Matching Items (16)

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Eating in the absence of hunger in college students

Description

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and to the smell of food, are innate but can be affected by body conditions such as BMI and physical activity. Further, some hunger regulation methods stem from learned behaviors originating from cultural pressures or parenting styles. These latter regulation methods for hunger can be grouped into the categories: emotion, environment, and physical. The factors that regulate hunger can also influence the incidence of disordered eating, such as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Eating in the absence of hunger can occur in one of two scenarios, continuous EAH or beginning EAH. College students are at a particularly high risk for EAH and weight gain due to stress, social pressures, and the constant availability of energy dense and nutrient poor food options. The purpose of this study is to validate a modified EAH-C survey in college students and to discover which of the three latent factors (emotion, environment, physical) best predicts continual and beginning EAH. To do so, a modified EAH-C survey, with additional demographic components, was administered to students at a major southwest university. This survey contained two questions, one each for continuing and beginning EAH, regarding 14 factors related to emotional, physical, or environmental reasons that may trigger EAH. The results from this study revealed that the continual and beginning EAH surveys displayed good internal consistency reliability. We found that for beginning and continuing EAH, although emotion is the strongest predictor of EAH, all three latent factors are significant predictors of EAH. In addition, we found that environmental factors had the greatest influence on an individual's likelihood to continue to eat in the absence of hunger. Due to statistical abnormalities and differing numbers of factors in each category, we were unable to determine which of the three factors exerted the greatest influence on an individual's likelihood to begin eating in the absence of hunger. These results can be utilized to develop educational tools aimed at reducing EAH in college students, and ultimately reducing the likelihood for unhealthy weight gain and health complications related to obesity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Service-related conditions and higher-order cognitive processing in military veteran college students

Description

Military veterans have a significantly higher incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), depression, and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to civilians. Military veterans also represent a rapidly growing subgrou

Military veterans have a significantly higher incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), depression, and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to civilians. Military veterans also represent a rapidly growing subgroup of college students, due in part to the robust and financially incentivizing educational benefits under the Post-9/11 GI Bill. The overlapping cognitively impacting symptoms of service-related conditions combined with the underreporting of mTBI and psychiatric-related conditions, make accurate assessment of cognitive performance in military veterans challenging. Recent research findings provide conflicting information on cognitive performance patterns in military veterans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether service-related conditions and self-assessments predict performance on complex working memory and executive function tasks for military veteran college students. Sixty-one military veteran college students attending classes at Arizona State University campuses completed clinical neuropsychological tasks and experimental working memory and executive function tasks. The results revealed that a history of mTBI significantly predicted poorer performance in the areas of verbal working memory and decision-making. Depression significantly predicted poorer performance in executive function related to serial updating. In contrast, the commonly used clinical neuropsychological tasks were not sensitive service-related conditions including mTBI, PTSD, and depression. The differing performance patterns observed between the clinical tasks and the more complex experimental tasks support that researchers and clinicians should use tests that sufficiently tax verbal working memory and executive function when evaluating the subtle, higher-order cognitive deficits associated with mTBI and depression.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Testing whether alternative goals of multifinal means are considered helpful in working towards a primary dietary goal in college students

Description

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets,

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets, Americans continue to find difficulty in establishing and adhering to dietary goals that could elicit long-term health benefits. Recent research suggests an important role for goal-setting strategies in health behavior change attempts, with some success shown in dietary behavior change, specifically. The current study thus aimed to explore whether having multiple goals alongside one primary goal of following a vegetarian, vegan, or pescatarian diet would increase the achievability of that goal. Participants of this study were broken into two groups: currently following a plant-based diet (ADHERE) and striving to follow a plant-based diet (STRIVE). Researchers hypothesized that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals set by participants would differ between the two groups, that the ADHERE group would report that their alternative goals were more helpful and less interfering in achieving their dietary goal than the STRIVE group, and that a higher rank of importance of the dietary goal would predict being in the ADHERE group. Results showed that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals did not differ between groups. The ADHERE group and STRIVE group did not have significantly different helpfulness and interference reports. Although, in an exploratory analysis, it was shown that those participants who reported at least 2 health/diet related alternative goals found those goals to be significantly more helpful than those who reported 0 or 1 health/diet goal. Results showed that rank of dietary goal did not predict group assignment. Overall, the results from this study showed that the type of alternative goal was very important when pursuit of multiple goals was in effect. Type of alternative goal seemed to be a higher predictor of the perceived helpfulness of the alternative goals than previous achievement of goals.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Novel approaches to increasing stair use in a university population

