Matching Items (3)

149897-Thumbnail Image.png

Development and evaluation of an intervention to increase sun protection in young women

Description

In the present research, two interventions were developed to increase sun protection in young women. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of intervention content eliciting strong emotional responses to visual images depicting photoaging and skin cancer,

In the present research, two interventions were developed to increase sun protection in young women. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of intervention content eliciting strong emotional responses to visual images depicting photoaging and skin cancer, specifically fear and disgust, coupled with a message of self-efficacy and benefits of sun protection (the F intervention) with an intervention that did not contain an emotional arousal component (the E intervention). Further, these two intervention conditions were compared to a control condition that contained an emotional arousal component that elicited emotion unrelated to the threat of skin cancer or photoaging (the C control condition). A longitudinal study design was employed, to examine the effects of condition immediately following the intervention, and to examine sun protection behavior 2 weeks after the intervention. A total of 352 undergraduate women at Arizona State University were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions (F n = 148, E n = 73, C n = 131). Several psychosocial constructs, including benefits of sun protection, susceptibility to and severity of photoaging and sun exposure, self-efficacy beliefs of making sun protection a daily habit, and barriers to sun protection were measured before and immediately following the intervention. Sun protection behavior was measured two weeks later. Those in the full intervention reported higher self-efficacy and severity of photoaging at immediate posttest than those in the efficacy only and control conditions. The fit of several path models was tested to explore underlying mechanisms by which the intervention affected sun protection behavior. Experienced emotion, specifically fear and disgust, predicted susceptibility and severity, which in turn predicted anticipated regret of failing to use sun protection. The relationship between this overall threat component (experienced emotion, susceptibility, severity, and anticipated regret) and intentions to engage in sun protection behavior was mediated by benefits. The present research provided evidence of the effectiveness of threat specific emotional arousal coupled with a self-efficacy and benefits message in interventions to increase sun protection. Further, this research provided additional support for the inclusion of both experienced and anticipated emotion in models of health behavior.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

153020-Thumbnail Image.png

The effects of assisted cycle therapy on executive and motor functioning in young adult females with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Description

Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor function in this population. Whether or not changes in executive

Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor function in this population. Whether or not changes in executive and motor function are observed under assisted exercise conditions is unknown. This study examined the effect of a six-week cycling intervention on executive and motor-function responses in young adult females with ADHD. Participants were randomized to either a voluntary exercise (VE) or an assisted exercise (AE) group. Both groups performed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week, at either a voluntary or assisted rate, on a modified Theracycle Model 200 motorized stationary cycle ergometer. The Mann-Whitney U tests were used to detect median differences between groups, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to test median differences within groups. Executive function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in activation (MDNAE = 162 vs. MDNVE = 308, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79); planning (MDNAE = 51.0 vs. MDNAE = 40.5, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); attention (MDNAE = 13.0 vs. MDNVE = 10.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and working memory (MDNAE = 10.0 vs. MDNVE = 6.5, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79). Motor function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in manual dexterity (MDNAE = 18 vs. MDNVE = 15.8, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); bimanual coordination (MDNAE = 28.0 vs. MDNVE = 25.3, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and gross motor movements of the fingers, hands, and arms (MDNAE = 61.7 vs. MDNVE = 56.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77). Deficits in executive and motor functioning have been linked to lifelong social and psychological impairments in individuals with ADHD. Finding ways to improve functioning in these areas is important for cognitive, emotional and social stability. Compared to VE, AE is a more effective strategy for improving executive and motor functioning in young adult females with ADHD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

154388-Thumbnail Image.png

Preferred physical activity program characteristics by a Latina community

Description

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA) program characteristics preferred by low-income childbearing age Latinas and the relationship with the participants’ personal characteristics, cultural values, and acculturation. This was an exploratory study guided by the Preferences

