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Barriers to introducing salad bars among schools in Arizona: a cross sectional study across school levels

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Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not known if barriers differ across school level. This cross-sectional study investigated the barriers to having salad bars across school level among schools without salad bars in Arizona (n=177). Multivariate binominal regression models were used to determine differences between the barriers and school level, adjusting for years at current job, enrollment of school, free-reduced eligibility rate and district level clustering. The top five barriers were not enough staff (51.4%), lack of space for salad bars (49.7%), food waste concerns (37.9%), sanitation/food safety concerns (31.3%), and time to get through the lines (28.3%) Adjusted analyses indicated two significant differences between barriers across school level: time to get through lines (p=0.040) and outside caterer/vendor (p=0.018) with time to get through lines reported more often by elementary and middle school nutrition managers and outside caterer/vendor reported most often by high school nutrition managers. There were several key barriers reported and results indicate that having an outside vendor/caterer for their meal programs and time to get through the service lines varied across school level. High schools report a higher percent of the barrier outside caterer/vendors and elementary and middle schools report a higher percent of the barrier time to get through the lines. Results indicate that research determining the approximate time it takes students to get through salad bar lines will need to be considered. More research is needed to determine if the barrier time to get through the service lines is due to selection of food items or if it is due to the enrollment size of the lunch period. Future research interventions may consider investigating food safety and sanitation concerns of middle school nutrition managers. Findings may be used to guide ways to decrease barriers in schools without salad bars.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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The prevalence and nutrition related outcomes of adolescents consuming an additional breakfast at school

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Although many studies have looked into the benefits and consequences of consuming breakfast, most have not looked into the unintended consequences of breakfast being served at school; specifically the consumption

Although many studies have looked into the benefits and consequences of consuming breakfast, most have not looked into the unintended consequences of breakfast being served at school; specifically the consumption of an additional breakfast. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and health related outcomes of the consumption of an additional breakfast at school amongst youth using a survey assessing possible predictors (i.e. parental education, morning activities, race), the ASA-kids 24-hr dietary recall, and height and weight measurements. A total of fifty-eight participants (aged 13.5±1.6 years; 55.2% male) were recruited at after school library programs and Boys and Girls Clubs in the Phoenix, Arizona Metro Area during 2014. The main outcomes measured were BMI percentile, total calories, iron, sodium, carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber. In the study, the prevalence of consumption of an additional breakfast at school at least once a week or more was 32.7%. There were no significant differences between the consumption of an additional breakfast and not an additional breakfast amongst the main outcomes measures. The directionality of the relationship between the consumption of an additional breakfast and overweight/obesity amongst youth was inverse (OR = 0.309; p-value = 0.121), but this was not significant. This study found that the consumption of an additional breakfast at school is not contributing to overweight/obesity in youth, nor does it alter overall caloric and nutrient intake. School breakfast programs are important for providing breakfast and key nutrients to youth.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Finding winnable strategies to expand the reach of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program beyond school settings

Description

Fruit and vegetable consumption among school children falls short of current recommendations. The development of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), which combine the resources of government entities with the resources of private

Fruit and vegetable consumption among school children falls short of current recommendations. The development of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), which combine the resources of government entities with the resources of private entities, such as businesses or not-for-profit agencies, has been suggested as an effective approach to address a number of public health concerns, including inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) provides fruits and vegetables as snacks at least twice per week in low-income elementary schools. In addition to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors at school, children participating in the FFVP have been found to make more requests for fruits and vegetables in grocery stores and at home, suggesting the impact of the program extends beyond school settings. The purpose of this multicase study was to describe key stakeholders' perceptions about creating PPPs between schools and nearby retailers to cross-promote fruits and vegetables in low-income communities, using the FFVP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from three cases groups: grocery store/produce managers (n=10), district FFVP personnel (n=5) and school FFVP personnel (n=12). Data were analyzed using a directed content analysis approach using constructs from the Health Belief Model, including benefits, barriers, strategies, and motivation. While findings varied by case group, key benefits of creating a PPP included the potential to increase store sales, to enhance public relations with the community, and to extend the impact of the FFVP to settings outside of schools. Barriers included offering expensive produce through the FFVP, time/labor-associated costs, and needing approval from authorities and supervisors. Strategies for developing a PPP included using seasonal produce and having clear instructions for teachers and staff. Stakeholders reported being motivated to create a PPP by the potential to improve health outcomes in children and by wanting to help the community. Both objective and subjective measures were suggested to measure the success of such a partnership. Finally, the educational component of the USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP-Ed) has the potential to serve as a catalyst for organizing a PPP between FFVP-participating schools and nearby grocery stores.

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Date Created
  • 2017