Matching Items (13)

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Adaptive decentralized routing and detection of overlapping communities

Description

This dissertation studies routing in small-world networks such as grids plus long-range edges and real networks. Kleinberg showed that geography-based greedy routing in a grid-based network takes an expected number of steps polylogarithmic in the network size, thus justifying empirical

This dissertation studies routing in small-world networks such as grids plus long-range edges and real networks. Kleinberg showed that geography-based greedy routing in a grid-based network takes an expected number of steps polylogarithmic in the network size, thus justifying empirical efficiency observed beginning with Milgram. A counterpart for the grid-based model is provided; it creates all edges deterministically and shows an asymptotically matching upper bound on the route length. The main goal is to improve greedy routing through a decentralized machine learning process. Two considered methods are based on weighted majority and an algorithm of de Farias and Megiddo, both learning from feedback using ensembles of experts. Tests are run on both artificial and real networks, with decentralized spectral graph embedding supplying geometric information for real networks where it is not intrinsically available. An important measure analyzed in this work is overpayment, the difference between the cost of the method and that of the shortest path. Adaptive routing overtakes greedy after about a hundred or fewer searches per node, consistently across different network sizes and types. Learning stabilizes, typically at overpayment of a third to a half of that by greedy. The problem is made more difficult by eliminating the knowledge of neighbors' locations or by introducing uncooperative nodes. Even under these conditions, the learned routes are usually better than the greedy routes. The second part of the dissertation is related to the community structure of unannotated networks. A modularity-based algorithm of Newman is extended to work with overlapping communities (including considerably overlapping communities), where each node locally makes decisions to which potential communities it belongs. To measure quality of a cover of overlapping communities, a notion of a node contribution to modularity is introduced, and subsequently the notion of modularity is extended from partitions to covers. The final part considers a problem of network anonymization, mostly by the means of edge deletion. The point of interest is utility preservation. It is shown that a concentration on the preservation of routing abilities might damage the preservation of community structure, and vice versa.

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Date Created
2011

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Coping with selfish behavior in networks using game theory

Description

While network problems have been addressed using a central administrative domain with a single objective, the devices in most networks are actually not owned by a single entity but by many individual entities. These entities make their decisions independently and

While network problems have been addressed using a central administrative domain with a single objective, the devices in most networks are actually not owned by a single entity but by many individual entities. These entities make their decisions independently and selfishly, and maybe cooperate with a small group of other entities only when this form of coalition yields a better return. The interaction among multiple independent decision-makers necessitates the use of game theory, including economic notions related to markets and incentives. In this dissertation, we are interested in modeling, analyzing, addressing network problems caused by the selfish behavior of network entities. First, we study how the selfish behavior of network entities affects the system performance while users are competing for limited resource. For this resource allocation domain, we aim to study the selfish routing problem in networks with fair queuing on links, the relay assignment problem in cooperative networks, and the channel allocation problem in wireless networks. Another important aspect of this dissertation is the study of designing efficient mechanisms to incentivize network entities to achieve certain system objective. For this incentive mechanism domain, we aim to motivate wireless devices to serve as relays for cooperative communication, and to recruit smartphones for crowdsourcing. In addition, we apply different game theoretic approaches to problems in security and privacy domain. For this domain, we aim to analyze how a user could defend against a smart jammer, who can quickly learn about the user's transmission power. We also design mechanisms to encourage mobile phone users to participate in location privacy protection, in order to achieve k-anonymity.

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Date Created
2013

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Optimization for resource-constrained wireless networks

Description

Nowadays, wireless communications and networks have been widely used in our daily lives. One of the most important topics related to networking research is using optimization tools to improve the utilization of network resources. In this dissertation, we concentrate on

