Matching Items (5)

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Effects of eight weeks of high-intensity interval training on blood glucose control, endothelial function, and visceral fat in obese adults

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity lead to cardiovascular disease. Obese adults are more susceptible

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity lead to cardiovascular disease. Obese adults are more susceptible to CVD compared to their non-obese counterparts. Exercise training leads to large reductions in the risk of CVD and T2D. Recent evidence suggests high-intensity interval training (HIT) may yield similar or superior benefits in a shorter amount of time compared to traditional continuous exercise training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of HIT to continuous (CONT) exercise training for the improvement of endothelial function, glucose control, and visceral adipose tissue. Seventeen obese men (N=9) and women (N=8) were randomized to eight weeks of either HIT (N=9, age=34 years, BMI=37.6 kg/m2) or CONT (N=8, age=34 years, BMI=34.6 kg/m2) exercise 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Endothelial function was assessed via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), glucose control was assessed via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and visceral adipose tissue and body composition was measured with an iDXA. Incremental exercise testing was performed at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. There were no changes in weight, fat mass, or visceral adipose tissue measured by the iDXA, but there was a significant reduction in body fat that did not differ by group (46±6.3 to 45.4±6.6%, P=0.025). HIT led to a significantly greater improvement in FMD compared to CONT exercise (HIT: 5.1 to 9.0%; CONT: 5.0 to 2.6%, P=0.006). Average 24-hour glucose was not improved over the whole group and there were no group x time interactions for CGM data (HIT: 103.9 to 98.2 mg/dl; CONT: 99.9 to 100.2 mg/dl, P>0.05). When statistical analysis included only the subjects who started with an average glucose at baseline > 100 mg/dl, there was a significant improvement in glucose control overall, but no group x time interaction (107.8 to 94.2 mg/dl, P=0.027). Eight weeks of HIT led to superior improvements in endothelial function and similar improvements in glucose control in obese subjects at risk for T2D and CVD. HIT was shown to have comparable or superior health benefits in this obese sample with a 36% lower total exercise time commitment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Exploring the weight loss strategies adopted by overweight and obese parent and child dyads

Description

Objectives: This study examines weight loss strategies (eating, physical activity (PA), or both) adopted by overweight or obese (OWOB) parents and children in relation to age, income, gender, education, and

Objectives: This study examines weight loss strategies (eating, physical activity (PA), or both) adopted by overweight or obese (OWOB) parents and children in relation to age, income, gender, education, and race/ethnicity in a predominantly low-income and high minority sample. We also examine if OWOB parent-child dyads employed the same strategies to lose weight, and how these strategies vary by demographic variables.

Methods: Data was compiled from the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study (NJCOB). A random digit dial household phone survey was used to select 1,708 households with at least one child aged 3-18 years from five cities in New Jersey. There were 231 OWOB parent-child dyads in this sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the demographic variables significantly associated with the type of weight loss strategy chosen.

Results: Males had higher odds of using PA and both eating and PA when compared to females. Higher income adults had higher odds of using all types of weight loss strategies compared to lower income adults. Adults with college education had higher odds of using eating and both eating and PA when compared to those with high school education. Older children (6-11 and 12-19 years) had higher odds of using PA when compared to younger children (2-5 years). Children of foreign-born parents (> 10 years in the US) had higher odds of using eating to lose weight compared to the children of US born parents. Children overall had higher odds of adopting a weight loss strategy if it was also adopted by the parent. In subgroup analysis, parent-child dyads had higher odds of adopting similar strategies among older children (12-19) and among girls, but this association did not hold true for younger children (2-11 years) and among boys for PA.

Conclusion: Older OWOB children (12-19) and female children had higher odds of adopting their parents’ weight loss strategies. Younger children did not follow the same pattern as their parents and among boys concordance was observed only for eating strategies. Results from the study may inform future family-based weight management interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Subject-coded versus investigator-coded diet analysis among overweight individuals: a comparison of methods

Description

The evaluation of nutritional status by dietary intake assessment is fundamental to nutrition research. Accurate assessment allows for health professional-moderated diet adjustment in order to promote disease prevention and management.

