Matching Items (10)

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The effects of omega 3 supplementation on markers of obesity and endothelial function in healthy subjects

Description

ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation

ABSTRACT The hormone leptin is an important regulator of body weight and energy balance, while nitric oxide (NO) produced in the blood vessels is beneficial for preventing disease-induced impaired vasodilation and hypertension. Elevations in the free radical superoxide can result in impaired vasodilation through scavenging of NO. Omega 3 is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is beneficial at reducing body weight and in lowering many cardiovascular risk factors like atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to examine the change in plasma concentrations of leptin, nitric oxide, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase in addition to examining the association between leptin and NO in healthy normal weight adult female subjects before and following omega 3 intakes. Participants were randomly assigned to either a fish oil group (600 mg per day) or a control group (1000 mg of coconut oil per day) for 8 weeks. Results showed no significant difference in the percent change of leptin over the 8 week supplementation period for either group (15.3±31.9 for fish oil group, 7.83±27 for control group; p=0.763). The percent change in NO was similarly not significantly altered in either group (-1.97±22 decline in fish oil group, 11.8±53.9 in control group; p=0.960). Likewise, the percent change in superoxide dismutase for each group was not significant following 8 weeks of supplementation (fish oil group: 11.94±20.94; control group: 11.8±53.9; p=0.362). The Pearson correlation co-efficient comparing the percent change of both leptin and NO was r2= -0.251 demonstrating a mildly negative, albeit insignificant, relationship between these factors. Together, these findings suggest that daily supplementation with 600 mg omega 3 in healthy females is not beneficial for improving these cardiovascular risk markers. Future studies in this area should include male subjects as well as overweight subjects with larger doses of fish oil that are equivalent to three or more servings per week. The importance of gender cannot be underestimated since estrogen has protective effects in the vasculature of females that may have masked any further protective effects of the fish oil. In addition, overweight individuals are often leptin-resistant and develop impaired vasodilation resulting from superoxide-mediated scavenging of nitric oxide. Therefore, the reported antioxidant and weight loss properties of omega 3 supplementation may greatly benefit overweight individuals.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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A feasibility study on the effectiveness of an 8-Week meditative movement intervention to initiate weight loss in female gastric bypass patients experiencing post-surgical weight gain

Description

While obesity rates have plateaued within the last decade,

two-thirds of the United States

population is currently classified as overweight (defined a

s a body mass index [BMI] of

25-29.9 kg/m²)

While obesity rates have plateaued within the last decade,

two-thirds of the United States

population is currently classified as overweight (defined a

s a body mass index [BMI] of

25-29.9 kg/m²) or obese (a BMI greater than 30 kg/m²). Bariatric

surgical interventions

are not only more effective than behavioral treatments

in the short term but are the only

form of obesity intervention with evidence of consisten

t long-term effectiveness.

However, even among bariatric surgery patients, weight

loss often stabilizes and it is

estimated that more than 20% of bariatric surgery patient

s will regain a significant

amount of weight that was initially lost long-term. Li

ttle research to date has been

conducted on physical activity in post bariatric surgery pati

ents. More specifically, there

have been no studies to date examining the effects of Me

ditative Movement (MM)

programs on body composition in bariatric patients. A s

tudy using an 8-week Tai Chi

Easy program was conducted in female gastric bypass patient

s to explore feasibility of

MM in the bariatric population as well as pre- and post-in

tervention changes in weight,

mindfulness, eating behaviors, body awareness, physical a

ctivity patterns, dietary quality

and mood. Data analysis revealed that there were no s

ignificant changes in weight or

physical activity patterns; however, significant changes w

ere observed in anxiety, overall

body awareness and cognitive restraint in eating. Addit

ionally, a significant decrease in

processed meat consumption and a weak trend towards increa

sed consumption of fruits

may suggest an overall improvement in dietary quality.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Fish oil supplements and symptoms of the common cold in healthy young women

Description

Background: Research in animal models suggests that fish oil ingestion may impair immunity and increase risk for infection. To date there are no studies examining this relationship between fish oil

