Matching Items (3)

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Associations amongst physical activity, substance use and fitness industry trends

Description

Dietary supplement (DS) use among adults is on the rise. This growing trend in DS use mirrors the quick and exponential growth of the fitness industry. The fitness industry focuses

Dietary supplement (DS) use among adults is on the rise. This growing trend in DS use mirrors the quick and exponential growth of the fitness industry. The fitness industry focuses on the “appearance of health”, although some individuals focus on their appearance over and above their health. As a result of this focus on appearance, certain aspects of this unregulated industry promote unhealthy standards of beauty and an increase in negative body image, and influences at-risk youth to engage in dangerous practices such as extreme diet and exercise routines, or the misuse of dietary supplements. All of these factors have been linked to appearance and performance enhancing drug use, which is associated with substance use in athletes and non-athletes. This study sought to explore the role of gender as it pertained to dietary supplement use, specifically how gender differences amongst predictors of DS use (including BMI, physical activity, and body image) were associated with overall substance use in college students. The relationship between current DS use and other substance use was also examined. Students recruited from ASU fitness centers completed a survey which included questions on demographics, height and weight to calculate BMI, and several published, standardized questionnaires used to measure drug use, physical activity, body image, steroid and ephedrine use and attitudes, and dietary supplement use. There were significant gender differences in DS use as well as predictors or DS use. Controlling for demographic information, energy enhancing DS use and knowing someone who used steroids increased the likelihood an individual intended on using steroids in the future. Body image was not related to substance use in males, and physical activity mediated the relationship between DS use and substance use in males. While body image was associated with substance use in females, neither physical activity nor body image mediated the relationship between DS use and substance use in females.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Embattled identities: constructions of contemporary American masculinity amongst mixed martial arts cagefighters

Description

Masculinity has been increasingly recognized as a critical and relatively unexplored area of inquiry in anthropological gender studies. This project seeks to expand anthropological research on masculinity to contemporary American

Masculinity has been increasingly recognized as a critical and relatively unexplored area of inquiry in anthropological gender studies. This project seeks to expand anthropological research on masculinity to contemporary American society. Using the case study of a male-centered popular new sport, Mixed Martial Arts (also known as cagefighting) this project integrates theories of embodiment and feminist perspectives to explore how masculinity and masculine hegemony are shaped, contested, and perpetuated in the United States. Using a multi-level framework this project explores: 1) How is masculinity experienced and expressed by Mixed Martial Arts fighters as a form of self-identity? How do their bodies play a role in constructing masculinity? 2) What are the pervasive forms of masculinity associated with Mixed Martial Arts (MMA)? Are they truly representative of the sport? 3) Can these pervasive forms of masculinity be seen as hegemonic? How would hegemony operate in relation to individual experience? Using multiple methods to capture multiple points of view was critical to thoroughly examining the complex notion of masculinity. This study employed participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, surveys, photo elicitation, and media content analysis, as each presented particular benefits and allowed for the development a more well-rounded understanding of masculinity within the realm of MMA. This study also situates the rise of MMA and its representations of masculinity within the greater perspective of contemporary American society. By doing so reveals how ideologies of prescribed masculinity do not arise out of a vacuum but in relation to particular economic, social and political contexts. An emphasis of this study was to examine the daily lives of MMA fighters to understand how their participation in what may be regarded as a hypermasculine activity affects their own perceptions of masculinity. In looking at how masculinity is embodied, the gaps and often contradictions between representation and individual experiences are revealed. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of masculinity as both an embodied and relational construct.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The unique experiences of body dissatisfaction in males: accurate assessment and outcomes

Description

The relations among internalization of the U.S. sociocultural standard of the ideal male body image, male body dissatisfaction, and behavioral and psychological outcomes of male body dissatisfaction were examined in

The relations among internalization of the U.S. sociocultural standard of the ideal male body image, male body dissatisfaction, and behavioral and psychological outcomes of male body dissatisfaction were examined in a sample of 215 ethnically diverse male college students. Concerns regarding accurate assessment of male body dissatisfaction were addressed. Structural equation modeling was utilized to identify the relations among the internalization of the sociocultural ideal male body image, male body dissatisfaction (as measured by the Male Body Attitudes Scale, MBAS; Tylka, Bergeron, & Schwartz, 2005), and behavioral and psychological outcomes. Results demonstrated that internalization of specific aspects of the ideal male body (lean and muscular) predicted corresponding components of male body dissatisfaction (lean and muscular). Further, each component of male body dissatisfaction was related to distinct behavioral and psychological outcomes. Implications for clinical practice and research were discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013