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA) program characteristics preferred by low-income childbearing age Latinas and the relationship with the participants’ personal characteristics, cultural values, and acculturation. This was an exploratory study guided by the Preferences and Health Behavior Model (PaHBM), developed by this investigator. Recruitment occurred at three sites; two sites were located in Phoenix, AZ and one site was located in Houston, TX. Non pregnant Latinas between 18 to 35 years old were included (N=275). Latinas were excluded if they were pregnant, incarcerated, physically or mentally disabled, or had chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease). Quantitative data were collected using the Predictors and Preferences of Physical Activity Research Intervention Participation in an Underserved Latina Community Questionnaire, developed by this author, along with the Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, and the Mexican American Cultural Values Scale. The hypotheses were tested utilizing Chi-square, Pearson correlation and logistic regression. Annual family income, parity, country of origin, BMI and acculturation were the personal characteristics significantly associated with preferred PA program by this group of Latinas. Latino women were heterogeneous in their preferences. In general, sixty percent endorsed dancing as the type of activity preferred, 20% preferred PA education and 20% preferred walking. Major differences were found between the types of activity the Latino women were currently participating in compared to their preferred type of activity. Of the 124 who reported to be walking/jogging, almost half (49) preferred dancing, 22 preferred PA education and only 12 preferred walking. The study findings add to the existing knowledge by looking at factors that should be considered when developing PA interventions as well as when prescribing or recommending PA to this population. These results demonstrate the need to identify the preferred PA program characteristics of Latinas prior to developing interventions. Failure to know the patient’s preferred PA program characteristics may result in prescribing or recommending an undesired activity and decrease participation in PA interventions.

RESUMEN

El propósito de este estudio fue identificar las características preferidas en un programa de actividad física por una comunidad de mujeres Latinas de bajos recursos económicos y en edad fértil, así como la relación de esas características con sus propias características personales, sus valores culturales y su adaptación a la comunidad Anglosajona. Este fue un estudio exploratorio guiado por el “Modelo Preferencias y Comportamiento Saludables” (PaHBM), por sus siglas en Ingles, desarrollado por esta investigadora. El reclutamiento de las Latinas ocurrió en tres sedes: Una en Houston, TX y dos en Phoenix, AZ. Las mujeres Latinas fueron incluidas si tenían entre 18 y 35 años de edad. Se excluyeron mujeres que estaban embarazadas, estuvieran encarceladas, físicamente o mentalmente incapacitadas o que sufrieran alguna enfermedad crónica. Los datos cuantitativos fueron recolectados a través de una encuesta llamada “Predictores y preferencias de participación en un programa investigativo de actividad física”, desarrollada por la autora de este estudio, además utilizando la escala breve de aculturación para Mejicanos Americanos y la escala de valores culturales en Mejicanos Americanos. Las hipótesis fueron probadas utilizando el Chi-cuadrado, la correlación de Pearson, y la regresión lógica. Las características personales más asociadas con las características del programa preferido fueron el salario anual de la familia, el número de hijos, el país de origen, y el índice de masa corporal. En general, 60% prefirieron bailar, 20% clases de actividad física y 20% caminar. Mayores diferencias se encontraron en el tipo de actividad en las que las mujeres Latinas estaban participando, comparado con lo que ellas preferían. De 124 participantes que estaban caminando o trotando, 49 Latinas (39%) preferían bailar, 22 Latinas (17%) preferían clases de actividad física y solo 12 Latinas (10%) prefirieron caminar. Estos resultados demuestran la necesidad de identificar las características del programa de actividad física antes de crear dicho programa. Estos resultados son una adición a los conocimientos existentes, en los que se identificaron factores que deben ser considerados cuando se planea un programa así como cuando se prescribe o se recomienda actividad física a esta población. Sera un fracaso no conocer las preferencias de una paciente para mantenerse físicamente activa porque puede resultar en la prescripción o recomendación de actividades que la paciente no desea y esto se traducirá en reducción de la participación en programas de actividad física.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016