Matching Items (26)

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Radiation transport analysis in chalcogenide-based devices and a neutron howitzer using MCNP

Description

As photons, electrons, and neutrons traverse a medium, they impart their energy in ways that are analytically difficult to describe. Monte Carlo methods provide valuable insight into understanding this behavior,

As photons, electrons, and neutrons traverse a medium, they impart their energy in ways that are analytically difficult to describe. Monte Carlo methods provide valuable insight into understanding this behavior, especially when the radiation source or environment is too complex to simplify. This research investigates simulating various radiation sources using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, characterizing their impact on various materials, and comparing the simulation results to general theory and measurements.

A total of five sources were of interest: two photon sources of different incident particle energies (3.83 eV and 1.25 MeV), two electron sources also of different energies (30 keV and 100 keV), and a californium-252 (Cf-252) spontaneous fission neutron source. Lateral and vertical programmable metallization cells (PMCs) were developed by other researchers for exposure to these photon and electron sources, so simplified PMC models were implemented in MCNP to estimate the doses and fluences. Dose rates measured around the neutron source and the predicted maximum activity of activation foils exposed to the neutrons were determined using MCNP and compared to experimental results obtained from gamma-ray spectroscopy.

The analytical fluence calculations for the photon and electron cases agreed with MCNP results, and differences are due to MCNP considering particle movements that hand calculations do not. Doses for the photon cases agreed between the analytical and simulated results, while the electron cases differed by a factor of up to 4.8. Physical dose rate measurements taken from the neutron source agreed with MCNP within the 10% tolerance of the measurement device. The activity results had a percent error of up to 50%, which suggests a need to further evaluate the spectroscopy setup.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Probabilistic based assessment of the influence of nonlinear soil behavior and stratification on the performance of laterally loaded drilled pier foundations

Description

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A series of Monte Carlo simulations provide insight about the computed level of reliability considering site standard penetration test blow count value variability alone (i.e., assuming all other aspects of the design problem do not contribute error or bias). Evaluated methods include Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design procedures, the Federal Highway Administration drilled shaft LRFD design method, the Electric Power Research Institute transmission foundation design procedure and a site specific variability based approach previously suggested by the author of this thesis and others. The analysis method is defined by three phases: a) Evaluate the spatial variability of an existing subsurface database. b) Derive theoretical foundation designs from the database in accordance with the various design methods identified. c) Conduct Monti Carlo Simulations to compute the reliability of the theoretical foundation designs. Over several decades, reliability-based foundation design (RBD) methods have been developed and implemented to varying degrees for buildings, bridges, electric systems and other structures. In recent years, an effort has been made by researchers, professional societies and other standard-developing organizations to publish design guidelines, manuals and standards concerning RBD for foundations. Most of these approaches rely on statistical methods for quantifying load and resistance probability distribution functions with defined reliability levels. However, each varies with regard to the influence of site-specific variability on resistance. An examination of the influence of site-specific variability is required to provide direction for incorporating the concept into practical RBD design methods. Recent surveys of transmission line engineers by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) demonstrate RBD methods for the design of transmission line foundations have not been widely adopted. In the absence of a unifying design document with established reliability goals, transmission line foundations have historically performed very well, with relatively few failures. However, such a track record with no set reliability goals suggests, at least in some cases, a financial premium has likely been paid.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Electrical and thermal transport in alternative device technologies

Description

The goal of this research work is to develop a particle-based device simulator for modeling strained silicon devices. Two separate modules had to be developed for that purpose: A generic