Background: Research in animal models suggests that fish oil ingestion may impair immunity and increase risk for infection. To date there are no studies examining this relationship between fish oil ingestion and risk for infection in humans. Objective: The primary aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm study was to examine the effect of 400 mg of EPA and 200 mg of DHA, the main components of fish oil (FO) supplements, on the incidence of symptoms related to upper respiratory tract infections in healthy young females, at a large southwestern university. Design: Healthy young women between 18 and 38 years of age who were non-obese (mean BMI 23.7 ± 0.6 kg/m2) were recruited from an urban southwestern university campus. Subjects were non-vegetarians, non-smokers, and reported consuming less than one serving (3.5 oz) of fish per week. Participants (n=26) were randomized according to age, body weight, BMI, and daily n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake into two groups: FO (one gel capsule of 600 mg EPA/DHA per day) or CO (one placebo gel capsule of 1000 mg coconut oil per day). Participants completed a validated daily cold symptom survey, the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples measuring TNF-α concentrations were taken at weeks 1 and 8, when 24-hour dietary recalls were also performed. Anthropometric measurements were recorded via bioelectrical impedance at trial weeks 1, 4, and 8. Results: The 8-week trial of FO supplementation did not significantly change the average score for perception of cold symptoms between FO and CO groups (167 ± 71 and 185 ± 56, p=0.418, respectively). Plasma TNF-α levels (pg/mL) did not differ between groups (p=0.482). TNF-α levels were significantly correlated with body weight (r=0.480, p=0.037), BMI (r=0.481, p=0.037, and percent body fat (r=0.511, p=0.025) at baseline. Conclusions: Healthy young women taking a fish oil supplement of 400 mg EPA and 200 mg DHA per day over 8 weeks does not impose unintentional health consequences. These findings do not refute the American Heart Association's current recommendations for all Americans to consume two servings (3.5 oz) of a variety of oily fish per week. Depending on the type of fish, this current recommendation equates to approximately 200-300 mg per day of EPA and DHA n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of higher dosages of fish oils on daily cold symptoms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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A comparative analysis of health-seeking behaviors for women at risk of primary or secondary infertility

Description

Health-seeking behaviors are influenced by multiple factors including an assessment of the symptoms, what degree of personal commitment is involved in treatment, and what, if any, alternative methods of treatment

Health-seeking behaviors are influenced by multiple factors including an assessment of the symptoms, what degree of personal commitment is involved in treatment, and what, if any, alternative methods of treatment are available. In the case of infertility, seeking treatment is likely to occur after the inability to get pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term persists for longer then a year or more. This is after prolonged exposure to the risk of pregnancy fails to provide a successful pregnancy, and the desire for children remains. Most research on health-seeking behaviors for infertility focus on the nulliparous woman who is at risk of primary infertility. This research furthers this examination by comparing the rates of health-seeking behaviors for women at risk of primary infertility to women at risk of secondary infertility. A woman at risk of primary infertility is identified as nulliparous in that she has never been pregnant, or has never had a pregnancy end in live birth. A woman at risk of secondary infertility is identified as parous and has already had one pregnancy end in live birth. Using three pathways that include social factors, biological mechanisms, and contextual effects, I hypothesize that the rates of health-seeking behaviors will vary by infertility risk and that women at risk of primary infertility will have higher rates of health-seeking behaviors for infertility. These hypotheses are based on the Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization and the Health Belief Model that states health-seeking behaviors are influenced by the presence of enabling and predisposing factors, combined with internal and external cues. Findings from this dissertation suggest that the rates of health-seeking behaviors do indeed vary by infertility risk.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A qaualitative descriptive study of women's sexual health in the context of intimate partner violence

Description

Female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for negative sexual health outcomes, such as susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, unintended pregnancy, miscarriage, and cervical

Female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for negative sexual health outcomes, such as susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, unintended pregnancy, miscarriage, and cervical cancer. Despite this known risk, HIV risk reduction interventions are lacking in IPV content, and little is known about women’s protective sexual health behaviors in this context. The purpose of this dissertation is to gain a deeper understanding of women’s sexual health within the context of a violent intimate relationship. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-person interviews with women who had experienced IPV (N = 28). Service-seeking women were recruited from a domestic violence shelter and a domestic violence counseling program; non-service-seeking women were recruited through a statewide coalition against domestic violence and online advertisements. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed in NVivo Qualitative Software (Version 10). Detailed process notes, analytic memos, peer debriefing, and the use of visual analytic displays were used to increase the trustworthiness of findings. Results are presented in chapters two, three, and four. Chapter two explores women’s experiences of sexual violence in IPV relationships. Women described how their intimate partners used a combination of sexual abuse, sexual coercion, and sexual assault as a unique weapon of power and control. Chapter three examines women’s sexual risks across the levels of their ecological environment using an intersectional feminist framework. Women’s sexual risks went beyond sexual violence and were influenced by subtle yet pervasive cultural gender norms that reduced their power in relation to their male sexual partners. Chapter four focuses on understanding women’s protective sexual health behaviors in order to inform the development of an intervention that follows women’s natural pathway to care as they heal from victimization to surviving to thriving.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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On the cognitive impact of endogenous and exogenous hormone exposures across the lifespan

