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Separating and detecting Escherichia Coli in a microfluidic thannel [i.e., channel] for urinary tract infection (UTI) applications

Description

In this thesis, I present a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) that can separate and detect Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in simulated urine samples for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) diagnosis. The LOC consists of two (concentration and sensing) chambers connected in series and

In this thesis, I present a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) that can separate and detect Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in simulated urine samples for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) diagnosis. The LOC consists of two (concentration and sensing) chambers connected in series and an integrated impedance detector. The two-chamber approach is designed to reduce the non-specific absorption of proteins, e.g. albumin, that potentially co-exist with E. coli in urine. I directly separate E. coli K-12 from a urine cocktail in a concentration chamber containing micro-sized magnetic beads (5 µm in diameter) conjugated with anti-E. coli antibodies. The immobilized E. coli are transferred to a sensing chamber for the impedance measurement. The measurement at the concentration chamber suffers from non-specific absorption of albumin on the gold electrode, which may lead to a false positive response. By contrast, the measured impedance at the sensing chamber shows ~60 kÙ impedance change between 6.4x104 and 6.4x105 CFU/mL, covering the threshold of UTI (105 CFU/mL). The sensitivity of the LOC for detecting E. coli is characterized to be at least 3.4x104 CFU/mL. I also characterized the LOC for different age groups and white blood cell spiked samples. These preliminary data show promising potential for application in portable LOC devices for UTI detection.

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Date Created
2011

Ultra structurally based impedance model for oral cancer detection

Description

This research investigated using impedance as a minimally invasive oral cancer-screening tool by modeling healthy and diseased tissue. This research developed an ultra-structurally based tissue model for oral mucosa that is versatile enough to be easily modified to mimic the

This research investigated using impedance as a minimally invasive oral cancer-screening tool by modeling healthy and diseased tissue. This research developed an ultra-structurally based tissue model for oral mucosa that is versatile enough to be easily modified to mimic the passive electrical impedance responses of multiple benign and cancerous tissue types. This new model provides answers to biologically meaningful questions related to the impedance response of healthy and diseased tissues. This model breaks away from the old empirical top down "black box" Thèvinin equivalent model. The new tissue model developed here was created from a bottom up perspective resulting in a model that is analogous to having a "Transparent Box" where each network element relating to a specific structural component is known. This new model was developed starting with sub cellular ultra-structural components such as membranes, proteins and electrolytes. These components formed the basic network elements and topology of the organelles. The organelle networks combine to form the cell networks. The cell networks combine to make networks of cell layers and the cell layers were combined into tissue networks. This produced the complete "Transparent Box" model for normal tissue. This normal tissue model was modified for disease based on the ultra-structural pathology of each disease. The diseased tissues evaluated include cancers type one through type three; necrotic-inflammation, hyperkeratosis and the compound condition of hyperkeratosis over cancer type two. The impedance responses for each of the disease were compared side by side with the response of normal healthy tissue. Comparative evidence from the models showed the structural changes in cancer produce a unique identifiable impedance "finger print." The evaluation of the "Transparent Box" model for normal tissues and diseased tissues show clear support for using comparative impedance measurements as a clinical tool for oral cancer screening.

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Date Created
2012

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Investigation of ultrasonically powered implantable microdevices for wireless tissue impedance measurements

Description

Bioimpedance measurements have been long used for monitoring tissue ischemia and blood flow. This research employs implantable microelectronic devices to measure impedance chronically as a potential way to monitor the progress of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Ultrasonically powered implantable microdevices

Bioimpedance measurements have been long used for monitoring tissue ischemia and blood flow. This research employs implantable microelectronic devices to measure impedance chronically as a potential way to monitor the progress of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Ultrasonically powered implantable microdevices previously developed for the purposes of neuroelectric vasodilation for therapeutic treatment of PVD were found to also allow a secondary function of tissue bioimpedance monitoring. Having no structural differences between devices used for neurostimulation and impedance measurements, there is a potential for double functionality and closed loop control of the neurostimulation performed by these types of microimplants. The proposed technique involves actuation of the implantable microdevices using a frequency-swept amplitude modulated continuous waveform ultrasound and remote monitoring of induced tissue current. The design has been investigated using simulations, ex vivo testing, and preliminary animal experiments. Obtained results have demonstrated the ability of ultrasonically powered neurostimulators to be sensitive to the impedance changes of tissue surrounding the device and wirelessly report impedance spectra. Present work suggests the potential feasibility of wireless tissue impedance measurements for PVD applications as a complement to neurostimulation.

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Date Created
2015