Matching Items (28)

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Association of objectively measured physical activity with cognitive function in black and white older adults: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

Description

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly used to overcome limitations of self-report measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of objectively measured PA and sedentary time with cognitive function among older adults.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the parent REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. ActicalTM accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables, including moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), high light PA (HLPA), low light PA (LLPA) and sedentary time, for 4-7 consecutive days. Prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment were defined by the Six-Item Screener. Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall) were conducted to assess executive function and memory.

Results: Of the 7,339 participants who provided accelerometer wear data > 4 days (70.1 ± 8.6 yr, 54.2% women, 31.7% African American), 320 participants exhibited impaired cognition. In cross-sectional analysis, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 39% lower odds of cognitive impairment than those in the lowest quartile (OR: 0.61, 95% C.I.: 0.39-0.95) after full adjustment. Further analysis shows most quartiles of MVPA% and HLPA% were significantly associated with executive function and memory (P<0.01). During 2.7 ± 0.5 years of follow-up, 3,385 participants were included in the longitudinal analysis, with 157 incident cases of cognitive impairment. After adjustments, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 51% lower hazards of cognitive impairment (HR: 0.49, 95% C.I.: 0.28-0.86). Additionally, MVPA% was inversely associated with change in memory z-scores (P<0.01), while the highest quartile of HLPA% was inversely associated with change in executive function and memory z-scores (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA% were independently associated with lower prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment, and better memory and executive function in older adults. Higher levels of HLPA% were also independently associated with better memory and executive function. The amount of MVPA associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment (259 min/week) is >70% higher than the minimal amount of MVPA recommended by PA guidelines.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Acute affects [i.e. effects] of a walking workstation on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertensive adults

Description

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear.

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear. PURPOSE: To compare post physical activity ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response to a single worksite walking day and a normal sedentary work day in pre-hypertensive adults. METHODS: Participants were 7 pre-hypertensive (127 + 8 mmHg / 83 + 8 mmHg) adults (3 male, 4 female, age = 42 + 12 yr) who participated in a randomized, cross-over study that included a control and a walking treatment. Only those who indicated regularly sitting at least 8 hours/day and no structured physical activity were enrolled. Treatment days were randomly assigned and were performed one week apart. Walking treatment consisted of periodically increasing walk time up to 2.5 hours over the course of an 8 hour work day on a walking workstation (Steelcase Company, Grand Rapids, MI). Walk speed was set at 1 mph. Participants wore an ambulatory blood pressure cuff (Oscar 2, SunTech Medical, Morrisville, NC) for 24-hours on both treatment days. Participants maintained normal daily activities on the control day. ABP data collected from 9:00 am until 10:00 pm of the same day were included in statistical analyses. Linear mixed models were used to detect differences in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by treatment condition over the whole day and post workday for the time periods between 4 -10 pm when participants were no longer at work. RESULTS:BP was significantly lower in response to the walking treatment compared to the control day (Mean SBP 126 +7 mmHg vs.124 +7 mmHg, p=.043; DBP 80 + 3 mmHg vs. 77 + 3 mmHg, p = 0.001 respectively). Post workday (4:00 to 10:00 pm) SBP decreased 3 mmHg (p=.017) and DBP decreased 4 mmHg (p<.001) following walking. CONCLUSION: Even low intensity exercise such as walking on a walking workstation is effective for significantly reducing acute BP when compared to a normal work day.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The energy cost of walking and cycling in young and older adults

Description

The effects of aging on muscular efficiency are controversial. Proponents for increased efficiency suggest that age-related changes in muscle enhance efficiency in senescence. Exercise study results are mixed due to

The effects of aging on muscular efficiency are controversial. Proponents for increased efficiency suggest that age-related changes in muscle enhance efficiency in senescence. Exercise study results are mixed due to varying modalities, ages, and efficiency calculations. The present study attempted to address oxygen uptake, caloric expenditure, walking economy, and gross
et cycling efficiency in young (18-59 years old) and older (60-81 years old) adults (N=444). Walking was performed at three miles per hour by 86 young (mean = 29.60, standard deviation (SD) = 10.50 years old) and 121 older adults (mean = 66.80, SD = 4.50 years old). Cycling at 50 watts (60-70 revolutions per minute) was performed by 116 young (mean= 29.00, SD= 10.00 years old) and 121 older adults (m = 67.10 SD = 4.50 years old). Steady-state sub-maximal gross
et oxygen uptake and caloric expenditures from each activity and rest were analyzed. Net walking economy was represented by net caloric expenditure (kilocalories/kilogram/min). Cycling measures included percent gross
et cycling efficiency (kilo-calorie derived). Linear regressions were used to assess each measure as a function of age. Differences in age group means were assessed using independent t-tests for each modality (alpha = 0.05). No significant differences in mean oxygen uptake nor walking economy were found between young and older walkers (p>0.05). Older adults performing cycle ergometry demonstrated lower gross
et oxygen uptakes and lower gross caloric expenditures (p< 0.05).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Mitochondrial physiology in avian and mammalian skeletal muscle

