Matching Items (11)

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Synthesis, structures and properties of thermoelectric materials in the Zn-Sb-In system

Description

The challenging search for clean, reliable and environmentally friendly energy sources has fueled increased research in thermoelectric materials, which are capable of recovering waste heat. Among the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials β-Zn4Sb3 is outstanding because of its ultra-low glass-like thermal conductivity.

The challenging search for clean, reliable and environmentally friendly energy sources has fueled increased research in thermoelectric materials, which are capable of recovering waste heat. Among the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials β-Zn4Sb3 is outstanding because of its ultra-low glass-like thermal conductivity. Attempts to explore ternary phases in the Zn-Sb-In system resulted in the discovery of the new intermetallic compounds, stable Zn5Sb4In2-δ (δ=0.15) and metastable Zn9Sb6In2. Millimeter-sized crystals were grown from molten metal fluxes, where indium metal was employed as a reactive flux medium.Zn5Sb4In2-δ and Zn9Sb6In2 crystallize in new structure types featuring complex framework and the presence of structural disorder (defects and split atomic positions). The structure and phase relations between ternary Zn5Sb4In2-δ, Zn9Sb6In2 and binary Zn4Sb3 are discussed. To establish and understand structure-property relationships, thermoelectric properties measurements were carried out. The measurements suggested that Zn5Sb4In2-δ and Zn9Sb6In2 are narrow band gap semiconductors, similar to β-Zn4Sb3. Also, the peculiar low thermal conductivity of Zn4Sb3 (1 W/mK) is preserved. In the investigated temperature range 10 to 350 K Zn5Sb4In2-δ displays higher thermoelectric figure of merits than Zn4Sb3, indicating a potential significance in thermoelectric applications. Finally, the glass-like thermal conductivities of binary and ternary antimonides with complex structures are compared and the mechanism behind their low thermal conductivities is briefly discussed.

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Date Created
2011

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Development of enhanced cylindrical specimen thermal conductivity testing procedure

Description

The current method of measuring thermal conductivity requires flat plates. For most common civil engineering materials, creating or extracting such samples is difficult. A prototype thermal conductivity experiment had been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) to test cylindrical specimens

The current method of measuring thermal conductivity requires flat plates. For most common civil engineering materials, creating or extracting such samples is difficult. A prototype thermal conductivity experiment had been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) to test cylindrical specimens but proved difficult for repeated testing. In this study, enhancements to both testing methods were made. Additionally, test results of cylindrical testing were correlated with the results from identical materials tested by the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; method, which uses flat plate specimens. In validating the enhancements made to the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; and Cylindrical Specimen methods, 23 tests were ran on five different materials. The percent difference shown for the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; method was less than 1%. This gives strong evidence that the enhanced Guarded Hot-Plate apparatus in itself is now more accurate for measuring thermal conductivity. The correlation between the thermal conductivity values of the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; to those of the enhanced Cylindrical Specimen method was excellent. The conventional concrete mixture, due to much higher thermal conductivity values compared to the other mixtures, yielded a P&ndashvalue; of 0.600 which provided confidence in the performance of the enhanced Cylindrical Specimen Apparatus. Several recommendations were made for the future implementation of both test methods. The work in this study fulfills the research community and industry desire for a more streamlined, cost effective, and inexpensive means to determine the thermal conductivity of various civil engineering materials.

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Date Created
2011

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Construction of a thermal conductivity measurement platform for bulk and thin film materials based on the 3-Omega technique

Description

Nanostructured materials show signicant enhancement in the thermoelectric g-

ure of merit (zT) due to quantum connement eects. Improving the eciency of

thermoelectric devices allows for the development of better, more economical waste

heat recovery systems. Such systems may be used as bottoming

Nanostructured materials show signicant enhancement in the thermoelectric g-

ure of merit (zT) due to quantum connement eects. Improving the eciency of

thermoelectric devices allows for the development of better, more economical waste

heat recovery systems. Such systems may be used as bottoming or co-generation

cycles in conjunction with conventional power cycles to recover some of the wasted

heat. Thermal conductivity measurement systems are an important part of the char-

acterization processes of thermoelectric materials. These systems must possess the

capability of accurately measuring the thermal conductivity of both bulk and thin-lm

samples at dierent ambient temperatures.