Description

Research indicates that adults are not acquiring enough physical activity. Increasing the use of stairs is an accessible way to weave high intensity physical activity into the daily routine. The

Research indicates that adults are not acquiring enough physical activity. Increasing the use of stairs is an accessible way to weave high intensity physical activity into the daily routine. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of four environmental changes on ascending stair use in a mixed population of college students, faulty, and staff on a southwest college campus. The study design included a 10-week time series design with alternating baseline and intervention phases, including a directional cue represented by footprints on the ground, a positive prompt, a deterrent prompt and a combination phase. Data was collected with both an in-person tally and a video recording device. The study included 6,140 observations and coded variables included stair use, sex, number of bags carried, temperature, and volume. Rater reliability ranged from .81 to 1.0. Multivariate logistic regression was used to perform the statistic analysis. Stair use increased significantly from Washout 1 and the positive prompting phase with a 7% absolute increase and an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% CI 1.080-1.696). Stair use during the footprint phase, deterrent phase and combination phase did not increase significantly compared to the previous baseline or washout phases. Day of the week (Monday=reference, Tuesday CI=1.626, 95% CI 1.298-2.011, Wednesday OR=0.457, 95% CI 0.248-0.841, Thursday OR=1.434, 95% CI 1.164-1.766), sex (OR=1.376, 95% CI 1.173-1.613) and volume (OR=1.007, 95% CI 1.005-1.008) were significantly correlated to stair use. Women used the stairs more than men and higher volume situations were related to increased stair use. Temperature and baggage number were not related to stair use. The results of this study indicate that positive prompting with an environmental message theme is an effective method to increase stair use in a university setting.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The impact of adherence to a vegan diet on acid-base balance: : a randomized controlled trial in healthy college students

Description

There is a considerable amount of research stating that vegetarian diets have an alkalizing effect while the typical western diet is acid-forming. There is substantial evidence regarding the health benefits

There is a considerable amount of research stating that vegetarian diets have an alkalizing effect while the typical western diet is acid-forming. There is substantial evidence regarding the health benefits of an alkaline diet. Although vegetarian diets demonstrate the ability to foster these health benefits, many people are still not willing to adopt a completely vegetarian diet. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of following a vegan diet two or three days per week on acid-base balance in a healthy college student population aged 18-30. METHODS: In a one-week interventional design, 23 people were randomly assigned to follow a vegan diet 2 days per week (VEG2;n=7), 3 days per week(VEG3;n=8), or 7 days per week (VEG7;n=8). Urine pH and dietary PRAL were assessed in each group at baseline and after the one-week intervention. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in urinary pH between the three groups (p=0.12). The change in PRAL values after the dietary intervention was different between the 3 groups (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Adherence to a vegan diet 2 or 3 days per week did not show a significant change in urinary pH or PRAL.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The association between residency status, social connectedness, and nutrition and physical activity behaviors among diverse college freshmen

Description

Objectives

This cross-sectional study sought to assess the eating and physical activity behaviors among in-state and out-of-state college freshmen attending Arizona State University and to determine if social connectedness mediated the

Objectives

This cross-sectional study sought to assess the eating and physical activity behaviors among in-state and out-of-state college freshmen attending Arizona State University and to determine if social connectedness mediated the relationship between residency status and eating and physical activity behaviors.

Methods

College freshmen from two dormitories were recruited for participation from Arizona State University’s Tempe campus. A 128-item survey assessing demographics, college life, eating and physical activity behaviors, and social connectedness was administered. In addition, participants completed up to three days of dietary recall. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, ethnicity, highest parental education, dormitory, Pell grant status, number of dietary recalls, and availability of a weekend day of dietary recall were used to assess the relationships between residency status, social connectedness, and eating and physical activity behaviors.

Results

No associations were observed between residency status and calories, grams and percentage of calories from fat, and added sugar. There was a statistically significant association between residency status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In-state students reported 21 minutes less per day of MVPA than out-of-state students did (β=-20.85; 95% CI=-30.68, -11.02; p<0.001). There was no relationship between residency status and social connectedness. Social connectedness and eating and physical activity behaviors were not associated. Social connectedness did not mediate the relationship between residency status and eating and physical activity behaviors.