The goal of this research work is to develop a particle-based device simulator for modeling strained silicon devices. Two separate modules had to be developed for that purpose: A generic bulk Monte Carlo simulation code which in the long-time limit solves the Boltzmann transport equation for electrons; and an extension to this code that solves for the bulk properties of strained silicon. One scattering table is needed for conventional silicon, whereas, because of the strain breaking the symmetry of the system, three scattering tables are needed for modeling strained silicon material. Simulation results for the average drift velocity and the average electron energy are in close agreement with published data. A Monte Carlo device simulation tool has also been employed to integrate the effects of self-heating into device simulation for Silicon on Insulator devices. The effects of different types of materials for buried oxide layers have been studied. Sapphire, Aluminum Nitride (AlN), Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Diamond have been used as target materials of interest in the analysis and the effects of varying insulator layer thickness have also been investigated. It was observed that although AlN exhibits the best isothermal behavior, diamond is the best choice when thermal effects are accounted for.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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No-confounding designs of 20 and 24 runs for screening experiments and a design selection methodology

Description

Nonregular screening designs can be an economical alternative to traditional resolution IV 2^(k-p) fractional factorials. Recently 16-run nonregular designs, referred to as no-confounding designs, were introduced in the literature. These

Nonregular screening designs can be an economical alternative to traditional resolution IV 2^(k-p) fractional factorials. Recently 16-run nonregular designs, referred to as no-confounding designs, were introduced in the literature. These designs have the property that no pair of main effect (ME) and two-factor interaction (2FI) estimates are completely confounded. In this dissertation, orthogonal arrays were evaluated with many popular design-ranking criteria in order to identify optimal 20-run and 24-run no-confounding designs. Monte Carlo simulation was used to empirically assess the model fitting effectiveness of the recommended no-confounding designs. The results of the simulation demonstrated that these new designs, particularly the 24-run designs, are successful at detecting active effects over 95% of the time given sufficient model effect sparsity. The final chapter presents a screening design selection methodology, based on decision trees, to aid in the selection of a screening design from a list of published options. The methodology determines which of a candidate set of screening designs has the lowest expected experimental cost.

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  • 2013

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Quantum Monte Carlo studies of strongly interacting fermionic systems

Description

In this dissertation two kinds of strongly interacting fermionic systems were studied: cold atomic gases and nucleon systems. In the first part I report T=0 diffusion Monte Carlo results for

In this dissertation two kinds of strongly interacting fermionic systems were studied: cold atomic gases and nucleon systems. In the first part I report T=0 diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground-state and vortex excitation of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a two-dimensional disk. I investigate how vortex core structure properties behave over the BEC-BCS crossover. The vortex excitation energy, density profiles, and vortex core properties related to the current are calculated. A density suppression at the vortex core on the BCS side of the crossover and a depleted core on the BEC limit is found. Size-effect dependencies in the disk geometry were carefully studied. In the second part of this dissertation I turn my attention to a very interesting problem in nuclear physics. In most simulations of nonrelativistic nuclear systems, the wave functions are found by solving the many-body Schrödinger equations, and they describe the quantum-mechanical amplitudes of the nucleonic degrees of freedom. In those simulations the pionic contributions are encoded in nuclear potentials and electroweak currents, and they determine the low-momentum behavior. By contrast, in this work I present a novel quantum Monte Carlo formalism in which both relativistic pions and nonrelativistic nucleons are explicitly included in the quantum-mechanical states of the system. I report the renormalization of the nucleon mass as a function of the momentum cutoff, an Euclidean time density correlation function that deals with the short-time nucleon diffusion, and the pion cloud density and momentum distributions. In the two nucleon sector the interaction of two static nucleons at large distances reduces to the one-pion exchange potential, and I fit the low-energy constants of the contact interactions to reproduce the binding energy of the deuteron and two neutrons in finite volumes. I conclude by showing that the method can be readily applied to light-nuclei.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Improved trial wave functions for quantum Monte Carlo calculations of nuclear systems and their applications

Description

Quantum Monte Carlo is one of the most accurate ab initio methods used to study nuclear physics. The accuracy and efficiency depend heavily on the trial wave function, especially in

