Matching Items (9)

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Measurement of molecular conductance

Description

This dissertation describes the work on two projects which involves measuring molecular conductance and studying their properties on the nanoscale using various Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. The first molecule

This dissertation describes the work on two projects which involves measuring molecular conductance and studying their properties on the nanoscale using various Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. The first molecule studied was a porphyrin-fullerene moiety known as a molecular Dyad for photovoltaic applications. This project is further divided into two section, the first one involving the characterization of the Dyad monolayers and conductance measurement in the dark. The Dyads are designed to form charge separated states on illumination. The lifetime of the charged states have been measured efficiently but the single-molecule conductance through the molecules have yet to be characterized. The second part of the project describes the set-up of a novel sample stage which enables the study of molecular conductance under illumination. This part also describes the subsequent study of the molecule under illumination and the observation of a unique charge-separated state. It also contains the verification of the presence of this charge-separated using other characterization techniques like transient absorption spectroscopy. The second project described in the dissertation was studying and comparing the predicted rectifying nature of two molecules, identical in every way except for one stereocenter. This project describes the formation of monolayers of the molecule on gold and then studying and analyzing the current-voltage characteristics of the molecules and looking for rectification. Both the molecules proved to be rectifying, one more than the other as predicted by theoretical calculations.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Electronic single molecule measurements with the scanning tunneling microscope

Description

Richard Feynman said “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it

Richard Feynman said “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it has been developed in various field and evolved into powerful tools to understand chemical and biological property of molecules. This thesis demonstrates electronic single molecule measurement with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and two of applications of STM; Break Junction (BJ) and Recognition Tunneling (RT). First, the two series of carotenoid molecules with four different substituents were investigated to show how substituents relate to the conductance and molecular structure. The measured conductance by STM-BJ shows that Nitrogen induces molecular twist of phenyl distal substituents and conductivity increasing rather than Carbon. Also, the conductivity is adjustable by replacing the sort of residues at phenyl substituents. Next, amino acids and peptides were identified through STM-RT. The distribution of the intuitive features (such as amplitude or width) are mostly overlapped and gives only a little bit higher separation probability than random separation. By generating some features in frequency and cepstrum domain, the classification accuracy was dramatically increased. Because of large data size and many features, supporting vector machine (machine learning algorithm for big data) was used to identify the analyte from a data pool of all analytes RT data. The STM-RT opens a possibility of molecular sequencing in single molecule level. Similarly, carbohydrates were studied by STM-RT. Carbohydrates are difficult to read the sequence, due to their huge number of possible isomeric configurations. This study shows that STM-RT can identify not only isomers of mono-saccharides and disaccharides, but also various mono-saccharides from a data pool of eleven analytes. In addition, the binding affinity between recognition molecule and analyte was investigated by comparing with surface plasmon resonance. In present, the RT technique is applying to chip type sequencing device onto solid-state nanopore to read out glycosaminoglycans which is ubiquitous to all mammalian cells and controls biological activities.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Measurements and control of charge transport through single DNA Molecules via STM break junction technique

Description

Charge transport in molecular systems, including DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), is involved in many basic chemical and biological processes. Studying their charge transport properties can help developing DNA based electronic devices

Charge transport in molecular systems, including DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), is involved in many basic chemical and biological processes. Studying their charge transport properties can help developing DNA based electronic devices with many tunable functionalities. This thesis investigates the electric properties of double-stranded DNA, DNA G-quadruplex and dsDNA with modified base.

First, double-stranded DNA with alternating GC sequence and stacked GC sequence were measured with respect to length. The resistance of DNA sequences increases linearly with length, indicating a hopping transport mechanism. However, for DNA sequences with stacked GC, a periodic oscillation is superimposed on the linear length dependence, indicating a partial coherent transport. The result is supported by the finding of delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of Guanines from theoretical simulation and by fitting based on the Büttiker’s theory.

Then, a DNA G4-duplex structures with a G-quadruplex as the core and DNA duplexes as the arms were studied. Similar conductance values were observed by varying the linker positions, thus a charge splitter is developed. The conductance of the DNA G-tetrads structures was found to be sensitive to the π-stacking at the interface between the G-quadruplex and DNA duplexes by observing a higher conductance value when one duplex was removed and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker was added into the interface. This was further supported by molecular dynamic simulations.