Description

While exercising mammalian muscle increasingly relies on carbohydrates for fuel as aerobic exercise intensity rises above the moderate range, flying birds are extraordinary endurance athletes and fuel flight, a moderate-high

While exercising mammalian muscle increasingly relies on carbohydrates for fuel as aerobic exercise intensity rises above the moderate range, flying birds are extraordinary endurance athletes and fuel flight, a moderate-high intensity exercise, almost exclusively with lipid. In addition, Aves have long lifespans compared to weight-matched mammals. As skeletal muscle mitochondria account for the majority of oxygen consumption during aerobic exercise, the primary goal was to investigate differences in isolated muscle mitochondria between these species and to examine to what extent factors intrinsic to mitochondria may account for the behavior observed in the intact tissue and whole organism. First, maximal enzyme activities were assessed in sparrow and rat mitochondria. Citrate synthase and aspartate aminotransferase activity were higher in sparrow compared to rat mitochondria, while glutamate dehydrogenase activity was lower. Sparrow mitochondrial NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was dependent on phosphate, unlike the mammalian enzyme. Next, the rate of oxygen consumption (JO), electron transport chain (ETC) activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assessed in intact mitochondria. Maximal rates of fat oxidation were lower than for carbohydrate in rat but not sparrow mitochondria. ETC activity was higher in sparrows, but no differences were found in ROS production between species. Finally, fuel selection and control of respiration at three rates between rest and maximum were assessed. Mitochondrial fuel oxidation and selection mirrored that of the whole body; in rat mitochondria the reliance on carbohydrate increased as the rate of oxygen consumption increased, whereas fat dominated under all conditions in the sparrow. These data indicate fuel selection, at least in part, can be modulated at the level of the mitochondrial matrix when multiple substrates are present at saturating levels. As an increase in matrix oxidation-reduction potential has been linked to a suppression of fat oxidation and high ROS production, the high ETC activity relative to dehydrogenase activity in avian compared to mammalian mitochondria may result in lower matrix oxidation-reduction potential, allowing fatty acid oxidation to proceed while also resulting in low ROS production in vivo.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Effects of eight weeks of high-intensity interval training on blood glucose control, endothelial function, and visceral fat in obese adults

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity lead to cardiovascular disease. Obese adults are more susceptible

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity lead to cardiovascular disease. Obese adults are more susceptible to CVD compared to their non-obese counterparts. Exercise training leads to large reductions in the risk of CVD and T2D. Recent evidence suggests high-intensity interval training (HIT) may yield similar or superior benefits in a shorter amount of time compared to traditional continuous exercise training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of HIT to continuous (CONT) exercise training for the improvement of endothelial function, glucose control, and visceral adipose tissue. Seventeen obese men (N=9) and women (N=8) were randomized to eight weeks of either HIT (N=9, age=34 years, BMI=37.6 kg/m2) or CONT (N=8, age=34 years, BMI=34.6 kg/m2) exercise 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Endothelial function was assessed via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), glucose control was assessed via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and visceral adipose tissue and body composition was measured with an iDXA. Incremental exercise testing was performed at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. There were no changes in weight, fat mass, or visceral adipose tissue measured by the iDXA, but there was a significant reduction in body fat that did not differ by group (46±6.3 to 45.4±6.6%, P=0.025). HIT led to a significantly greater improvement in FMD compared to CONT exercise (HIT: 5.1 to 9.0%; CONT: 5.0 to 2.6%, P=0.006). Average 24-hour glucose was not improved over the whole group and there were no group x time interactions for CGM data (HIT: 103.9 to 98.2 mg/dl; CONT: 99.9 to 100.2 mg/dl, P>0.05). When statistical analysis included only the subjects who started with an average glucose at baseline > 100 mg/dl, there was a significant improvement in glucose control overall, but no group x time interaction (107.8 to 94.2 mg/dl, P=0.027). Eight weeks of HIT led to superior improvements in endothelial function and similar improvements in glucose control in obese subjects at risk for T2D and CVD. HIT was shown to have comparable or superior health benefits in this obese sample with a 36% lower total exercise time commitment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviors

