Matching Items (9)

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Immunogenic subviral particles displaying domain III of dengue 2 envelope protein vectored by measles virus

Description

Vaccines against the arthropod-borne dengue virus (DENV) are still commercially nonexistent. A subunit immunization strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as a biologically active

Vaccines against the arthropod-borne dengue virus (DENV) are still commercially nonexistent. A subunit immunization strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as a biologically active adjuvant. The DENV envelope protein (E), the main target for neutralizing immune responses, has three conformational domains. The immunoglobulin-like and independently folding domain III (DIII) contains epitopes that elicit highly specific neutralizing antibodies. The hepatitis B small surface antigen (HBsAg, S) was used as a scaffold to display DENV 2 DIII on a virus-like particle (VLP). A measles virus (MV) was engineered to vector HBsAg and the hybrid glycoprotein DIII-HBsAg in two different loci (DIII-S). Despite the relatively deleterious effect on replication caused by the insertion of two transcription cassettes, the recombinant virus MVvac2(DIII-S,S)P induced the secretion of DIII-S hybrid VLP with a similar sucrose density as HBsAg particles (1.10-1.12g/ml) and peaked at 48 h post-infection producing 1.3x106 TCID50/ml infectious MV units in vitro. A second recombinant virus, MVvac2(DIII-S)N, was engineered to vector only the hybrid DIII-S. However, it did not induce the secretion of hybrid HBsAg particles in the supernatant of infected cells. The immunogenicity of the recombinant viruses was tested in a MV-susceptible small animal model, the experimental group which received two 105 TCID50 I.P. doses of MVvac2(DIII-S,S)P in a 28 day interval developed a robust immune response against MV (1:1280), HBsAg (787 mIU/ml) and DENV2 (Log10 neutralization index of 1.2) on average. In summary, it is possible to display DENV E DIII on hybrid HBsAg particles vectored by MV that elicit an immune response. This forms the basis for a potential vaccine platform against DENV.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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An in vitro selected sequence capable of ultrahigh transgene expression in vaccinia virus infected cells

Description

Recombinant protein expression is essential to biotechnology and molecular medicine, but facile methods for obtaining significant quantities of folded and functional protein in mammalian cell culture have been lacking. Here

Recombinant protein expression is essential to biotechnology and molecular medicine, but facile methods for obtaining significant quantities of folded and functional protein in mammalian cell culture have been lacking. Here I describe a novel 37-nucleotide in vitro selected sequence that promotes unusually high transgene expression in a vaccinia driven cytoplasmic expression system. Vectors carrying this sequence in a monocistronic reporter plasmid produce >1,000-fold more protein than equivalent vectors with conventional vaccinia promoters. Initial mechanistic studies indicate that high protein expression results from dual activity that impacts both transcription and translation. I suggest that this motif represents a powerful new tool in vaccinia-based protein expression and vaccine development technology.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Improving expression vectors for recombinant protein production in plants

Description

Over the past decade, several high-value proteins have been produced using plant-based transient expression systems. However, these studies exposed some limitations that must be overcome to allow plant expression systems

Over the past decade, several high-value proteins have been produced using plant-based transient expression systems. However, these studies exposed some limitations that must be overcome to allow plant expression systems to reach their full potential. These limitations are the low level of recombinant protein accumulation achieved in some cases, and lack of efficient co-expression vectors for the production of multi-protein complexes. This study report that tobacco Extensin (Ext) gene 3' untranslated region (UTR) can be broadly used to enhance recombinant protein expression in plants. Extensin is the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein that constitutes the major protein component of cell walls. Using transient expression, it was found that the Ext 3' UTR increases recombinant protein expression up to 13.5- and 6-fold in non-replicating and replicating vector systems, respectively, compared to previously established terminators. Enhanced protein accumulation was correlated with increased mRNA levels associated with reduction in read-through transcription. Regions of Ext 3' UTR essential for maximum gene expression included a poly-purine sequence used as a major poly-adenylation site. Furthermore, modified bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV)-based vectors designed to allow co-expression of multiple recombinant genes were constructed and tested for their performance in driving transient expression in plants. Robust co-expression and assembly of heavy and light chains of the anti-Ebola virus monoclonal antibody 6D8, as well as E. coli heat-labile toxin (LT) were achieved with the modified vectors. The simultaneous co-expression of three fluoroproteins using the single replicon, triple cassette is demonstrated by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, this study provides an excellent tool for rapid, cost-effective, large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins for use in medicine and industry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Recombinant expression, purification, and reconstitution of the Chloroplast ATP Synthase c-subunit Ring

Description

ATP synthase is a large multimeric protein complex responsible for generating the energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in most organisms. The catalysis involves the rotation of a ring of c-subunits,