Nowadays, wireless communications and networks have been widely used in our daily lives. One of the most important topics related to networking research is using optimization tools to improve the utilization of network resources. In this dissertation, we concentrate on optimization for resource-constrained wireless networks, and study two fundamental resource-allocation problems: 1) distributed routing optimization and 2) anypath routing optimization. The study on the distributed routing optimization problem is composed of two main thrusts, targeted at understanding distributed routing and resource optimization for multihop wireless networks. The first thrust is dedicated to understanding the impact of full-duplex transmission on wireless network resource optimization. We propose two provably good distributed algorithms to optimize the resources in a full-duplex wireless network. We prove their optimality and also provide network status analysis using dual space information. The second thrust is dedicated to understanding the influence of network entity load constraints on network resource allocation and routing computation. We propose a provably good distributed algorithm to allocate wireless resources. In addition, we propose a new subgradient optimization framework, which can provide findgrained convergence, optimality, and dual space information at each iteration. This framework can provide a useful theoretical foundation for many networking optimization problems. The study on the anypath routing optimization problem is composed of two main thrusts. The first thrust is dedicated to understanding the computational complexity of multi-constrained anypath routing and designing approximate solutions. We prove that this problem is NP-hard when the number of constraints is larger than one. We present two polynomial time K-approximation algorithms. One is a centralized algorithm while the other one is a distributed algorithm. For the second thrust, we study directional anypath routing and present a cross-layer design of MAC and routing. For the MAC layer, we present a directional anycast MAC. For the routing layer, we propose two polynomial time routing algorithms to compute directional anypaths based on two antenna models, and prove their ptimality based on the packet delivery ratio metric.

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2013

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Systematic policy analysis and management

Description

With the advent of technologies such as web services, service oriented architecture and cloud computing, modern organizations have to deal with policies such as Firewall policies to secure the networks, XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) policies for controlling the

With the advent of technologies such as web services, service oriented architecture and cloud computing, modern organizations have to deal with policies such as Firewall policies to secure the networks, XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) policies for controlling the access to critical information as well as resources. Management of these policies is an extremely important task in order to avoid unintended security leakages via illegal accesses, while maintaining proper access to services for legitimate users. Managing and maintaining access control policies manually over long period of time is an error prone task due to their inherent complex nature. Existing tools and mechanisms for policy management use different approaches for different types of policies. This research thesis represents a generic framework to provide an unified approach for policy analysis and management of different types of policies. Generic approach captures the common semantics and structure of different access control policies with the notion of policy ontology. Policy ontology representation is then utilized for effectively analyzing and managing the policies. This thesis also discusses a proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed generic framework and demonstrates how efficiently this unified approach can be used for analysis and management of different types of access control policies.

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Date Created
2011

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Analysis and modeling of services impacts on system workload and performance in service-based systems (SBS)

Description

In recent years, service oriented computing (SOC) has become a widely accepted paradigm for the development of distributed applications such as web services, grid computing and cloud computing systems. In service-based systems (SBS), multiple service requests with specific performance requirements

In recent years, service oriented computing (SOC) has become a widely accepted paradigm for the development of distributed applications such as web services, grid computing and cloud computing systems. In service-based systems (SBS), multiple service requests with specific performance requirements make services compete for system resources. IT service providers need to allocate resources to services so the performance requirements of customers can be satisfied. Workload and performance models are required for efficient resource management and service performance assurance in SBS. This dissertation develops two methods to understand and model the cause-effect relations of service-related activities with resources workload and service performance. Part one presents an empirical method that requires the collection of system dynamics data and the application of statistical analyses. The results show that the method is capable to: 1) uncover the impacts of services on resource workload and service performance, 2) identify interaction effects of multiple services running concurrently, 3) gain insights about resource and performance tradeoffs of services, and 4) build service workload and performance models. In part two, the empirical method is used to investigate the impacts of services, security mechanisms and cyber attacks on resources workload and service performance. The information obtained is used to: 1) uncover interaction effects of services, security mechanisms and cyber attacks, 2) identify tradeoffs within limits of system resources, and 3) develop general/specific strategies for system survivability. Finally, part three presents a framework based on the usage profiles of services competing for resources and the resource-sharing schemes. The framework is used to: 1) uncover the impacts of service parameters (e.g. arrival distribution, execution time distribution, priority, workload intensity, scheduling algorithm) on workload and performance, and 2) build service workload and performance models at individual resources. The estimates obtained from service workload and performance models at individual resources can be aggregated to obtain overall estimates of services through multiple system resources. The workload and performance models of services obtained through both methods can be used for the efficient resource management and service performance assurance in SBS.

