Matching Items (10)

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Isolated text as design method for signaling learners in a multimedia learning task

Description

Web-based learning resources have been criticized as being developed with minimal consideration as to the effectiveness of the design principles or guidelines used to create them. Extraneous material is oftentimes

Web-based learning resources have been criticized as being developed with minimal consideration as to the effectiveness of the design principles or guidelines used to create them. Extraneous material is oftentimes present and necessary for learners to engage in effective learning with multimedia learning material. Signaling learners towards important information between images and corresponding text has been shown to be an effective method for providing learners a way to quickly find information between the two parts of the learning material. However, not all signaling methods are equally effective in all applications. This study investigates a novel signaling method, using spatial isolation of text, as a way to signal learners in a web-based format compared to a traditional highlighting method and a non-signaled control group. Improved learning performance was observed for knowledge retention using text isolation as the signaling method, but no other significant effects were observed between the other conditions. Additionally, transfer of knowledge across all conditions showed no significant differences either. While minimal support for the effectiveness of isolated text signaling was demonstrated, the statistical means trend across all post-test knowledge assessments suggest that further evaluation of the novel signaling method is justified.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The impact of the narrator's gender on multimedia learning

Description

The utilization of multimedia videos has increasingly become more popular, especially in the field of education. In order to facilitate learning it is important to create a natural interaction between

The utilization of multimedia videos has increasingly become more popular, especially in the field of education. In order to facilitate learning it is important to create a natural interaction between the learner and the on-screen material. This study focused on improving the facilitation of the information within a multimedia learning video by focusing on the gender and quality of computer-synthesized voices. Using a randomized pretest - posttest design the study looked at how the gender of the narrator affected a person's ability to learn and implement a new task. Narration was performed by a male and female, classic and modern synthesized voices to determine if there were gender effects across both generations of voices. The participants’ learned knowledge was assessed through a multiple-choice assessment and a word to image matching transfer assessment. Results showed no significant results. Future studies should consider a more reliable knowledge assessment and utilize and larger sample size.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The effect of story narrative in multimedia learning

Description

ELearning, distance learning, has been a fast-developing topic in educational area. In 1999, Mayer put forward “Cognitive Theory of Multimedia learning” (Moreno, & Mayer, 1999). The theory consisted of several

ELearning, distance learning, has been a fast-developing topic in educational area. In 1999, Mayer put forward “Cognitive Theory of Multimedia learning” (Moreno, & Mayer, 1999). The theory consisted of several principles. One of the principles, Modality Principle describes that when learners are presented with spoken words, their performance are better than that with on-screen texts (Mayer, R., Dow, & Mayer, S. 2003; Moreno, & Mayer, 1999).It gave an implication that learners performance can be affected by modality of learning materials. A very common tool in education in literature and language is narrative. This way of storytelling has received success in practical use. The advantages of using narrative includes (a) inherent format advantage such as simple structure and familiar language and ideas, (b) motivating learners, (c) facilitate listening, (d) oral ability and (e)provide schema for comparison in comprehension.

Although this storytelling method has been widely used in literature, language and even moral education, few studies focused it on science and technology area.

The study aims to test the effect of narrative effect in multimedia setting with science topic. A script-based story was applied. The multimedia settings include a virtual human with synthetic speech, and animation on a solar cell lesson. The experiment design is a randomized alternative- treatments design, in which participants are requested to watch a video with pedagogical agent in story format or not. Participants were collected from Amazon Mechanical Turk.

Result of transfer score and retention score showed that no significant difference between narrative and non-narrative condition. Discussion was put forward for future study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The effect of embedded questions in programming education videos

Description

One of the primary objective in a computer science related course is for students to be able to write programs implementing the concepts covered in that course. In educational psychology,

One of the primary objective in a computer science related course is for students to be able to write programs implementing the concepts covered in that course. In educational psychology, however, learning gains are more commonly measured using recall or problem solving questions. While these types of questions are relevant to computer science exams, they do not necessarily reflect a student’s ability to apply concepts by writing an original program to solve a novel problem.

