Matching Items (13)

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Before-school running-walking club: effects on physical activity and on-task behavior

Description

Background: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the United States and has been associated with low levels of physical activity. Schools are ideal physical

Background: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the United States and has been associated with low levels of physical activity. Schools are ideal physical activity promotion sites but school physical activity opportunities have decreased due the increased focus on academic performance. Before-school programs provide a good opportunity for children to engage in physical activity as well as improve their readiness to learn. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a before-school running/walking club on children's physical activity and on-task behavior. Methods: Participants were third and fourth grade children from two schools in the Southwestern United States who participated in a before-school running/walking club that met two times each week. The study employed a two-phase experimental design with an initial baseline phase and an alternating treatments phase. Physical activity was monitored using pedometers and on-task behavior was assessed through systematic observation. Data analysis included visual analysis, descriptive statistics, as well as multilevel modeling. Results: Children accumulated substantial amounts of physical activity within the before-school program (School A: 1731 steps, 10:02 MVPA minutes; School B: 1502 steps, 8:30 MVPA minutes) and, on average, did not compensate by decreasing their physical activity during the rest of the school day. Further, on-task behavior was significantly higher on days the children attended the before-school program than on days they did not (School A=15.78%, pseudo-R2=.34 [strong effect]; School B=14.26%, pseudo-R2=.22 [moderate effect]). Discussion: Results provide evidence for the positive impact of before-school programs on children's physical activity and on-task behavior. Such programs do not take time away from academics and may be an attractive option for schools.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Finding winnable strategies to expand the reach of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program beyond school settings

Description

Fruit and vegetable consumption among school children falls short of current recommendations. The development of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), which combine the resources of government entities with the resources of private

Fruit and vegetable consumption among school children falls short of current recommendations. The development of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), which combine the resources of government entities with the resources of private entities, such as businesses or not-for-profit agencies, has been suggested as an effective approach to address a number of public health concerns, including inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) provides fruits and vegetables as snacks at least twice per week in low-income elementary schools. In addition to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors at school, children participating in the FFVP have been found to make more requests for fruits and vegetables in grocery stores and at home, suggesting the impact of the program extends beyond school settings. The purpose of this multicase study was to describe key stakeholders' perceptions about creating PPPs between schools and nearby retailers to cross-promote fruits and vegetables in low-income communities, using the FFVP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from three cases groups: grocery store/produce managers (n=10), district FFVP personnel (n=5) and school FFVP personnel (n=12). Data were analyzed using a directed content analysis approach using constructs from the Health Belief Model, including benefits, barriers, strategies, and motivation. While findings varied by case group, key benefits of creating a PPP included the potential to increase store sales, to enhance public relations with the community, and to extend the impact of the FFVP to settings outside of schools. Barriers included offering expensive produce through the FFVP, time/labor-associated costs, and needing approval from authorities and supervisors. Strategies for developing a PPP included using seasonal produce and having clear instructions for teachers and staff. Stakeholders reported being motivated to create a PPP by the potential to improve health outcomes in children and by wanting to help the community. Both objective and subjective measures were suggested to measure the success of such a partnership. Finally, the educational component of the USDA's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP-Ed) has the potential to serve as a catalyst for organizing a PPP between FFVP-participating schools and nearby grocery stores.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Physical activity patterns and school aged children perceptions of after school programs

Description

With many students of all ages attending after school programs (APSs) where there are a variety of program specific goals, this study examined the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth

With many students of all ages attending after school programs (APSs) where there are a variety of program specific goals, this study examined the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth and teens attending afterschool programs as well as their physical activity during the school week. The first phase of the study used a validated observational instrument System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY) to record PA data and contextual aspects. Data was analyzed using cross-tabulations, chi-square test, and a table created to understand moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels and contextual variables of the ASP. Findings suggest both girls and boys engaged in MVPA in environments built for play, while the mean percentage of girls engaged in MVPA was less than boys regardless of activity area. The second phase of the study used a survey comprised of two self-administered instruments. The first section used the Middle School Health Behavior Survey (MSHBS), which has been previously validated to record youth and teens PA behaviors during the past school week inside and outside of school. The second portion of the survey asked youth and teens about PA participation, leisure time, perceptions of the after school program, and choices within the after school program using the validated Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics to calculate and summarize data within and across both groups. Results showed more than half of youth and teens surveyed were active in some form during the past week regardless of being in school or outside of school, approximately less than a third are in front of a television or computer for less than an hour, and the favorite part of the ASP to youth and teens was the Gym and Friends respectively.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Barriers to introducing salad bars among schools in Arizona: a cross sectional study across school levels

Description

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not

Salad bars are promoted as a means to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among school-age children; however, no study has assessed barriers to having salad bars. Further, it is not known if barriers differ across school level. This cross-sectional study investigated the barriers to having salad bars across school level among schools without salad bars in Arizona (n=177). Multivariate binominal regression models were used to determine differences between the barriers and school level, adjusting for years at current job, enrollment of school, free-reduced eligibility rate and district level clustering. The top five barriers were not enough staff (51.4%), lack of space for salad bars (49.7%), food waste concerns (37.9%), sanitation/food safety concerns (31.3%), and time to get through the lines (28.3%) Adjusted analyses indicated two significant differences between barriers across school level: time to get through lines (p=0.040) and outside caterer/vendor (p=0.018) with time to get through lines reported more often by elementary and middle school nutrition managers and outside caterer/vendor reported most often by high school nutrition managers. There were several key barriers reported and results indicate that having an outside vendor/caterer for their meal programs and time to get through the service lines varied across school level. High schools report a higher percent of the barrier outside caterer/vendors and elementary and middle schools report a higher percent of the barrier time to get through the lines. Results indicate that research determining the approximate time it takes students to get through salad bar lines will need to be considered. More research is needed to determine if the barrier time to get through the service lines is due to selection of food items or if it is due to the enrollment size of the lunch period. Future research interventions may consider investigating food safety and sanitation concerns of middle school nutrition managers. Findings may be used to guide ways to decrease barriers in schools without salad bars.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Conceptualizing social capital and active transportation to school through a social-ecological model

Description

Active transportation to school (ATS) has received an increasing amount of attention over the past decade due to its promising health contributions. Most of the existing research that surrounds ATS

Active transportation to school (ATS) has received an increasing amount of attention over the past decade due to its promising health contributions. Most of the existing research that surrounds ATS investigates factors from the physical environment as well as factors from the individual perspective that influence walking and biking to school. This research attempts to add to the existing knowledge by exploring the impact that social relationships within the neighborhood have on ATS.

A model, based on social ecological theory, was presented and tested to examine elements thought to influence ATS. A logistic regression analysis was run to determine the odds of students walking or biking based on the influence of each construct within the model. Results indicated that the physical and socio-cultural constructs were directly and significantly related to ATS behavior while the construct of safety had an indirect effect. These findings support the idea that there are several factors that operate within and across different ecological levels to influence the mode of transportation to school. Therefore, programs to promote ATS should involve multi-level strategies. In addition to the physical environment, interventions should address interpersonal relationships within the family, school, and neighborhood.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Children's perceptions of teachers' responses to bullying: relational schemas as predictors of seeking teachers' assistance