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Date Created
2012

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A new backoff strategy using topological persistence in wireless networks

Description

Contention based IEEE 802.11MAC uses the binary exponential backoff algorithm (BEB) for the contention resolution. The protocol suffers poor performance in the heavily loaded networks and MANETs, high collision rate and packet drops, probabilistic delay guarantees, and unfairness. Many backoff

Contention based IEEE 802.11MAC uses the binary exponential backoff algorithm (BEB) for the contention resolution. The protocol suffers poor performance in the heavily loaded networks and MANETs, high collision rate and packet drops, probabilistic delay guarantees, and unfairness. Many backoff strategies were proposed to improve the performance of IEEE 802.11 but all ignore the network topology and demand. Persistence is defined as the fraction of time a node is allowed to transmit, when this allowance should take into account topology and load, it is topology and load aware persistence (TLA). We develop a relation between contention window size and the TLA-persistence. We implement a new backoff strategy where the TLA-persistence is defined as the lexicographic max-min channel allocation. We use a centralized algorithm to calculate each node's TLApersistence and then convert it into a contention window size. The new backoff strategy is evaluated in simulation, comparing with that of the IEEE 802.11 using BEB. In most of the static scenarios like exposed terminal, flow in the middle, star topology, and heavy loaded multi-hop networks and in MANETs, through the simulation study, we show that the new backoff strategy achieves higher overall average throughput as compared to that of the IEEE 802.11 using BEB.

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Date Created
2013

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Policy-driven security management for gateway-oriented reconfigurable ecosystems

Description

With the increasing user demand for low latency, elastic provisioning of computing resources coupled with ubiquitous and on-demand access to real-time data, cloud computing has emerged as a popular

With the increasing user demand for low latency, elastic provisioning of computing resources coupled with ubiquitous and on-demand access to real-time data, cloud computing has emerged as a popular computing paradigm to meet growing user demands. However, with the introduction and rising use of wear- able technology and evolving uses of smart-phones, the concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has become a prevailing notion in the currently growing technology industry. Cisco Inc. has projected a data creation of approximately 403 Zetabytes (ZB) by 2018. The combination of bringing benign devices and connecting them to the web has resulted in exploding service and data aggregation requirements, thus requiring a new and innovative computing platform. This platform should have the capability to provide robust real-time data analytics and resource provisioning to clients, such as IoT users, on-demand. Such a computation model would need to function at the edge-of-the-network, forming a bridge between the large cloud data centers and the distributed connected devices.

This research expands on the notion of bringing computational power to the edge- of-the-network, and then integrating it with the cloud computing paradigm whilst providing services to diverse IoT-based applications. This expansion is achieved through the establishment of a new computing model that serves as a platform for IoT-based devices to communicate with services in real-time. We name this paradigm as Gateway-Oriented Reconfigurable Ecosystem (GORE) computing. Finally, this thesis proposes and discusses the development of a policy management framework for accommodating our proposed computational paradigm. The policy framework is designed to serve both the hosted applications and the GORE paradigm by enabling them to function more efficiently. The goal of the framework is to ensure uninterrupted communication and service delivery between users and their applications.

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Date Created
2015

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Large-scale wireless networks: stochastic geometry and ordering

Description

Recently, the location of the nodes in wireless networks has been modeled as point processes. In this dissertation, various scenarios of wireless communications in large-scale networks modeled as point processes are considered. The first part of the dissertation considers signal

Recently, the location of the nodes in wireless networks has been modeled as point processes. In this dissertation, various scenarios of wireless communications in large-scale networks modeled as point processes are considered. The first part of the dissertation considers signal reception and detection problems with symmetric alpha stable noise which is from an interfering network modeled as a Poisson point process. For the signal reception problem, the performance of space-time coding (STC) over fading channels with alpha stable noise is studied. We derive pairwise error probability (PEP) of orthogonal STCs. For general STCs, we propose a maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver, and its approximation. The resulting asymptotically optimal receiver (AOR) does not depend on noise parameters and is computationally simple, and close to the ML performance. Then, signal detection in coexisting wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is considered. We define a binary hypothesis testing problem for the signal detection in coexisting WSNs. For the problem, we introduce the ML detector and simpler alternatives. The proposed mixed-fractional lower order moment (FLOM) detector is computationally simple and close to the ML performance. Stochastic orders are binary relations defined on probability. The second part of the dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of interferences in large-scale networks modeled as point processes. Since closed-form results for the interference distributions for such networks are only available in limited cases, it is of interest to compare network interferences using stochastic. In this dissertation, conditions on the fading distribution and path-loss model are given to establish stochastic ordering between interferences. Moreover, Laplace functional (LF) ordering is defined between point processes and applied for comparing interference. Then, the LF orderings of general classes of point processes are introduced. It is also shown that the LF ordering is preserved when independent operations such as marking, thinning, random translation, and superposition are applied. The LF ordering of point processes is a useful tool for comparing spatial deployments of wireless networks and can be used to establish comparisons of several performance metrics such as coverage probability, achievable rate, and resource allocation even when closed form expressions for such metrics are unavailable.