Description

Women are exposed to numerous endogenous and exogenous hormones across the lifespan. In the last several decades, the prescription of novel hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapies (HTs) have resulted in

Women are exposed to numerous endogenous and exogenous hormones across the lifespan. In the last several decades, the prescription of novel hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapies (HTs) have resulted in aging women that have a unique hormone exposure history; little is known about the impact of these hormone exposures on short- and long- term brain health. The goal of my dissertation was to understand how lifetime hormone exposures shape the female cognitive phenotype using several innovative approaches, including a new human spatial working memory task, the human radial arm maze (HRAM), and several rodent menopause models with variants of clinically used hormone treatments. Using the HRAM (chapter 2) and established human neuropsychological tests, I determined males outperformed females with high endogenous or exogenous estrogen levels on visuospatial tasks and the spatial working memory HRAM (chapter 3). Evaluating the synthetic estrogen in contraceptives, ethinyl estradiol (EE), I found a high EE dose impaired spatial working memory in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats, medium and high EE doses reduced choline-acetyltransferace-immunoreactive neuron population estimates in the basal forebrain following Ovx (chapter 4), and low EE impaired spatial cognition in ovary-intact rats (chapter 5). Assessing the impact of several clinically-used HTs, I identified a window of opportunity around ovarian follicular depletion outside of which the HT conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) was detrimental to spatial memory (chapter 6), as well as therapeutic potentials for synthetic contraceptive hormones (chapter 9) and bioidentical estradiol (chapter 7) during and after the transition to menopause. Chapter 6 and 7 findings, that estradiol and Ovx benefitted cognition after the menopause transition, but CEE did not, are perhaps due to the negative impact of ovarian-produced, androstenedione-derived estrone; indeed, blocking androstenedione’s conversion to estrone prevented its cognitive impairments (chapter 8). Finally, I determined that EE combined with the popular progestin levonorgestrel benefited spatial memory during the transition to menopause, a profile not seen with estradiol, levonorgestrel, or EE alone (chapter 9). This work identifies several cognitively safe, and enhancing, hormonal treatment options at different time points throughout female aging, revealing promising avenues toward optimizing female health.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Dancing with madness: rewriting identity through disruption

Description

Madness is disruptive. It doesn't play by the rules. Madness is influenced, created, and caused by many different factors; it can be at different times disorienting, debilitating, or a space

Madness is disruptive. It doesn't play by the rules. Madness is influenced, created, and caused by many different factors; it can be at different times disorienting, debilitating, or a space of radical potential. In this thesis, I argue for the empowering potential of narrative and rewriting identity in the face of painful disruptions. I argue that the way that we conceptualize madness and how we internalize trauma affects how we reconfigure identity as an ongoing process and therefore whether and how we are able to embrace creative, diverse and dynamically empowered futures. I argue against positivist traditions of categorization and concept formation when it comes to madness – whether medical or historic//cultural/social. I first use similar tools to “categorize the categorizers” and later break away from positivist tradition through feminist inquiry, pushing against static, linear, and inactive kind and family conceptual hierarchies with my own experience. I use active feminist frameworks and phenomenological ontologies to argue for a corrective epistemic justice exposing reductive gaps in the literature and highlighting the links between violence/oppression/trauma/agency and mental illness that positivist models minimize. I employ personal experiences of gender-based violence and my own changing and intersectional understanding and experience of depression and mental health as a lens through which different pathways can emerge. I use memoir as method to disturb the binary limitations of madness models, instead offering a conceptualization of madness as fluid, intersectional, changing, and deeply personal: an experience that cannot be reduced and compartmentalized. Finally, I explore the pain of trauma and madness as well as the possibility therein towards action as a way of reclaiming self-agency.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Body composition and physical activity maintenance one year after a 12-week exercise intervention in women