This paper discusses the construction, validation, and improvement of a thermal

conductivity measurement platform based on the 3-Omega technique. Room temperature

measurements of thermal conductivity done on control samples with known properties

such as undoped bulk silicon (Si), bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon dioxide

(SiO2) thin lms yielded 150 W=m􀀀K, 50 W=m􀀀K, and 1:46 W=m􀀀K respectively.

These quantities were all within 8% of literature values. In addition, the thermal

conductivity of bulk SiO2 was measured as a function of temperature in a Helium-

4 cryostat from 75K to 250K. The results showed good agreement with literature

values that all fell within the error range of each measurement. The uncertainty in

the measurements ranged from 19% at 75K to 30% at 250K. Finally, the system

was used to measure the room temperature thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite

composed of cadmium selenide, CdSe, nanocrystals in an indium selenide, In2Se3,

matrix as a function of the concentration of In2Se3. The observed trend was in

qualitative agreement with the expected behavior.

i

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Date Created
2014

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The phonon Monte Carlo simulation

Description

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works regarding the modeling of heating effects in nano-scale devices, was

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works regarding the modeling of heating effects in nano-scale devices, was derived. Then, detailed description was given on the Monte Carlo (MC) solution of the phonon Boltzmann Transport Equation. The phonon MC solver was developed next as part of this thesis. Simulation results of the thermal conductivity in bulk Si show good agreement with theoretical/experimental values from literature.

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Date Created
2015

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Heat and mass transfer on planetary surfaces

Description

Planetary surface studies across a range of spatial scales are key to interpreting modern and ancient operative processes and to meeting strategic mission objectives for robotic planetary science exploration. At the meter-scale and below, planetary regolith conducts heat at a

Planetary surface studies across a range of spatial scales are key to interpreting modern and ancient operative processes and to meeting strategic mission objectives for robotic planetary science exploration. At the meter-scale and below, planetary regolith conducts heat at a rate that depends on the physical properties of the regolith particles, such as particle size, sorting, composition, and shape. Radiometric temperature measurements thus provide the means to determine regolith properties and rock abundance from afar. However, heat conduction through a matrix of irregular particles is a complicated physical system that is strongly influenced by temperature and atmospheric gas pressure. A series of new regolith thermal conductivity experiments were conducted under realistic planetary surface pressure and temperature conditions. A new model is put forth to describe the radiative, solid, and gaseous conduction terms of regolith on Earth, Mars, and airless bodies. These results will be used to infer particle size distribution from temperature measurements of the primitive asteroid Bennu to aid in OSIRIS-REx sampling site selection. Moving up in scale, fluvial processes are extremely influential in shaping Earth's surface and likely played an influential role on ancient Mars. Amphitheater-headed canyons are found on both planets, but conditions necessary for their development have been debated for many years. A spatial analysis of canyon form distribution with respect to local stratigraphy at the Escalante River and on Tarantula Mesa, Utah, indicates that canyon distribution is most closely related to variations in local rock strata, rather than groundwater spring intensity or climate variations. This implies that amphitheater-headed canyons are not simple markers of groundwater seepage erosion or megaflooding. Finally, at the largest scale, volcanism has significantly altered the surface characteristics of Earth and Mars. A field campaign was conducted in Hawaii to investigate the December 1974 Kilauea lava flow, where it was found that lava coils formed in an analogous manner to those found in Athabasca Valles, Mars. The location and size of the coils may be used as indicators of local effusion rate, viscosity, and crustal thickness.

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Date Created
2018

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Low cost system for test of thru-plane thermal transfer coefficient

Description

Determining the thermal conductivity of carbon gas diffusion layers used in hydrogen fuel cells is a very active topic of research. The primary driver behind this research is due to the need for development of proton exchange membrane fuels with