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2014

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Learning with attributed networks: algorithms and applications

Description

Attributes - that delineating the properties of data, and connections - that describing the dependencies of data, are two essential components to characterize most real-world phenomena. The synergy between these two principal elements renders a unique data representation - the

Attributes - that delineating the properties of data, and connections - that describing the dependencies of data, are two essential components to characterize most real-world phenomena. The synergy between these two principal elements renders a unique data representation - the attributed networks. In many cases, people are inundated with vast amounts of data that can be structured into attributed networks, and their use has been attractive to researchers and practitioners in different disciplines. For example, in social media, users interact with each other and also post personalized content; in scientific collaboration, researchers cooperate and are distinct from peers by their unique research interests; in complex diseases studies, rich gene expression complements to the gene-regulatory networks. Clearly, attributed networks are ubiquitous and form a critical component of modern information infrastructure. To gain deep insights from such networks, it requires a fundamental understanding of their unique characteristics and be aware of the related computational challenges.

My dissertation research aims to develop a suite of novel learning algorithms to understand, characterize, and gain actionable insights from attributed networks, to benefit high-impact real-world applications. In the first part of this dissertation, I mainly focus on developing learning algorithms for attributed networks in a static environment at two different levels: (i) attribute level - by designing feature selection algorithms to find high-quality features that are tightly correlated with the network topology; and (ii) node level - by presenting network embedding algorithms to learn discriminative node embeddings by preserving node proximity w.r.t. network topology structure and node attribute similarity. As changes are essential components of attributed networks and the results of learning algorithms will become stale over time, in the second part of this dissertation, I propose a family of online algorithms for attributed networks in a dynamic environment to continuously update the learning results on the fly. In fact, developing application-aware learning algorithms is more desired with a clear understanding of the application domains and their unique intents. As such, in the third part of this dissertation, I am also committed to advancing real-world applications on attributed networks by incorporating the objectives of external tasks into the learning process.

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Date Created
2019

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A network function virtualization based load balancer for TCP

Description

A load balancer is an essential part of many network systems. A load balancer is capable of dividing and redistributing incoming network traffic to different back end servers, thus improving reliability and performance. Existing load balancing solutions can be classified

A load balancer is an essential part of many network systems. A load balancer is capable of dividing and redistributing incoming network traffic to different back end servers, thus improving reliability and performance. Existing load balancing solutions can be classified into two categories: hardware-based or software-based. Hardware-based load balancing systems are hard to manage and force network administrators to scale up (replacing with more powerful but expensive hardware) when their system can not handle the growing traffic. Software-based solutions have a limitation when dealing with a single large TCP flow. In recent years, with the fast developments of virtualization technology, a new trend of network function virtualization (NFV) is being adopted. Instead of using proprietary hardware, an NFV network infrastructure uses virtual machines running to implement network functions such as load balancers, firewalls, etc. In this thesis, a new load balancing system is designed and evaluated. This system is high performance and flexible. It can fully utilize the bandwidth between a load balancer and back end servers compared to traditional load balancers such as HAProxy. The experimental results show that using this NFV load balancer could have $n$ ($n$ is the number of back end servers) times better performance than HAProxy. Also, an extract, transform and load (ETL) application was implemented to demonstrate that this load balancer can shorten data load time. The experiment shows that when loading a large data set (18.3GB), our load balancer needs only 28\% less time than traditional load balancer.

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Date Created
2015