Description

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four projects that examined measurement properties of physical activity and sedentary behavior monitors. Project one identified the oxygen costs of four other care activities in seventeen adults. Pushing a wheelchair and pushing a stroller were identified as moderate-intensity activities. Minutes spent engaged in these activities contribute towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project two identified the oxygen costs of common cleaning activities in sixteen adults. Mopping a floor was identified as moderate-intensity physical activity, while cleaning a kitchen and cleaning a bathtub were identified as light-intensity physical activity. Minutes spent engaged in mopping a floor contributes towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project three evaluated the differences in number of minutes spent in activity levels when utilizing different epoch lengths in accelerometry. A shorter epoch length (1-second, 5-seconds) accumulated significantly more minutes of sedentary behaviors than a longer epoch length (60-seconds). The longer epoch length also identified significantly more time engaged in light-intensity activities than the shorter epoch lengths. Future research needs to account for epoch length selection when conducting physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment. Project four investigated the accuracy of four activity monitors in assessing activities that were either sedentary behaviors or light-intensity physical activities. The ActiGraph GT3X+ assessed the activities least accurately, while the SenseWear Armband and ActivPAL assessed activities equally accurately. The monitor used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors may influence the accuracy of the measurement of a construct.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Effects of intermittent vs. continuous exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and glucose regulation

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of two novel intermittent exercise prescriptions on glucose regulation and ambulatory blood pressure. Methods: Ten subjects (5 men

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of two novel intermittent exercise prescriptions on glucose regulation and ambulatory blood pressure. Methods: Ten subjects (5 men and 5 women, ages 31.5 ± 5.42 yr, height 170.38 ± 9.69 cm and weight 88.59 ± 18.91 kg) participated in this four-treatment crossover trial. All subjects participated in four trials, each taking place over three days. On the evening of the first day, subjects were fitted with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). On the second day, subjects were fitted with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABP) and underwent one of the following four conditions in a randomized order: 1) 30-min: 30 minutes of continuous exercise at 60 - 70% VO2peak; 2) Mod 2-min: twenty-one 2-min bouts of walking at 3 mph performed once every 20 minutes; 3) HI 2-min: eight 2-min bouts of walking at maximal incline performed once every hour; 4) Control: a no exercise control condition. On the morning of the third day, the CGM and ABP devices were removed. All meals were standardized during the study visits. Linear mixed models were used to compare mean differences in glucose and blood pressure regulation between the four trials. Results: Glucose concentrations were significantly lower following the 30-min (91.1 ± 14.9 mg/dl), Mod 2-min (93.7 ± 19.8 mg/dl) and HI 2-min (96.1 ± 16.4 mg/dl) trials as compared to the Control (101.1 ± 20 mg/dl) (P < 0.001 for all three comparisons). The 30-min trial was superior to the Mod 2-min, which was superior to the HI 2-min trial in lowering blood glucose levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003 respectively). Only the 30-min trial was effective in lowering systolic ABP (124 ± 12 mmHg) as compared to the Control trial (127 ± 14 mmHg; P < 0.001) for up to 11 hours post exercise. Conclusion: Performing frequent short (i.e., 2 minutes) bouts of moderate or high intensity exercise may be a viable alternative to traditional continuous exercise in improving glucose regulation. However, 2-min bouts of exercise are not effective in reducing ambulatory blood pressure in healthy adults.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Effects of physical activity on sleep in sedentary adults with sleep problems

Description

Physical activity is critical for optimal health and has emerged as a viable option to improve sleep. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity comparisons to improve sleep in non-exercising adults with

Physical activity is critical for optimal health and has emerged as a viable option to improve sleep. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity comparisons to improve sleep in non-exercising adults with sleep problems is limited. The purpose was to determine the effects of moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise on sleep outcomes and peripheral skin temperature compared to a no-exercise control. The exercise intensity preference also was determined.