Finally, a double-stranded DNA with one of the bases replaced by an anthraquinone group was studied via electrochemical STM break junction technique. Anthraquinone can be reversibly switched into the oxidized state or reduced state, to give a low conductance or high conductance respectively. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the switching were systematically studied. Theoretical simulation shows that the difference between the two states is due to a difference in the energy alignment with neighboring Guanine bases.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Design, synthesis and association study of universal readers for recognition tunneling

Description

For reading DNA bases more accurately, a series of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocycles have been designed and synthesized as candidates of universal reader to interact with all naturally occurring DNA nucleobases

For reading DNA bases more accurately, a series of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocycles have been designed and synthesized as candidates of universal reader to interact with all naturally occurring DNA nucleobases by hydrogen bonding interaction and eventually is used to read DNA by recognition tunneling. These recognition molecules include 6-mercapto-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carboxamide, 5-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1H-imidazole-2-carboxamide, 5-(2-mercaptoethyl)-4H-1,2,4-traizole-3-carboxamide and 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide. Their formation of hydrogen bonding complexes with nucleobases was studied and association constants were measured by proton NMR titration experiments in deuterated chloroform at room temperature. To do so, the mercaptoethyl chain or thiol group of these reading molecules was replaced or protected with the more lipophilic group to increase the solubility of these candidates in CDCl3. The 3' and 5' hydroxyl groups of deoxyadenosine (dA), deoxyguanosine (dG), deoxycytidine (dC) and thymidine (dT) were protected with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) to eliminate hydrogen bonding competition from the hydroxyl protons with these candidates as well as to increase the solubility of the nucleosides in CDCl3 for NMR titration experiment. Benzimidazole and imidazole containing readers exhibited the strongest H-bonding affinity towards DNA bases where pyrrole containing reader showed the weakest affinity. In all cases, dG revealed the strongest affinity towards the readers while dA showed the least.

The molecular complex formation in aqueous solution was studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry. The formation of both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes between one or two reading molecules and a DNA nucleotide were observed by ESI mass. A series of amino acids and carbohydrates were also examined by mass spectrometry to show the formation of non-covalent complexes with imidazole reader in aqueous solution. The experimental results were compared by calculating energies of ground state conformers of individual molecules and their complexes using computer modeling study by DFT calculations. These studies give insights into the molecular interactions that happen in a nanogap during recognition tunneling experiments.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Application of recognition tunneling in single molecule identification

Description

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative analysis of impurities, etc. The recognition tunneling technique we have developed shows that after functionalization of the probe and substrate of a conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope with recognition molecules ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration), analyte molecules trapped in the gap that is formed by probe and substrate will bond with the reagent molecules. The stochastic bond formation/breakage fluctuations give insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level. The distinct time domain and frequency domain features of tunneling signals were extracted from raw signals of analytes such as amino acids and their enantiomers. The Support Vector Machine (a machine-learning method) was used to do classification and predication based on the signal features generated by analytes, giving over 90% accuracy of separation of up to seven analytes. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid Peptide/DNA sequencing and molecule identification at single molecule level.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Stress and structure evolution during Cu/Au(111) -(22 x [square root of three]) heteroepitaxy: an in-situ study with UHV-STM (ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy)

Description

This research focuses on the stress and structure evolution observed in-situ during the earliest stages of thin film growth in Cu on Au(111)-reconstruction. For the research, an ultra high vacuum-scanning