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role teacher-relational bullying schemas may have in influencing the likelihood of youth seeking teachers' assistance. The first goal of the study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role teacher-relational bullying schemas may have in influencing the likelihood of youth seeking teachers' assistance. The first goal of the study was to assess whether supportive and helpful teacher-responses to bullying schemas (TRBS) were associated with greater likelihood of involving teachers, and unhelpful TRBSs was related to lower likelihood of teacher seeking coping. The second goal was to examine possible differences in TRBS and likelihood of seeking help based on sex, grade, personal behavioral blame, personal aggression, and victimization. Towards these aims, data were gathered from 320 fourth and sixth grade students (152 boys; 168 girls) in the fall and spring of the academic year. MANOVA analyses revealed sex and grade differences, such as sixth grade boys were least likely to tell their teacher and most likely to blame their own behavior for being bullied than any other group. Results from a series of regression analyses found personal behavior blame and peer-directed aggression was related with less likelihood of telling. In addition, the association between parents or principal TRBS and telling the teacher was moderated by personal behavioral blame. Moreover, punishment predicted lower probability of telling concurrently and longitudinally.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Elementary teachers' concerns regarding students showing characteristics of a chromosomal disorder

Description

The presence of certain chromosomal disorders is not always immediately apparent at birth. Children with relatively high-incidence, but non-heritable disorders may receive delayed identification due to the sometimes subtle manifestation

The presence of certain chromosomal disorders is not always immediately apparent at birth. Children with relatively high-incidence, but non-heritable disorders may receive delayed identification due to the sometimes subtle manifestation of their disorder. Delayed identification may result in various undesirable outcomes for affected children and their families. In addition to parents, teachers can be valuable participants in the identification process. Chromosomal disorders are associated with generally predictable physical and behavioral characteristics, known as phenotype. In the present study, the influence of phenotype on teachers' student-related concerns was examined. Teachers looked at a photo and read a vignette about a fictional elementary-age student who, although not identified, showed varying degrees of the Turner syndrome phenotype. A follow-up questionnaire indicated significantly greater concerns when a student showed many versus few characteristics of behavioral phenotype. However, the effect of morphological phenotype on teacher responses was not significant. The implications for identification of chromosomal disorders are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The prevalence and nutrition related outcomes of adolescents consuming an additional breakfast at school

Description

Although many studies have looked into the benefits and consequences of consuming breakfast, most have not looked into the unintended consequences of breakfast being served at school; specifically the consumption

Although many studies have looked into the benefits and consequences of consuming breakfast, most have not looked into the unintended consequences of breakfast being served at school; specifically the consumption of an additional breakfast. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and health related outcomes of the consumption of an additional breakfast at school amongst youth using a survey assessing possible predictors (i.e. parental education, morning activities, race), the ASA-kids 24-hr dietary recall, and height and weight measurements. A total of fifty-eight participants (aged 13.5±1.6 years; 55.2% male) were recruited at after school library programs and Boys and Girls Clubs in the Phoenix, Arizona Metro Area during 2014. The main outcomes measured were BMI percentile, total calories, iron, sodium, carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber. In the study, the prevalence of consumption of an additional breakfast at school at least once a week or more was 32.7%. There were no significant differences between the consumption of an additional breakfast and not an additional breakfast amongst the main outcomes measures. The directionality of the relationship between the consumption of an additional breakfast and overweight/obesity amongst youth was inverse (OR = 0.309; p-value = 0.121), but this was not significant. This study found that the consumption of an additional breakfast at school is not contributing to overweight/obesity in youth, nor does it alter overall caloric and nutrient intake. School breakfast programs are important for providing breakfast and key nutrients to youth.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The effects of perceived barriers to healthy eating on dietary consumption among parents of elementary-school aged children

Description

Background: Healthy eating plays critical roles in the prevention of many chronic diseases, but there are many barriers in life that prevent people from adopting and maintaining healthy diets. Thus,