Determining the thermal conductivity of carbon gas diffusion layers used in hydrogen fuel cells is a very active topic of research. The primary driver behind this research is due to the need for development of proton exchange membrane fuels with longer usable life cycles before failure. As heat is a byproduct of the oxygen-hydrogen reaction an optimized pathway to remove the excess heat is needed to prevent thermal damage to the fuel cell as both mechanical and chemical degradation is accelerated under elevated temperatures. Commercial systems used for testing thermal conductivity are readily available, but are prohibitively expensive, ranging from just over $10,000 to $80,000 for high-end systems. As this cost can exclude some research labs from experimenting with thermal conductivity, a low cost alternative system is a desirable product. The development of a low cost system that maintained typical accuracy levels of commercials systems was carried out successfully at a significant cost reduction. The end product was capable of obtaining comparable accuracy to commercial systems at a cost reduction of more than 600% when compared to entry level commercial models. Combined with a system design that only required some basic fabrication equipment, this design will allow many research labs to expand their testing capabilities without straining departmental budgets. As expected with the development of low cost solutions, the reduction in cost came at the loss in other aspects of system performance, mainly run time. While the developed system requires a significate time investment to obtain useable results, the system can be improved by the used of RTDs in place of thermocouples or incorporation of an isothermal cold plate. These improvements would reduce the runtime to less than that of a standard work day while maintaining an approximate reduction in cost of 350%.

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Date Created
2016

Atomic-Scale Simulations of Si-Ge-Sn Alloys Using Deep-Learning-Based Interatomic Potentials

Description

Accurate knowledge and understanding of thermal conductivity is very important in awide variety of applications both at microscopic and macroscopic scales. Estimation,however varies widely with respect to scale and application. At a lattice level, calcu-lation of thermal conductivity

Accurate knowledge and understanding of thermal conductivity is very important in awide variety of applications both at microscopic and macroscopic scales. Estimation,however varies widely with respect to scale and application. At a lattice level, calcu-lation of thermal conductivity of any particular alloy require very heavy computationeven for a relatively small number of atoms. This thesis aims to run conventionalmolecular dynamic simulations for a particular supercell and then employ a machinelearning based approach and compare the two in hopes of developing a method togreatly reduce computational costs as well as increase the scale and time frame ofthese systems. Conventional simulations were run using interatomic potentials basedon density function theory-basedab initiocalculations. Then deep learning neuralnetwork based interatomic potentials were used run similar simulations to comparethe two approaches.

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Created

Date Created
2021

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Enhanced thermal transport in soft composites through magnetic alignment and contact engineering

Description

Soft polymer composites with improved thermal conductivity are needed for the thermal management of electronics. Interfacial thermal boundary resistance, however, prevents the efficient use of many high thermal conductivity fill materials. Magnetic alignment of ferrous fill material enforces percolation of

Soft polymer composites with improved thermal conductivity are needed for the thermal management of electronics. Interfacial thermal boundary resistance, however, prevents the efficient use of many high thermal conductivity fill materials. Magnetic alignment of ferrous fill material enforces percolation of the high thermal conductivity fill, thereby shifting the governing boundary resistance to the particle- particle interfaces and increasing the directional thermal conductivity of the polymer composite. Magnetic alignment maximizes the thermal conductivity while minimizing composite stiffening at a fill fraction of half the maximum packing factor. The directional thermal conductivity of the composite is improved by more than 2-fold. Particle-particle contact engineering is then introduced to decrease the particle- particle boundary resistance and further improve the thermal conductivity of the composite.

The interface between rigid fill particles is a point contact with very little interfacial area connecting them. Silver and gallium-based liquid metal (LM) coatings provide soft interfaces that, under pressure, increase the interfacial area between particles and decrease the particle-particle boundary resistance. These engineered contacts are investigated both in and out of the polymer matrix and with and without magnetic alignment of the fill. Magnetically aligned in the polymer matrix, 350nm- thick silver coatings on nickel particles produce a 1.8-fold increase in composite thermal conductivity over the aligned bare-nickel composites. The LM coatings provide similar enhancements, but require higher volumes of LM to do so. This is due to the rapid formation of gallium oxide, which introduces additional thermal boundaries and decreases the benefit of the LM coatings.

The oxide shell of LM droplets (LMDs) can be ruptured using pressure. The pressure needed to rupture LMDs matches closely to thin-walled pressure vessel theory. Furthermore, the addition of tungsten particles stabilizes the mixture for use at higher pressures. Finally, thiols and hydrochloric acid weaken the oxide shell and boost the thermal performance of the beds of LMDs by 50% at pressures much lower than 1 megapascal (MPa) to make them more suitable for use in TIMs.