Description

Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained

Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained within one year. The current study hypothesized that one year following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women who continued to exercise regularly but initially gained weight would lose the weight gained, reverting back to baseline with no restoration of set-point, or continue to lose weight if weight was initially lost. Conversely, those who discontinued purposeful exercise at the conclusion of the study were expected to continue to gain or regain weight. Methods: 24 women who completed the initial 12-week exercise intervention (90min/week of supervised treadmill walking at 70%VO2peak) participated in a follow-up study one year after the conclusion of the exercise intervention. Subjects underwent Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry at baseline, 12-weeks, and 15 months, and filled out physical activity questionnaires at 15 months. Results: A considerable amount of heterogeneity was observed in body weight and fat mass changes among subjects, but there was no significant overall change in weight or fat mass from baseline to follow-up. 15 women were categorized as compensators and as a group gained weight (+ 0.94±3.26kg) and fat mass (+0.22±3.25kg) compared to the 9 non-compensators who lost body weight (-0.26±3.59kg) and had essentially no change in fat mass (+0.01±2.61kg) from 12-weeks to follow-up. There was a significant between group difference (p=.003) in change in fat mass from 12-weeks to follow-up between subjects who continued to regularly vigorously exercise (-2.205±3.070kg), and those who did not (+1.320±2.156kg). Additionally, energy compensation from baseline to 12-weeks and early body weight and composition changes during the intervention were moderate predictors of body weight and composition changes from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: The main finding of this study is that following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women displayed a net loss of fat mass during the follow-up period if regular vigorous exercise was continued, regardless of whether they were classified as compensators or non-compensators during the initial intervention.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Omega-3 supplementation and body weight in healthy young women

Description

Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel arm trial was to demonstrate the effects of daily fish oil supplementation (600mg per day for eight weeks) on body composition and body

Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel arm trial was to demonstrate the effects of daily fish oil supplementation (600mg per day for eight weeks) on body composition and body mass in young healthy women, aged 18-38, at a large southwestern university. Design: 26 non-obese (mean BMI 23.7±0.6 kg/m2), healthy women (18-38y; mean, 23.5±1.1 y) from a southwestern Arizona university campus community completed the study. Subjects were healthy, non-smokers, consuming less than 3.5 oz of fish per week according to self-report. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: FISH (600 mg omega-3 fatty acids provided in one gel capsule per day), or CON (1000 mg coconut oil placebo provided in one gel capsule per day). Body weight, BMI, and percent body fat were measured using a stadiometer and bioelectrical impedance scale at the screening visit and intervention weeks 1, 4, and 8. 24-hour dietary recalls were also performed at weeks 1 and 8. Results: 8 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation did not significantly alter body weight (p=0.830), BMI (p=1.00), or body fat percentage (p=0.600) as compared to placebo. Although not statistically significant, 24-hour dietary recalls performed at the beginning and end of the intervention revealed a trend towards increased caloric intake in the FISH group and decreased caloric intake in the CON group throughout the course of the study (p=0.069). If maintained, this difference in caloric intake could have physiological relevance. Conclusions: Omega-3 fatty acids do not significantly alter body weight or body composition in healthy young females. These findings do not refute the current recommendations for Americans to consume at least 8 oz of omega-3-rich seafood per week, supplying 250 mg EPA and DHA per day. More research is needed to investigate the potential for omega-3 fatty acids to modulate daily caloric intake.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The indices of bone changes in response to exercise

Description

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus can be used as indicators of bone change but the sensitivity and time course of these indices to short term interventions are unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold: to compare monthly changes in OST and QUS in response to jump training and to evaluate the relationship between DXA, OST and QUS. Young women with QUS t-scores less than 1.0 were randomized into a jump training (J) (n=16) or control (C) (n=16). J consisted of a progressive routine of 1 and 2-footed jumping performed 3 days per week for 4 months. Body composition, QUS and OST were measured at baseline, and monthly for 4 months. DXA and 24-hour dietary recalls were completed at baseline and 4 months. Low attrition rate (12.5%) and high compliance (98%) with the exercise intervention was recorded. No significant correlations between QUS and OST existed. No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline in body composition or bone variables. Monthly increases in OST were observed but there were no significant differences over time between groups in any bone variables. OST and QUS may be indicative of short term bone changes but these variables were not specifically sensitive to the jumping intervention in this population of women.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011