Background: Healthy eating plays critical roles in the prevention of many chronic diseases, but there are many barriers in life that prevent people from adopting and maintaining healthy diets. Thus, identifications of barriers that people perceive they have in trying to eat healthy can guide the strategies for dietary behavior change interventions by taking account of the barriers. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the perceived barriers to healthy eating (PBHE), to investigate the relationship between socioeconomic factors and PBHE, and to explore the associations between PBHE and dietary intake among parents of elementary-school aged children living in South Phoenix, AZ. Methods: Socioeconomic factors and PBHEs were obtained via survey and diet was assessed by two interviewer-assisted 24 h diet recalls. The associations between employment and PBHEs, education and PBHEs, and household monthly income and PBHEs were analyzed by Mann-Whitney Test, Kruskal Wallis Test, and Spearman’s correlation test, respectively. The relationship between PBHEs and dietary intake were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation test. Linear regression was used to assess the associations between total PBHE, and dietary intake (including added sugar, fruit and vegetable), adjusted by covariates (including socioeconomic status, birth country, age and gender). Results: Of 149 participants who completed the survey (mean age = 38.47±7.08 y), 136 completed the 24 h diet recalls. The mean reported total, social support, emotions and daily mechanics PBHE scores were 2.63±0.91, 2.52±1.16, 2.71±1.06, and 2.58±0.95, respectively, out of a 5-point scale. Daily fruit, vegetable, sugar-sweetened beverage, sweetened foods, and added sugar intake were reported as 1.66±1.56 servings, 2.45±1.43 servings, 1.19±1.30 servings, 2.02±2.12 servings and 49.93±31.17 g, respectively. Employment status was significantly associated with total PBHE (Z = -2.28, p=0.023), and support PBHE (Z = -2.623, p=0.009). Education was significantly related to total PBHE (χ2 = -7.987, p=0.046), and daily mechanics PBHE (χ2= 11.735, p=0.008). Household monthly income levels were significantly correlated to daily mechanics PBHE (r = -0.265, p=0.005). Added sugar was positively correlated with total PBHE (r=0.202, p=0.020), emotions PBHE (r=0.239, p=0.006), and daily mechanics PBHE (r=0.179, p=0.040). Sugar sweetened beverage intake was significantly related to emotions PBHE (r=0.183, p=0.035). When adjusting for socioeconomic factors in the regression analysis, there was no significant association between PBHE and diet intake. Conclusion: Overall, results suggest PBHEs listed in this study are mainly associated with socioeconomic factors, but they are not related to diet intake. Future studies will focus on the precise role of overcoming some identified barriers in improving healthy eating behaviors, and the causality between barriers and healthy eating.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program's influence on the home food environment and shopping practices

Description

Despite the literature suggesting that fruits and vegetables (F&V) can have a protective outcome against overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, consumption is still inadequate. In order to address under consumption

Despite the literature suggesting that fruits and vegetables (F&V) can have a protective outcome against overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, consumption is still inadequate. In order to address under consumption of F&V among children, schools have become a platform for a variety of food programs. The Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP), a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiative, aims to increase exposure and consumption of F&V in low-income school children by providing F&V snacks. Participation in FFVP has been associated with higher preference and consumption of F&V and research also suggests that the program has the potential to decrease rates of overweight and obesity. The benefits of this program have been found to extend outside of the school setting, with higher requests for F&V at home and at the grocery store. This study aims to explore how children’s participation in the FFVP influences home food environments and shopping practices through qualitative analysis focus group data. Four focus groups were held with parents (n=25) from three FFVP participating schools. The data was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis approach to find themes within the discussions. The findings were grouped into three categories: General Perceptions of FFVP, Impact of FFVP on the Home Food Environment, and Impact of FFVP on Shopping Practices. For General Perceptions of FFVP, themes were: Children learn about and enjoy F&V, awareness of farm to school programs, and children make healthier choices. Impact of FFVP on the Home Food Environment included the themes: Choosing heathier foods and snacks, parent F&V behaviors, children request F&V at home, and children talk about or bring F&V home. Finally, Impact of FFVP on Shopping Practices included the themes: children’s involvement in shopping, children request to buy F&V, children request non-produce items, and parents decline or limit unhealthy requests. This qualitative study provides valuable insights about how FFVP participation influences child and family behaviors towards F&V at home and in the grocery store. School food programs, such as the FFVP, have a positive influence on F&V related behaviors among children and should be continued and expanded.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018