This thesis investigates the effectiveness of including questions within instructional multimedia content to improve student performance on a related programming assignment. Similar techniques have proven effective in educational psychology research using other measures. The objective of this thesis is to apply educational techniques used in other domains to an experiment with real world measures of students in a computer science course. The findings of this paper demonstrate that the techniques used were promising in improving student performance on a programming assignment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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An evaluation of the modality effect: the impact of presentation style and pacing on learning, mental effort, and self-efficacy

Description

The current study investigated how multimedia pacing (learner-control versus system-paced) and presentation styles (visual-only versus audio/visual) impact learning physics concept material, mental effort, and self-efficacy. This 2X2 factorial study randomly

The current study investigated how multimedia pacing (learner-control versus system-paced) and presentation styles (visual-only versus audio/visual) impact learning physics concept material, mental effort, and self-efficacy. This 2X2 factorial study randomly assigned participants into one of four conditions that manipulated presentation style (visual-only versus audio/visual) and pacing of the content (system-paced versus learning-controlled). Participant's learning was measured by recording their retention of information and ability to transfer information. Measures of perceived difficulty (mental effort) and perceived ability (self-efficacy) were also obtained. No significant effects were observed in this study which doesn’t support the existence of either the modality or reverse modality effect at least in these noisier online learning environments. In addition, the hypothesis that their effects could be an artifact of experimental design could not be proven as the learner control condition did not yield any significant results.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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An investigation of the role of goal setting during vicarious learning of physics

Description

Observational tutoring has been found to be an effective method for teaching a variety of subjects by reusing dialogue from previous successful tutoring sessions. While it has been shown content

Observational tutoring has been found to be an effective method for teaching a variety of subjects by reusing dialogue from previous successful tutoring sessions. While it has been shown content can be learned through observational tutoring it has yet to been examined if a secondary behavior such as goal-setting can be influenced. The present study investigated if observing virtual humans engaging in a tutoring session on rotational kinematics with embedded positive goal oriented dialogue would increase knowledge of the material and perpetuate a shift an observer's goal-orientation from performance avoidance goal orientation (PAVGO) to learning goal orientation (LGO). Learning gains were observed in pre to post test knowledge retention tests. Significant changes from pretest to posttest occurred across conditions for LGO. Additionally, significant changes from PAVGO pretest to posttest were observed in the control condition however PAVGO did not significantly change in the experimental condition.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Effects of text, audio and learner control on text-sound association and cognitive load of EFL learners

Description

This study investigated the effects of concurrent audio and equivalent onscreen text on the ability of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to form associations between textual and

This study investigated the effects of concurrent audio and equivalent onscreen text on the ability of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to form associations between textual and aural forms of target vocabulary words. The study also looked at the effects of learner control over an audio sequence on the association of textual and aural forms of target words. Attitudes towards experimental treatments and reported level of cognitive load were also examined in the context of a computer-based multimedia instructional program. A total of 200 college students took part in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions in a 2 x 3 factorial design with level of learner control (learner-controlled vs. not-learner-controlled) and format of presentation of information (audio + no text vs. audio + full text vs. audio + keyword text) as factors. The subjects completed a pretest, a posttest, cognitive load questions, and an attitude questionnaire. The results revealed the following findings: (a) groups in the audio + keyword text conditions outperformed those in the audio + no text and audio + full text conditions on text-sound association, (b) within the audio + keyword text conditions, the learner-controlled group outperformed the not-learner-controlled group on text-sound association, (c) within the learner-controlled conditions, the audio + keyword group outperformed the audio + no text and audio + full text groups on text-sound association, (d) a redundancy effect was not found for any treatment condition, and (e) overall, participants had positive attitudes towards the treatments. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed within the frameworks of cognitive load theory and cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The effect of coloring on retention and transfer in multimedia learning