The evaluation of nutritional status by dietary intake assessment is fundamental to nutrition research. Accurate assessment allows for health professional-moderated diet adjustment in order to promote disease prevention and management. However, dietary intake can be extremely challenging to measure properly as reliability and accuracy are essential. As technology use has become more prevalent in recent years, an assortment of online, web-based diet analysis methods have begun to emerge. Are these modern methods as accurate as the traditional methods? The aim of this study was to compare and contrast diet analyses from a feeding trial in which both subject-coded (using the Automated Self Administered 24 hour recall, or the ASA24) and investigator-coded (using the Food Processor diet analysis program) diet records were available. Sixty-four overweight (body mass index >27-40 kg/m2) members of a campus community between the ages of 20-45 were recruited for an 8-week parallel arm, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of two different pre-dinner meal snacks on satiety, calories consumed, and contribution to modest weight loss. As part of the study requirements, participants completed 3-day food logs at four different times during the trial: pre-trial, and week 1, 4, and 8. Participants also entered their dietary information into the ASA24 website the day after the intake was recorded by hand. Nutrient intake values were compared between the ASA24 records and the handwritten food logs. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Statistical Analysis version 19.0; bivariate analyses and Spearman correlation analyses were utilized. Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes did correlate significantly between the two methodologies, though both under-reporting and over-reporting were found to exist. Carbohydrate and fiber intakes were under-reported by subjects; retinol, beta-carotene, and vitamin C amounts were over-reported. These results are consistent with previous findings in reporting differences and suggest that the ASA24 is a comparably accurate dietary tracking tool to the traditional diet record method.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Assessing cardiovascular disease risk factors among overweight and obese Mexican-American adults

Description

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established,

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic
ormoglycemic controls (NC), dyslipidemic
ormoglycemic (DN), dyslipidemic/prediabetic (DPD) and dyslipidemic/diabetic (DD). Total cholesterol (TC) was 30% higher among DD than in NC participants (p<0.0001). The DPD group had 27% and 12% higher LDL-C concentrations than the NC and DN groups, respectively. Similarly, LDL-C was 29% and 13% higher in DD than in NC and DN participants (p=0.013). An increasing trend was observed in %10-year CVD risk with increasing degree of hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). The NC group had less cholesterol in sdLDL particles than dyslipidemic groups, regardless of glycemic status (p<0.0001). When hyperglycemia was part of the phenotype (DPD and DD), there was a greater proportion of total and HDL-C in sHDL particles in dyslipidemic individuals than in NC (p=0.023; p<0.0001; respectively). Percent 10-year CVD risk was positively correlated with triglyceride (TG) (r=0.384, p<0.0001), TC (r=0.340, p<0.05), cholesterol in sdLDL(r=0.247; p<0.05), and TC to HDL-C ratio (r=0.404, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with HDL-C in intermediate and large HDL(r=-0.38, p=0.001; r=0.34, p=0.002, respectively). The TC/HDL-C was positively correlated with cholesterol in sdLDL particles (r=0.698, p<0.0001) and HDL-C in sHDL particles (r=0.602, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with cholesterol in small (r=-0.35, p=0.002), intermediate (r=-0.91, p<0.0001) and large (r=-0.84, p<0.0001) HDL particles, and HDL-C in the large HDL particles (r=-0.562, p<0.0001). No significant association was found between %10-year CVD risk and hsCRP. Collectively, these results corroborate that dyslipidemic Mexican-American adults have higher CVD risk than normolipidemic individuals. Hyperglycemia may further affect CVD risk by modulating cholesterol in LDL and HDL subfractions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Almond consumption and dietary compensation in overweight and obese adults

Description

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between nut consumption and weight. The possible effects of regular nut consumption as a method of weight loss has shown minimal results with

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between nut consumption and weight. The possible effects of regular nut consumption as a method of weight loss has shown minimal results with 2-3 servings of nut products per day. This 8 week study sought to investigate the effect of more modest nut consumption (1 oz./day, 5 days/week) on dietary compensation in healthy overweight individuals. Overweight and obese participants (n = 28) were recruited from the local community and were randomly assigned to either almond (NUT) or control (CON) group in this randomized, parallel-arm study. Subjects were instructed to eat their respective foods 30 minutes before the dinner meal. 24 hour diet recalls were completed pre-trial and at study weeks 1, 4 and 8. Self-reported satiety data were completed at study weeks 1, 4, and 8. Attrition was unexpectedly high, with 13 participants completing 24 dietary recall data through study week 8. High attrition limited statistical analyses. Results suggested a lack of effect for time or interaction for satiety data (within groups p = 0.997, between groups p = 0.367). Homogeneity of of inter-correlations could not be tested for 24-hour recall data as there were fewer than 2 nonsingular cell covariance matrices. In conclusion, this study was unable to prove or disprove the effectiveness of almonds to induce dietary compensation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011