Matching Items (5)

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Mobile health applications of breath analysis: challenges and solutions

Description

The world of healthcare can be seen as dynamic, often an area where technology and science meet to consummate a greater good for humanity. This relationship has been working well

The world of healthcare can be seen as dynamic, often an area where technology and science meet to consummate a greater good for humanity. This relationship has been working well for the last century as evident by the average life expectancy change. For the greater of the last five decades the average life expectancy at birth increased globally by almost 20 years. In the United States specifically, life expectancy has grown from 50 years in 1900 to 78 years in 2009. That is a 76% increase in just over a century. As great as this increase sounds for humanity it means there are soon to be real issues in the healthcare world. A larger older population will need more healthcare services but have fewer young professionals to provide those services. Technology and science will need to continue to push the boundaries in order to develop and provide the solutions needed to continue providing the aging world population sufficient healthcare. One solution sure to help provide a brighter future for healthcare is mobile health (m-health). M-health can help provide a means for healthcare professionals to treat more patients with less work expenditure and do so with more personalized healthcare advice which will lead to better treatments. This paper discusses one area of m-health devices specifically; human breath analysis devices. The current laboratory methods of breath analysis and why these methods are not adequate for common healthcare practices will be discussed in more detail. Then more specifically, mobile breath analysis devices are discussed. The topic will encompass the challenges that need to be met in developing such devices, possible solutions to these challenges, two real examples of mobile breath analysis devices and finally possible future directions for m-health technologies.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Environmental sensing applications of zinc oxide based film bulk acoustic resonator

Description

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human beings. UV is very important in a number of areas, such as astronomy, resin curing of polymeric materials, combustion engineering, water purification, flame detection and biological effects with more recent proposals like early missile plume detection, secure space-to-space communications and pollution monitoring. RH is a very common parameter in the environment. It is essential not only for human comfort, but also for a broad spectrum of industries and technologies. There is a substantial interest in the development of RH sensors for applications in monitoring moisture level at home, in clean rooms, cryogenic processes, medical and food science, and so on. The concentration of acetone and other ketone bodies in the exhaled air can serve as an express noninvasive diagnosis of ketosis. Meanwhile, driving under the influence of alcohol is a serious traffic violation and this kind of deviant behavior causes many accidents and deaths on the highway. Therefore, the detection of ethanol in breath is usually used as a quick and reliable screening method for the sobriety checkpoint. Traditionally, semiconductor metal oxide sensors are the major candidates employed in the sensing applications mentioned above. However, they suffer from the low sensitivity, poor selectivity and huge power consumption. In this dissertation, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) was developed to monitor UV, RH, acetone and ethanol in the environment. FBAR generally consists of a sputtered piezoelectric thin film (ZnO/AlN) sandwiched between two electrodes. It has been well developed both as filters and as high sensitivity mass sensors in recent years. FBAR offers high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for various environment monitoring applications. As the sensing signal is in the frequency domain, FABR has the potential to be incorporated in a wireless sensor network for remote sensing. This study extended our current knowledge of FBAR and pointed out feasible directions for future exploration.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Development of acoustic sensor for flow rate monitoring

Description

The project is mainly aimed at detecting the gas flow rate in Biosensors and medical health applications by means of an acoustic method using whistle based device. Considering the challenges

The project is mainly aimed at detecting the gas flow rate in Biosensors and medical health applications by means of an acoustic method using whistle based device. Considering the challenges involved in maintaining particular flow rate and back pressure for detecting certain analytes in breath analysis the proposed system along with a cell phone provides a suitable way to maintain the flow rate without any additional battery driven device. To achieve this, a system-level approach is implemented which involves development of a closed end whistle which is placed inside a tightly fitted constant back pressure tube. By means of experimentation pressure vs. flowrate curve is initially obtained and used for the development of the particular whistle. Finally, by means of an FFT code in a cell phone the flow rate vs. frequency characteristic curve is obtained. When a person respires through the device a whistle sound is generated which is captured by the cellphone microphone and a FFT analysis is performed to determine the frequency and hence the flow rate from the characteristic curve. This approach can be used to detect flow rate as low as low as 1L/min. The concept has been applied for the first time in this work to the development and optimization of a breath analyzer.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Portable sensors for breath analysis

Description

Human breath is a concoction of thousands of compounds having in it a breath-print of physiological processes in the body. Though breath provides a non-invasive and easy to handle biological

Human breath is a concoction of thousands of compounds having in it a breath-print of physiological processes in the body. Though breath provides a non-invasive and easy to handle biological fluid, its analysis for clinical diagnosis is not very common. Partly the reason for this absence is unavailability of cost effective and convenient tools for such analysis. Scientific literature is full of novel sensor ideas but it is challenging to develop a working device, which are few. These challenges include trace level detection, presence of hundreds of interfering compounds, excessive humidity, different sampling regulations and personal variability. To meet these challenges as well as deliver a low cost solution, optical sensors based on specific colorimetric chemical reactions on mesoporous membranes have been developed. Sensor hardware utilizing cost effective and ubiquitously available light source (LED) and detector (webcam/photo diodes) has been developed and optimized for sensitive detection. Sample conditioning mouthpiece suitable for portable sensors is developed and integrated. The sensors are capable of communication with mobile phones realizing the idea of m-health for easy personal health monitoring in free living conditions. Nitric oxide and Acetone are chosen as analytes of interest. Nitric oxide levels in the breath correlate with lung inflammation which makes it useful for asthma management. Acetone levels increase during ketosis resulting from fat metabolism in the body. Monitoring breath acetone thus provides useful information to people with type1 diabetes, epileptic children on ketogenic diets and people following fitness plans for weight loss.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Noninvasive metabolic monitoring: an assessment of thermoelectric gas adsorption biosensors for acetone and ethanol detection in breath analysis

Description

In the search for chemical biosensors designed for patient-based physiological applications, non-invasive diagnostic approaches continue to have value. The work described in this thesis builds upon previous breath analysis

In the search for chemical biosensors designed for patient-based physiological applications, non-invasive diagnostic approaches continue to have value. The work described in this thesis builds upon previous breath analysis studies. In particular, it seeks to assess the adsorptive mechanisms active in both acetone and ethanol biosensors designed for breath analysis. The thermoelectric biosensors under investigation were constructed using a thermopile for transduction and four different materials for biorecognition. The analytes, acetone and ethanol, were evaluated under dry-air and humidified-air conditions. The biosensor response to acetone concentration was found to be both repeatable and linear, while the sensor response to ethanol presence was also found to be repeatable. The different biorecognition materials produced discernible thermoelectric responses that were characteristic for each analyte. The sensor output data is presented in this report. Additionally, the results were evaluated against a mathematical model for further analysis. Ultimately, a thermoelectric biosensor based upon adsorption chemistry was developed and characterized. Additional work is needed to characterize the physicochemical action mechanism.

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Date Created
  • 2011