Description

The current study investigated the task of coloring static images with multimedia learning to determine the impact on retention and transfer scores. After watching a multimedia video on the formation

The current study investigated the task of coloring static images with multimedia learning to determine the impact on retention and transfer scores. After watching a multimedia video on the formation of lightning participants were assigned to either a passive, active, or constructive condition based on the ICAP Framework. Participants colored static images on key concepts from the video, passive condition observed the images, active condition colored the images by applying the concepts, and the constructive condition colored the images by generating new ideas and concepts. The study did not support the hypothesis that the constructive condition would have increased retention and transfer scores over the active and passive conditions. The mental effort measures did not show significance among groups in relation to learning but perception measures did show an increase in participants enjoyment and engagement. Since the coloring craze has become more accepted for adults then could coloring be a way to increase participants learning through engagement.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Learning with multimedia: are visual cues and self-explanation prompts effective?

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of visual cues and different types of self-explanation prompts on learning, cognitive load and intrinsic motivation, as well as the

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of visual cues and different types of self-explanation prompts on learning, cognitive load and intrinsic motivation, as well as the potential interaction between the two factors in a multimedia environment that was designed to deliver a computer-based lesson about the human cardiovascular system. A total of 126 college students were randomly assigned in equal numbers (N = 21) to one of the six experimental conditions in a 2 X 3 factorial design with visual cueing (visual cues vs. no cues) and type of self-explanation prompts (prediction prompts vs. reflection prompts vs. no prompts) as the between-subjects factors. They completed a pretest, subjective cognitive load questions, intrinsic motivation questions, and a posttest during the course of the experience. A subsample (49 out of 126) of the participants' eye movements were tracked by an eye tracker. The results revealed that (a) participants presented with visually cued animations had significantly higher learning outcome scores than their peers who viewed uncued animations; and (b) cognitive load and intrinsic motivation had different impacts on learning in multimedia due to the moderation effect of visual cueing. There were no other significant findings in terms of learning outcomes, cognitive load, intrinsic motivation, and eye movements. Limitations, implications and future directions are discussed within the framework of cognitive load theory, cognitive theory of multimedia learning and cognitive-affective theory of learning with media.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Late Quaternary normal faulting and hanging wall basin evolution of the southwestern rift margin from gravity and geology, B.C.S., MX and exploring the influence of text-figure format on introductory geology learning

Description

An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the

An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely rifted plate margin, gravity surveys were conducted across the normal-fault-bounded basins within the gulf-margin array and, along with optically stimulated luminescence dating of offset surfaces, fault-slip rates were estimated and fault patterns across basins were assessed, providing insight into sedimentary basin evolution. Additionally, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps were constructed along two faults within the system, leading to a more complete understanding of the role of individual normal faults within a larger array. These faults slip at a low rate (0.1-1 mm/yr) and have relatively shallow hanging wall basins (~500-3000 m). Overall, the gulf-margin faults accommodate protracted, distributed deformation at a low rate and provide a minor contribution to overall rifting. Integrating figures with text can lead to greater science learning than when either medium is presented alone. Textbooks, composed of text and graphics, are a primary source of content in most geology classes. It is essential to understand how students approach learning from text and figures in textbook-style learning materials and how the arrangement of the text and figures influences their learning approach. Introductory geology students were eye tracked while learning from textbook-style materials composed of text and graphics. Eye fixation data showed that students spent less time examining the figure than the text, but the students who more frequently examined the figure tended to improve more from the pretest to the posttest. In general, students tended to examine the figure at natural breaks in the reading. Textbook-style materials should, therefore, be formatted to include a number of natural breaks so that learners can pause to inspect the figure without the risk of losing their place in the reading and to provide a chance to process the material in small chunks. Multimedia instructional materials should be designed to support the cognitive processes of the learner.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011