ATP synthase is a large multimeric protein complex responsible for generating the energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in most organisms. The catalysis involves the rotation of a ring of c-subunits, which is driven by the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This dissertation reports how the eukaryotic c-subunit from spinach chloroplast ATP synthase has successfully been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in mg quantities by incorporating a unique combination of methods. Expression was accomplished using a codon optimized gene for the c-subunit, and it was expressed as an attachment to the larger, more soluble, native maltose binding protein (MBP-c1). The fusion protein MBP-c1 was purified on an affinity column, and the c1 subunit was subsequently severed by protease cleavage in the presence of detergent. Final purification of the monomeric c1 subunit was accomplished using reversed phase column chromatography with ethanol as an eluent. Circular dichroism spectroscopy data showed clear evidence that the purified c-subunit is folded with the native alpha-helical secondary structure. Recent experiments appear to indicate that this monomeric recombinant c-subunit forms an oligomeric ring that is similar to its native tetradecameric form when reconstituted in liposomes. The F-type ATP synthase c-subunit stoichiometry is currently known to vary from 8 to 15 subunits among different organisms. This has a direct influence on the metabolic requirements of the corresponding organism because each c-subunit binds and transports one H+ across the membrane as the ring makes a complete rotation. The c-ring rotation drives rotation of the gamma-subunit, which in turn drives the synthesis of 3 ATP for every complete rotation. The availability of a recombinantly produced c-ring will lead to new experiments which can be designed to investigate the possible factors that determine the variable c-ring stoichiometry and structure.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Expression of dengue virus envelope glycoproteins using a measles vaccine vector

Description

ABSTRACT In terms of prevalence, human suffering and costs dengue infections are the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and the etiological agent

ABSTRACT In terms of prevalence, human suffering and costs dengue infections are the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and the etiological agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Thus, development of a safe and efficient vaccine constitutes an urgent necessity. Besides the traditional strategies aim at generating immunization options, the usage of viral vectors to deliver antigenic stimulus in order to elicit protection are particularly attractive for the endeavor of a dengue vaccine. The viral vector (MVvac2) is genetically equivalent to the currently used measles vaccine strain Moraten, which adds practicality to my approach. The goal of the present study was to generate a recombinant measles virus expressing structural antigens from two strains of DENV (DENV2 and DENV4) The recombinant vectors replication profile was comparable to that of the parental strain and expresses either membrane bound or soluble forms of DENV2 and DENV4 E glycoproteins. I discuss future experiments in order to demonstrate its immunogenicity in our measles-susceptible mouse model.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Characterization of host responses to Vaccinia virus infection

Description

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the current vaccine for the highly infectious smallpox disease. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has been developed extensively as a heterologous vaccine vector for several

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the current vaccine for the highly infectious smallpox disease. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has been developed extensively as a heterologous vaccine vector for several pathogens. However, due to the complications associated with this replication competent virus, the safety and efficacy of VACV vaccine vector has been reevaluated. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of VACV, we study the interactions between VACV and the host innate immune system, especially the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. In this work, we evaluated the role of protein kinase R (PKR) and Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA 1(ADAR1), which are induced by IFN, in VACV infection. We found that PKR is necessary but is not sufficient to activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in the induction of type I IFN; and the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase/ c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase is required for the PKR-dependent activation of IRF3 during VACV infection. Even though PKR was found to have an antiviral effect in VACV, ADAR1 was found to have a pro-viral effect by destabilizing double stranded RNA (dsRNA), rescuing VACVΔE3L, VACV deleted of the virulence factor E3L, when provided in trans. With the lessons we learned from VACV and host cells interaction, we have developed and evaluated a safe replication-competent VACV vaccine vector for HIV. Our preliminary results indicate that our VACV vaccine vector can still induce the IFN pathway while maintaining the ability to replicate and to express the HIV antigen efficiently. This suggests that this VACV vector can be used as a safe and efficient vaccine vector for HIV.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate independent cyclic adenosine monophosphate receptor protein in recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines

Description

Salmonella enterica is a gastrointestinal (GI) pathogen that can cause systemic diseases. It invades the host through the GI tract and can induce powerful immune responses in addition to disease.

Salmonella enterica is a gastrointestinal (GI) pathogen that can cause systemic diseases. It invades the host through the GI tract and can induce powerful immune responses in addition to disease. Thus, it is considered as a promising candidate to use as oral live vaccine vectors. Scientists have been making great efforts to get a properly attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain for a long time, but could not achieve a balance between attenuation and immunogenicity. So the regulated delayed attenuation/lysis Salmonella vaccine vectors were proposed as a design to seek this balance. The research work is progressing steadily, but more improvements need to be made. As one of the possible improvements, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) -independent cAMP receptor protein (Crp*) is expected to protect the Crp-dependent crucial regulator, araC PBAD, in these vaccine designs from interference by glucose, which decreases synthesis of cAMP, and enhance the colonizing ability by and immunogenicity of the vaccine strains. In this study, the cAMP-independent crp gene mutation, crp-70, with or without araC PBAD promoter cassette, was introduced into existing Salmonella vaccine strains. Then the plasmid stability, growth rate, resistance to catabolite repression, colonizing ability, immunogenicity and protection to challenge of these new strains were compared with wild-type crp or araC PBAD crp strains using western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and animal studies, so as to evaluate the effects of the crp-70 mutation on the vaccine strains. The performances of the crp-70 strains in some aspects were closed to or even exceeded the crp+ strains, but generally they did not exhibit the expected advantages compared to their wild-type parents. Crp-70 rescued the expression of araC PBAD fur from catabolite repression. The strain harboring araC PBAD crp-70 was severely affected by its slow growth, and its colonizing ability and immunogenicity was much weaker than the other strains. The Pcrp crp-70 strain showed relatively good ability in colonization and immune stimulation. Both the araC PBAD crp-70 and the Pcrp crp-70 strains could provide certain levels of protection against the challenge with virulent pneumococci, which were a little lower than for the crp+ strains.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Vaccination strategy to protect against flavivirus infection based on recombinant measles vaccine

