Matching Items (7)

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Incorporating auditory models in speech/audio applications

Description

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception.

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to its equivalent time/frequency representation. This avoids the repeated application of auditory model stages to test different candidate time/frequency vectors in minimizing perceptual objective functions. In this dissertation, a constrained mapping scheme is developed by linearizing certain auditory model stages that ensures obtaining a time/frequency mapping corresponding to the estimated auditory representation. This paradigm was successfully incorporated in a perceptual speech enhancement algorithm and a sinusoidal component selection task.

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2011

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Model-based design, simulation and automatic code generation for embedded systems and robotic applications

Description

As the complexity of robotic systems and applications grows rapidly, development of high-performance, easy to use, and fully integrated development environments for those systems is inevitable. Model-Based Design (MBD) of dynamic systems using engineering software such as Simulink® from MathWorks®,

As the complexity of robotic systems and applications grows rapidly, development of high-performance, easy to use, and fully integrated development environments for those systems is inevitable. Model-Based Design (MBD) of dynamic systems using engineering software such as Simulink® from MathWorks®, SciCos from Metalau team and SystemModeler® from Wolfram® is quite popular nowadays. They provide tools for modeling, simulation, verification and in some cases automatic code generation for desktop applications, embedded systems and robots. For real-world implementation of models on the actual hardware, those models should be converted into compilable machine code either manually or automatically. Due to the complexity of robotic systems, manual code translation from model to code is not a feasible optimal solution so we need to move towards automated code generation for such systems. MathWorks® offers code generation facilities called Coder® products for this purpose. However in order to fully exploit the power of model-based design and code generation tools for robotic applications, we need to enhance those software systems by adding and modifying toolboxes, files and other artifacts as well as developing guidelines and procedures. In this thesis, an effort has been made to propose a guideline as well as a Simulink® library, StateFlow® interface API and a C/C++ interface API to complete this toolchain for NAO humanoid robots. Thus the model of the hierarchical control architecture can be easily and properly converted to code and built for implementation.

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Date Created
2013

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On code design for interference channels

Description

There has been a lot of work on the characterization of capacity and achievable rate regions, and rate region outer-bounds for various multi-user channels of interest. Parallel to the developed information theoretic results, practical codes have also been designed for

There has been a lot of work on the characterization of capacity and achievable rate regions, and rate region outer-bounds for various multi-user channels of interest. Parallel to the developed information theoretic results, practical codes have also been designed for some multi-user channels such as multiple access channels, broadcast channels and relay channels; however, interference channels have not received much attention and only a limited amount of work has been conducted on them. With this motivation, in this dissertation, design of practical and implementable channel codes is studied focusing on multi-user channels with special emphasis on interference channels; in particular, irregular low-density-parity-check codes are exploited for a variety of cases and trellis based codes for short block length designs are performed.

Novel code design approaches are first studied for the two-user Gaussian multiple access channel. Exploiting Gaussian mixture approximation, new methods are proposed wherein the optimized codes are shown to improve upon the available designs and off-the-shelf point-to-point codes applied to the multiple access channel scenario. The code design is then examined for the two-user Gaussian interference channel implementing the Han-Kobayashi encoding and decoding strategy. Compared with the point-to-point codes, the newly designed codes consistently offer better performance. Parallel to this work, code design is explored for the discrete memoryless interference channels wherein the channel inputs and outputs are taken from a finite alphabet and it is demonstrated that the designed codes are superior to the single user codes used with time sharing. Finally, the code design principles are also investigated for the two-user Gaussian interference channel employing trellis-based codes with short block lengths for the case of strong and mixed interference levels.

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2015

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Coding for insertion/deletion channels

Description

Insertion and deletion errors represent an important category of channel impairments. Despite their importance and much work over the years, channels with such impairments are far from being fully understood as they proved to be difficult to analyze. In this

Insertion and deletion errors represent an important category of channel impairments. Despite their importance and much work over the years, channels with such impairments are far from being fully understood as they proved to be difficult to analyze. In this dissertation, a promising coding scheme is investigated over independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) insertion/deletion channels, i.e., interleaved concatenation of an outer low-density parity-check (LDPC) code with error-correction capabilities and an inner marker code for synchronization purposes. Marker code structures which offer the highest achievable rates are found with standard bit-level synchronization is performed. Then, to exploit the correlations in the likelihoods corresponding to different transmitted bits, a novel symbol-level synchronization algorithm that works on groups of consecutive bits is introduced. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts are also utilized to analyze the convergence behavior of the receiver, and to design LDPC codes with degree distributions matched to these channels. The next focus is on segmented deletion channels. It is first shown that such channels are information stable, and hence their channel capacity exists. Several upper and lower bounds are then introduced in an attempt to understand the channel capacity behavior. The asymptotic behavior of the channel capacity is also quantified when the average bit deletion rate is small. Further, maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) based synchronization algorithms are developed and specific LDPC codes are designed to match the channel characteristics. Finally, in addition to binary substitution errors, coding schemes and the corresponding detection algorithms are also studied for several other models with synchronization errors, including inter-symbol interference (ISI) channels, channels with multiple transmit/receive elements and multi-user communication systems.