This research focuses on the stress and structure evolution observed in-situ during the earliest stages of thin film growth in Cu on Au(111)-reconstruction. For the research, an ultra high vacuum-scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM) system was modified to have the additional capabilities of in-situ deposition and in-situ stress evolution monitoring. The design and fabrication processes for the modifications are explained in detail. The deposition source enabled imaging during the deposition of Cu thin films, while also being columnar enough to avoid negatively impacting the function of the microscope. It was found that the stress-induced changes in piezo voltage occurred over a substantially longer time scale and larger piezo scale than used during imaging, allowing for the deconvolution of the two sources of piezo voltage change. The intrinsic stress evolution observed at the onset of Cu growth was tensile in character and reached a maximum of 0.19 N/m at approximately 0.8ML, with an average tensile slope of 1.0GPa. As the film thickness increased beyond 0.8 ML, the stress became less tensile as the observation of disordered stripe and trigon patterns of misfit dislocations began to appear. The transport of atoms from the surface of enlarged Cu islands into the strained layer played an important role in this stage, because they effectively reduce the activation barrier for the formation of the observed surface structures. A rich array of structures were observed in the work presented here including stripe, disordered stripe and trigon patterns co-existing in a single Cu layer. Heteroepitaxial systems in existing literature showed a uniform structure in the single layer. The non-uniform structures in the single layer of this work may be attributed to the room temperature Cu growth, which can kinetically limit uniform pattern formation. The development of the UHV-STM system with additional capabilities for this work is expected to contribute to research for the stress and structure relationships of many other heteroepitaxial systems.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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DNA sequencing by recognition tunnelling

Description

Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to

Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Importantly, at large tunnel gaps, there exists a regime for many molecules in which the tunneling is influenced more by the chemical identity of the molecules than by variability in the molecule-metal contact. Functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the "free analyte" configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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New measurement techniques and their applications in single molecule electronics

Description

Studying charge transport through single molecules tethered between two metal electrodes is of fundamental importance in molecular electronics. Over the years, a variety of methods have been developed in attempts

Studying charge transport through single molecules tethered between two metal electrodes is of fundamental importance in molecular electronics. Over the years, a variety of methods have been developed in attempts of performing such measurements. However, the limitation of these techniques is still one of the factors that prohibit one from gaining a thorough understanding of single molecule junctions. Firstly, the time resolution of experiments is typically limited to milli to microseconds, while molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on the time scale of pico to nanoseconds. A huge gap therefore persists between the theory and the experiments. This thesis demonstrates a nanosecond scale measurement of the gold atomic contact breakdown process. A combined setup of DC and AC circuits is employed, where the AC circuit reveals interesting observations in nanosecond scale not previously seen using conventional DC circuits. The breakdown time of gold atomic contacts is determined to be faster than 0.1 ns and subtle atomic events are observed within nanoseconds. Furthermore, a new method based on the scanning tunneling microscope break junction (STM-BJ) technique is developed to rapidly record thousands of I-V curves from repeatedly formed single molecule junctions. 2-dimensional I-V and conductance-voltage (G-V) histograms constructed using the acquired data allow for more meaningful statistical analysis to single molecule I-V characteristics. The bias voltage adds an additional dimension to the conventional single molecule conductance measurement. This method also allows one to perform transition voltage spectra (TVS) for individual junctions and to study the correlation between the conductance and the tunneling barrier height. The variation of measured conductance values is found to be primarily determined by the poorly defined contact geometry between the molecule and metal electrodes, rather than the tunnel barrier height. In addition, the rapid I-V technique is also found useful in studying thermoelectric effect in single molecule junctions. When applying a temperature gradient between the STM tip and substrate in air, the offset current at zero bias in the I-V characteristics is a measure of thermoelectric current. The rapid I-V technique allows for statistical analysis of such offset current at different temperature gradients and thus the Seebeck coefficient of single molecule junctions is measured. Combining with single molecule TVS, the Seebeck coefficient is also found to be a measure of tunnel barrier height.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Recognition tunneling: approaches towards next generation DNA sequencing

Description

This thesis describes several approaches to next generation DNA sequencing via tunneling current method based on a Scanning Tunneling Microscope system. In chapters 5 and 6, preliminary results have shown

This thesis describes several approaches to next generation DNA sequencing via tunneling current method based on a Scanning Tunneling Microscope system. In chapters 5 and 6, preliminary results have shown that DNA bases could be identified by their characteristic tunneling signals. Measurements taken in aqueous buffered solution showed that single base resolution could be achieved with economic setups. In chapter 7, it is illustrated that some ongoing measurements are indicating the sequence readout by making linear scan on a piece of short DNA oligomer. However, to overcome the difficulties of controlling DNA especially ssDNA movement, it is much better to have the tunneling measurement incorporated onto a robust nanopore device to realize sequential reading of the DNA sequence while it is being translocated.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011