Description

Despite the approval of a Dengue virus (DV) vaccine in five endemic countries, dengue prevention would benefit from an immunization strategy highly immunogenic in young infants and not curtailed by

Despite the approval of a Dengue virus (DV) vaccine in five endemic countries, dengue prevention would benefit from an immunization strategy highly immunogenic in young infants and not curtailed by viral interference. Problematically, infants younger than 9 year of age, whom are particularly prone to Dengue severe infection and death, cannot be immunized using current approved DV vaccine. The most important issues documented so far are the lack of efficiency and enhancement of the disease in young seronegative recipients, as well as uneven protection against the four DV serotypes. Based on data from clinical trials that showed enhanced performance of dengue vaccines when the host has previous anti-flaviviral immunity, I proposed here an attractive solution to complement the current vaccine: a recombinant measles vaccine vectoring dengue protective antigens to be administered to young infants. I hypothesized that recombinant measles virus expressing Dengue 2 and 4 antigens would successfully induce neutralizing responses against DV2 and 4 and the vaccine cocktail of this recombinant measles can prime anti-flaviviral neutralizing immunity. For this dissertation, I generated and performed preclinical immune assessment for four novel Measles-Dengue (MV-DV) vaccine candidates. I generated four MVs expressing the pre membrane (prM) and full length or truncated (90%) forms of the major envelope (E) from DV2 and DV4. Two virus, MVvac2-DV2(prME)N and MVvac2-DV4(prME), expressed high levels of membrane associated full-length E, while the other two viruses, MVvac2-DV2(prMEsol)N and MVvac2-DV4(prMEsol)N, expressed and secreted truncated, soluble E protein to its extracellular environment. The last two vectored vaccines proved superior anti-dengue neutralizing responses comparing to its corresponding full length vectors. Remarkably, when MVvac2-DV2/4(prMEsol)N recombinant vaccines were combined, the vaccine cocktail was able to prime cross-neutralizing responses against DV 1 and the relatively distant 17D yellow fever virus attenuated strain. Thus, I identify a promising DV vaccination strategy, MVvac2-DV2/4(prMEsol)N, which can prime broad neutralizing immune responses by using only two of the four available DV serotypes. The current MV immunization scheme can be advantageus to prime broad anti-flaviviral neutralizing immunity status, which will be majorly boosted by subsequent chimeric Dengue vaccine approaches.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Enhancement of polymer-mediated transgene expression using chemotherapeutic modulators of intracellular trafficking and cell-cycle progression

Description

Gene therapy is a promising technology for the treatment of various nonheritable and genetically acquired diseases. It involves delivery of a therapeutic gene into target cells to induce cellular responses

Gene therapy is a promising technology for the treatment of various nonheritable and genetically acquired diseases. It involves delivery of a therapeutic gene into target cells to induce cellular responses against diseases. Successful gene therapy requires an efficient gene delivery vector to deliver genetic materials into target cells. There are two major classes of gene delivery vectors: viral and non-viral vectors. Recently, non-viral vectors such as cationic polymers have attracted more attention than viral vectors because they are versatile and non-immunogenic. However, cationic polymers suffer from poor gene delivery efficiency due to biological barriers. The objective of this research is to develop strategies to overcome the barriers and enhance polymer-mediated transgene expression. This study aimed to (i) develop new polymer vectors for gene delivery, (ii) investigate the intracellular barriers in polymer-mediated gene delivery, and (iii) explore new approaches to overcome the barriers. A cationic polymer library was developed by employing a parallel synthesis and high-throughput screening method. Lead polymers from the library were identified from the library based on relative levels of transgene expression and toxicity in PC3-PSMA prostate cancer cells. However, transgene expression levels were found to depend on intracellular localization of polymer-gene complexes (polyplexes). Transgene expression was higher when polyplexes were dispersed rather than localized in the cytoplasm. Combination treatments using small molecule chemotherapeutic drugs, e.g. histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) or Aurora kinase inhibitor (AKI) increased dispersion of polyplexes in the cytoplasm and significantly enhanced transgene expression. The combination treatment using polymer-mediated delivery of p53 tumor-suppressor gene and AKI increased p53 expression in PC3-PSMA cells, inhibited the cell proliferation by ~80% and induced apoptosis. Polymer-mediated p53 gene delivery in combination with AKI offers a promising treatment strategy for in vivo and clinical studies of cancer gene therapy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011