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Date Created
2012

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Practical coding schemes for multi-user communications

Description

There are many wireless communication and networking applications that require high transmission rates and reliability with only limited resources in terms of bandwidth, power, hardware complexity etc.. Real-time video streaming, gaming and social networking are a few such examples. Over

There are many wireless communication and networking applications that require high transmission rates and reliability with only limited resources in terms of bandwidth, power, hardware complexity etc.. Real-time video streaming, gaming and social networking are a few such examples. Over the years many problems have been addressed towards the goal of enabling such applications; however, significant challenges still remain, particularly, in the context of multi-user communications. With the motivation of addressing some of these challenges, the main focus of this dissertation is the design and analysis of capacity approaching coding schemes for several (wireless) multi-user communication scenarios. Specifically, three main themes are studied: superposition coding over broadcast channels, practical coding for binary-input binary-output broadcast channels, and signalling schemes for two-way relay channels. As the first contribution, we propose an analytical tool that allows for reliable comparison of different practical codes and decoding strategies over degraded broadcast channels, even for very low error rates for which simulations are impractical. The second contribution deals with binary-input binary-output degraded broadcast channels, for which an optimal encoding scheme that achieves the capacity boundary is found, and a practical coding scheme is given by concatenation of an outer low density parity check code and an inner (non-linear) mapper that induces desired distribution of "one" in a codeword. The third contribution considers two-way relay channels where the information exchange between two nodes takes place in two transmission phases using a coding scheme called physical-layer network coding. At the relay, a near optimal decoding strategy is derived using a list decoding algorithm, and an approximation is obtained by a joint decoding approach. For the latter scheme, an analytical approximation of the word error rate based on a union bounding technique is computed under the assumption that linear codes are employed at the two nodes exchanging data. Further, when the wireless channel is frequency selective, two decoding strategies at the relay are developed, namely, a near optimal decoding scheme implemented using list decoding, and a reduced complexity detection/decoding scheme utilizing a linear minimum mean squared error based detector followed by a network coded sequence decoder.

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Date Created
2011

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Ensuring safety of model-based generated code for pervasive health monitoring systems

Description

Wireless technologies for health monitoring systems have seen considerable interest in recent years owing to it's potential to achieve vision of pervasive healthcare, that is healthcare to anyone, anywhere and anytime. Development of wearable wireless medical devices which have the

Wireless technologies for health monitoring systems have seen considerable interest in recent years owing to it's potential to achieve vision of pervasive healthcare, that is healthcare to anyone, anywhere and anytime. Development of wearable wireless medical devices which have the capability to sense, compute, and send physiological information to a mobile gateway, forming a Body Sensor Network (BSN) is considered as a step towards achieving the vision of pervasive health monitoring systems (PHMS). PHMS consisting of wearable body sensors encourages unsupervised long-term monitoring, reducing frequent visit to hospital and nursing cost. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that operation of PHMS must be reliable, safe and have longer lifetime. A model-based automatic code generation provides a state-of-art code generation of sensor and smart phone code from high-level specification of a PHMS. Code generator intakes meta-model of PHMS specification, uses codebase containing code templates and algorithms, and generates platform specific code. Health-Dev, a framework for model-based development of PHMS, uses code generation to implement PHMS in sensor and smart phone. As a part of this thesis, model-based automatic code generation was evaluated and experimentally validated. The generated code was found to be safe in terms of ensuring no race condition, array, or pointer related errors in the generated code and more optimized as compared to hand-written BSN benchmark code in terms of lesser unreachable code.

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Date Created
2013

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Transmission strategies for two-way relay channels

Description

The recent proposal of two-way relaying has attracted much attention due to its promising features for many practical scenarios. Hereby, two users communicate simultaneously in both directions to exchange their messages with the help of a relay node. This doctoral

The recent proposal of two-way relaying has attracted much attention due to its promising features for many practical scenarios. Hereby, two users communicate simultaneously in both directions to exchange their messages with the help of a relay node. This doctoral study investigates various aspects of two-way relaying. Specifically, the issue of asynchronism, lack of channel knowledge, transmission of correlated sources and multi-way relaying techniques involving multiple users are explored.

With the motivation of developing enabling techniques for two-way relay (TWR) channels experiencing excessive synchronization errors, two conceptually-different schemes are proposed to accommodate any relative misalignment between the signals received at any node. By designing a practical transmission/detection mechanism based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), the proposed schemes perform significantly better than existing competing solutions. In a related direction, differential modulation is implemented for asynchronous TWR systems that lack the channel state information (CSI) knowledge. The challenge in this problem compared to the conventional point-to-point counterpart arises not only from the asynchrony but also from the existence of an interfering signal. Extensive numerical examples, supported by analytical work, are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed schemes.

Other important issues considered in this dissertation are related to the extension of the two-way relaying scheme to the multiple-user case, known as the multi-way relaying. First, a distributed source coding solution based on Slepian-Wolf coding is proposed to compress correlated messages close to the information theoretical limits in the context of multi-way relay (MWR) channels. Specifically, the syndrome approach based on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is implemented. A number of relaying strategies are considered for this problem offering a tradeoff between performance and complexity. The proposed solutions have shown significant improvements compared to the existing ones in terms of the achievable compression rates. On a different front, a novel approach to channel coding is proposed for the MWR channel based on the implementation of nested codes in a distributed manner. This approach ensures that each node decodes the messages of the other users without requiring complex operations at the relay, and at the same time, providing substantial benefits compared to the traditional routing solution.

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Date Created
2015