Eleven women (46.9±7.0 years) not participating in regular exercise and self-reporting insomnia completed a graded maximal exercise test followed by a crossover trial of three randomly assigned conditions separated by a 1-week washout. Participants performed moderate-intensity [MIC, 30 minutes, 65-70% maximum heart rate (HRmax)] or high-intensity (HIT, 20 minutes, 1-minute bouts at 90-95% HRmax alternating with 1-minute active recovery) treadmill walking or a no-exercise control (NEC) on two consecutive weekdays 4-6 hours prior to typical bed time. A dual-function wrist-worn accelerometer/temperature monitor recorded movement and skin temperature from which sleep-onset latency (SOL), sleep maintenance, sleep efficiency, total sleep time (TST), and peripheral skin temperature changes were calculated. Participants self-reported sleep outcomes weekly, enjoyment of exercise the morning after HIT and MIC, and exercise intensity preference upon completing all conditions. Mixed models analysis of variance examined differences between and within conditions controlling for demographic characteristics and habitual physical activity.

HIT resulted in up to a 90-minute TST increase on night four (448 minutes, 95% CI 422.4-474.2) compared to nights one-three. MIC nights three (43.5 minutes, 95% CI 30.4-56.6) and four (42.1 minutes 95% CI 29.0-55.2) showed nearly a 30-minute SOL worsening compared to nights one-two. No other actigraphy-measured sleep parameters differenced within or between conditions. Self-reported sleep outcomes, peripheral skin temperature change, and exercise enjoyment between conditions were similar (p>0.05). More participants preferred lower (n=3) to higher (n=1) intensity activities.

Early evening high-intensity and moderate-intensity exercise had no effect on sleep outcomes compared to a control in non-exercising adults reporting sleep complaints. Sleep benefits from HIT may require exercise on successive days. Participants indicated partiality for lower intensity exercise. More information on timing and mode of physical activity to improve sleep in this population is warranted.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The effects of assisted cycle therapy on executive and motor functioning in young adult females with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Description

Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor

Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor function in this population. Whether or not changes in executive and motor function are observed under assisted exercise conditions is unknown. This study examined the effect of a six-week cycling intervention on executive and motor-function responses in young adult females with ADHD. Participants were randomized to either a voluntary exercise (VE) or an assisted exercise (AE) group. Both groups performed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week, at either a voluntary or assisted rate, on a modified Theracycle Model 200 motorized stationary cycle ergometer. The Mann-Whitney U tests were used to detect median differences between groups, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to test median differences within groups. Executive function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in activation (MDNAE = 162 vs. MDNVE = 308, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79); planning (MDNAE = 51.0 vs. MDNAE = 40.5, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); attention (MDNAE = 13.0 vs. MDNVE = 10.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and working memory (MDNAE = 10.0 vs. MDNVE = 6.5, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79). Motor function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in manual dexterity (MDNAE = 18 vs. MDNVE = 15.8, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); bimanual coordination (MDNAE = 28.0 vs. MDNVE = 25.3, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and gross motor movements of the fingers, hands, and arms (MDNAE = 61.7 vs. MDNVE = 56.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77). Deficits in executive and motor functioning have been linked to lifelong social and psychological impairments in individuals with ADHD. Finding ways to improve functioning in these areas is important for cognitive, emotional and social stability. Compared to VE, AE is a more effective strategy for improving executive and motor functioning in young adult females with ADHD.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Sleep-related mediators of the physical activity and sedentary behavior-cardiometabolic biomarker relationship in middle age adults

Description

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep are often associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers commonly found in metabolic syndrome. These relationships are well studied, and yet there are still questions on how

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep are often associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers commonly found in metabolic syndrome. These relationships are well studied, and yet there are still questions on how each activity may affect cardiometabolic biomarkers. The objective of this study was to examine data from the BeWell24 studies to evaluate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors and cardiometabolic biomarkers in middle age adults, while also determining if sleep quality and duration mediates this relationship. A group of inactive participants (N = 29, age = 52.1 ± 8.1 years, 38% female) with increased risk for cardiometabolic disease were recruited to participate in BeWell24, a trial testing the impact of a lifestyle-based, multicomponent smartphone application targeting sleep, sedentary, and more active behaviors. During baseline, interim (4 weeks), and posttest visits (8 weeks), biomarker measurements were collected for weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), glucose (mg/dl), insulin (uU/ml), lipids (mg/dl), diastolic and systolic blood pressures (mm Hg), and C reactive protein (mg/L). Participants wore validated wrist and thigh sensors for one week intervals at each time point to measure sedentary behavior, physical activity, and sleep outcomes. Long bouts of sitting time (>30 min) significantly affected triglycerides (beta = .15 (±.07), p<.03); however, no significant mediation effects for sleep quality or duration were present. No other direct effects were observed between physical activity measurements and cardiometabolic biomarkers. The findings of this study suggest that reductions in long bouts of sitting time may support reductions in triglycerides, yet these effects were not mediated by sleep-related improvements.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017