, (ii) approximating discontinuous solutions to hyperbolic partial differential equations by enhancing typical solvers with l1 regularization, and (iii) reducing model assumptions in synthetic aperture radar image formation, specifically for the purpose of speckle reduction and phase error correction. While the common thread tying these problems together is the use of high order regularization, the defining characteristics of each of these problems create unique challenges.

Fast and robust numerical algorithms are also developed so that these problems can be solved efficiently without requiring fine tuning of parameters. Indeed, the numerical experiments presented in this dissertation strongly suggest that the new methodology provides more accurate and robust solutions to a variety of ill-posed inverse problems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Terahertz Holography for Non-line of Sight Imaging

Description

The objective of this work is to design a novel method for imaging targets and scenes which are not directly visible to the observer. The unique scattering properties of terahertz

The objective of this work is to design a novel method for imaging targets and scenes which are not directly visible to the observer. The unique scattering properties of terahertz (THz) waves can turn most building surfaces into mirrors, thus allowing someone to see around corners and various occlusions. In the visible regime, most surfaces are very rough compared to the wavelength. As a result, the spatial coherency of reflected signals is lost, and the geometry of the objects where the light bounced on cannot be retrieved. Interestingly, the roughness of most surfaces is comparable to the wavelengths at lower frequencies (100 GHz – 10 THz) without significantly disturbing the wavefront of the scattered signals, behaving approximately as mirrors. Additionally, this electrically small roughness is beneficial because it can be used by the THz imaging system to locate the pose (location and orientation) of the mirror surfaces, thus enabling the reconstruction of both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) objects.

Back-propagation imaging methods are modified to reconstruct the image of the 2-D scenario (range, cross-range). The reflected signal from the target is collected using a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) set-up in a lab environment. This imaging technique is verified using both full-wave 3-D numerical analysis models and lab experiments.

The novel imaging approach of non-line-of-sight-imaging could enable novel applications in rescue and surveillance missions, highly accurate localization methods, and improve channel estimation in mmWave and sub-mmWave wireless communication systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Fractional focusing and the chirp scaling algorithm with real synthetic aperture radar data

Description

For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation processing, the chirp scaling algorithm (CSA) has gained considerable attention mainly because of its excellent target focusing ability, optimized processing steps, and ease

For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation processing, the chirp scaling algorithm (CSA) has gained considerable attention mainly because of its excellent target focusing ability, optimized processing steps, and ease of implementation. In particular, unlike the range Doppler and range migration algorithms, the CSA is easy to implement since it does not require interpolation, and it can be used on both stripmap and spotlight SAR systems. Another transform that can be used to enhance the processing of SAR image formation is the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). This transform has been recently introduced to the signal processing community, and it has shown many promising applications in the realm of SAR signal processing, specifically because of its close association to the Wigner distribution and ambiguity function. The objective of this work is to improve the application of the FRFT in order to enhance the implementation of the CSA for SAR processing. This will be achieved by processing real phase-history data from the RADARSAT-1 satellite, a multi-mode SAR platform operating in the C-band, providing imagery with resolution between 8 and 100 meters at incidence angles of 10 through 59 degrees. The phase-history data will be processed into imagery using the conventional chirp scaling algorithm. The results will then be compared using a new implementation of the CSA based on the use of the FRFT, combined with traditional SAR focusing techniques, to enhance the algorithm's focusing ability, thereby increasing the peak-to-sidelobe ratio of the focused targets. The FRFT can also be used to provide focusing enhancements at extended ranges.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011