Conclusions

In-state and out-of-state students differed in their MVPA; however, this relationship was not mediated by social connectedness. Further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between MVPA and residency status. In addition, more studies are needed to assess the relationship between social connectedness and MVPA.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Associations among depressive mood, BMI, and added sugar consumption among Arizona State University freshmen

Description

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between depression and eating behaviors, most have not looked into the interaction between depressive mood, weight status, and eating behaviors; specifically the

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between depression and eating behaviors, most have not looked into the interaction between depressive mood, weight status, and eating behaviors; specifically the consumption of added sugars. This longitudinal study examined the relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption among college freshmen, and how weight status play a role in this relationship. A web-based survey assessing depressive mood score and added-sugar foods consumption, and height and weight measurements were obtained. A total of 511 participants (aged 18.5±0.4 years; 70.5% females) were recruited at Arizona State University from August 2015 through January 2016. The main outcomes measured were the relationship between depressive mood score and added sugar consumption (tsp/d) within each participants and between mean weight status groups (underweight & “healthy” weight, overweight, and obese). In the study, the mean added sugar consumption was 19.1±11.87 tsp/d. There were no significant association between depressive mood and added sugar consumption within or between freshman students over time. But overall, there was a slightly positive relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption across four time points. No significant interaction was found between BMI, depressive mood, and added sugar consumption within each student, but significant differences in the relationship of depressive mood and added sugar between mean weight status groups (p=0.025). Each individual’s BMI in the previous time points was significantly negatively associated with added sugar consumption in the current time points (beta = -0.70; p=0.010). The results from this study indicates that depressive mood may not affect added sugar intake in this sample. BMI did not have an impact on the relationship within each student, but have an impact between mean weight status groups, so further studies are needed to continue look at how BMI influences the relationship between depressive mood and added sugar consumption.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Are weight and diet related to the gut microbiome in healthy college students living in the dorms?: a cross-sectional observational analysis

Description

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring the gut microbiome and its associations with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is limited among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between the gut microbiome, BMI, and dietary intake in a population of healthy college students living in two dorms at Arizona State University (n=90). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken including 24-hour dietary recalls and anthropometrics (height, weight and BMI). High throughput Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal samples was performed to quantify the gut microbiome and analyses were performed at phyla and family levels. Within this population, the mean BMI was 24.4 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and mean caloric intake was 1684 ± 947 kcals/day. Bacterial community analysis revealed that there were four predominant phyla and 12 predominant families accounting for 99.3% and 97.1% of overall microbial communities, respectively. Results of this study suggested that a significant association occurred between one principal component (impacted most by 22 microbial genera primarily within Firmicutes) and BMI (R2=0.053, p=0.0301). No significant correlations or group differences were observed when assessing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in relation to BMI or habitual dietary intake. These results provide a basis for gut microbiome research in college populations. Although, findings suggest that groups of microbial genera may be most influential in obesity, further longitudinal research is necessary to more accurately describe these associations over me. Findings from future research may be used to develop interventions to shift the gut microbiome to help moderate or prevent excess weight gain during this important life stage.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Effects of artificial lighting in dormitories on college students' physiology and production

Description

The artificial lighting plays crucial role in the human life in the contemporary,

globalized and highly complex world. Its influence on the physical and psychological

health of the humans was

The artificial lighting plays crucial role in the human life in the contemporary,

globalized and highly complex world. Its influence on the physical and psychological

health of the humans was studied by numerous reputable scholars from across the globe,

however this study focuses on the impact of light on the college students living in the

dormitories. The study seeks to find whether there is a correlation between light and health

of the student, his/her performance, productivity, mood and feelings. The paper uses a

relatively new housing near Arizona State University Tempe-campus as a case study as an

attempt to substantiate the problem dimensions and suggest feasible solutions.

Basing on the available literature on the topic and the case study evaluation, the

author determined the range of possible recommendations for the lighting professionals in

the industry to maximally satisfy the needs of the students and make their stay and life in

the dormitory comfortable and healthy experience. The relevant conclusions are made

basing on the obtained results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019