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Date Created
2019

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Thermal storage and transport in colloidal nanocrystal-based materials

Description

The rapid progress of solution-phase synthesis has led colloidal nanocrystals one of the most versatile nanoscale materials, provided opportunities to tailor material's properties, and boosted related technological innovations. Colloidal nanocrystal-based materials have been demonstrated success in a variety of applications,

The rapid progress of solution-phase synthesis has led colloidal nanocrystals one of the most versatile nanoscale materials, provided opportunities to tailor material's properties, and boosted related technological innovations. Colloidal nanocrystal-based materials have been demonstrated success in a variety of applications, such as LEDs, electronics, solar cells and thermoelectrics. In each of these applications, the thermal transport property plays a big role. An undesirable temperature rise due to inefficient heat dissipation could lead to deleterious effects on devices' performance and lifetime. Hence, the first project is focused on investigating the thermal transport in colloidal nanocrystal solids. This study answers the question that how the molecular structure of nanocrystals affect the thermal transport, and provides insights for future device designs. In particular, PbS nanocrystals is used as a monitoring system, and the core diameter, ligand length and ligand binding group are systematically varied to study the corresponding effect on thermal transport.

Next, a fundamental study is presented on the phase stability and solid-liquid transformation of metallic (In, Sn and Bi) colloidal nanocrystals. Although the phase change of nanoparticles has been a long-standing research topic, the melting behavior of colloidal nanocrytstals is largely unexplored. In addition, this study is of practical importance to nanocrystal-based applications that operate at elevated temperatures. Embedding colloidal nanocrystals into thermally-stable polymer matrices allows preserving nanocrystal size throughout melt-freeze cycles, and therefore enabling observation of stable melting features. Size-dependent melting temperature, melting enthalpy and melting entropy have all been measured and discussed.

In the next two chapters, focus has been switched to developing colloidal nanocrystal-based phase change composites for thermal energy storage applications. In Chapter 4, a polymer matrix phase change nanocomposite has been created. In this composite, the melting temperature and energy density could be independently controlled by tuning nanocrystal diameter and volume fractions. In Chapter 5, a solution-phase synthesis on metal matrix-metal nanocrytal composite is presented. This approach enables excellent morphological control over nanocrystals and demonstrated a phase change composite with a thermal conductivity 2 - 3 orders of magnitude greater than typical phase change materials, such as organics and molten salts.

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Date Created
2015

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Compression-Activated Thermally Enhanced Liquid Metal Composites with Tunable Functional Properties

Description

Thermal management of electronics is critical to meet the increasing demand for high power and performance. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) play a key role in dissipating heat away from the microelectronic chip and hence are a crucial component in electronics

Thermal management of electronics is critical to meet the increasing demand for high power and performance. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) play a key role in dissipating heat away from the microelectronic chip and hence are a crucial component in electronics cooling. Challenges persist with overcoming the interfacial boundary resistance and filler particle connectivity in TIMs to achieve thermal percolation while maintaining mechanical compliance. Gallium-based liquid metal (LM) capsules offer a unique set of thermal-mechanical characteristics that make them suitable candidates for high-performance TIM fillers. This dissertation research focuses on resolving the fundamental challenges posed by integration of LM fillers in polymer matrix. First, the rupture mechanics of LM capsules under pressure is identified as a key factor that dictates the thermal connectivity between LM-based fillers. This mechanism of oxide “popping” in LM particle beds independent of the matrix material provides insights in overcoming the particle-particle connectivity challenges. Second, the physical barrier introduced due to the polymer matrix needs to be overcome to achieve thermal percolation. Matrix fluid viscosity impacts thermal transport, with high viscosity uncured matrix inhibiting the thermal bridging of fillers. In addition, incorporation of solid metal co-fillers that react with LM fillers is adopted to facilitate popping of LM oxide in uncured polymer to overcome this matrix barrier. Solid silver metal additives are used to rupture the LM oxide, form inter-metallic alloy (IMC), and act as thermal anchors within the matrix. This results in the formation of numerous thermal percolation paths and hence enhances heat transport within the composite. Further, preserving this microstructure of interconnected multiphase filler system with thermally conductive percolation pathways in a cured polymer matrix is critical to designing high-performing TIM pads. Viscosity of the precursor polymer solution prior to curing plays a major role in the resulting thermal conductivity. A multipronged strategy is developed that synergistically combines reactive solid and liquid fillers, a polymer matrix with low pre-cure viscosity, and mechanical compression during thermal curing. The results of this dissertation aim to provide fundamental insights into the integration of LMs in polymer composites and give design knobs to develop high thermally conducting soft composites.

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Date Created
2022