Quantum Monte Carlo is one of the most accurate ab initio methods used to study nuclear physics. The accuracy and efficiency depend heavily on the trial wave function, especially in Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC), where a simplified wave function is often used to allow calculations of larger systems. The simple wave functions used with AFDMC contain short range correlations that come from an expansion of the full correlations truncated to linear order. I have extended that expansion to quadratic order in the pair correlations. I have investigated this expansion by keeping the full set of quadratic correlations as well an expansion that keeps only independent pair quadratic correlations. To test these new wave functions I have calculated ground state energies of 4He, 16O, 40Ca and symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density ρ = 0.16 fm−3 with 28 particles in a periodic box. The ground state energies calculated with both wave functions decrease with respect to the simpler wave function with linear correlations only for all systems except 4He for both variational and AFDMC calculations. It was not expected that the ground state energy of 4He would decrease due to the simplicity of the alpha particle wave function. These correlations have also been applied to study alpha particle formation in neutron rich matter, with applications to neutron star crusts and neutron rich nuclei. I have been able to show that this method can be used to study small clusters as well as the effect of external nucleons on these clusters.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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A Full-Band Monte Carlo Transport Simulator for Wide Bandgap Materials in Power Electronics

Description

4H-SiC has been widely used in many applications. All of these benefit from its extremely high critical electric field and good electron mobility. For example, 4H-SiC possesses a critical field

4H-SiC has been widely used in many applications. All of these benefit from its extremely high critical electric field and good electron mobility. For example, 4H-SiC possesses a critical field ten times higher than that of Si, which allows high-voltage blocking layers composed of 4H-SiC to be approximately a tenth the thickness of a comparable Si device. This, in turn, reduces the device on-resistance and power losses while maintaining the same high blocking capability.

Unfortunately, commercial TCAD tools like Sentaurus and Silvaco Atlas are based on the effective mass approximation, while most 4H-SiC devices are not operated under low electric field, so the parabolic-like band approximation does not hold anymore. Hence, to get more accurate and reliable simulation results, full-band analysis is needed. The first step in the development of a full-band device simulator is the calculation of the band structure. In this work, the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM) is adopted. The next task in the sequence is the calculation of the scattering rates. Acoustic, non-polar optical phonon, polar optical phonon and Coulomb scattering are considered. Coulomb scattering is treated in real space using the particle-particle-particle-mesh (P3M) approach. The third task is coupling the bulk full-band solver with a 3D Poisson equation solver to generate a full-band device simulator.

For proof-of-concept of the methodology adopted here, a 3D resistor is simulated first. From the resistor simulations, the low-field electron mobility dependence upon Coulomb scattering in 4H-SiC devices is extracted. The simulated mobility results agree very well with available experimental data. Next, a 3D VDMOS is simulated. The nature of the physical processes occurring in both steady-state and transient conditions are revealed for the two generations of 3D VDMOS devices being considered in the study.

Due to its comprehensive nature, the developed tool serves as a basis for future investigation of 4H-SiC power devices.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Comparative analysis of simulation of trap induced threshold voltage fluctuations for 45 nm gate length n-MOSFET and analytical model predictions

Description

In very small electronic devices the alternate capture and emission of carriers at an individual defect site located at the interface of Si:SiO2 of a MOSFET generates discrete switching in

In very small electronic devices the alternate capture and emission of carriers at an individual defect site located at the interface of Si:SiO2 of a MOSFET generates discrete switching in the device conductance referred to as a random telegraph signal (RTS) or random telegraph noise (RTN). In this research work, the integration of random defects positioned across the channel at the Si:SiO2 interface from source end to the drain end in the presence of different random dopant distributions are used to conduct Ensemble Monte-Carlo ( EMC ) based numerical simulation of key device performance metrics for 45 nm gate length MOSFET device. The two main performance parameters that affect RTS based reliability measurements are percentage change in threshold voltage and percentage change in drain current fluctuation in the saturation region. It has been observed as a result of the simulation that changes in both and values moderately decrease as the defect position is gradually moved from source end to the drain end of the channel. Precise analytical device physics based model needs to be developed to explain and assess the EMC simulation based higher VT fluctuations as experienced for trap positions at the source side. A new analytical model has been developed that simultaneously takes account of dopant number variations in the channel and depletion region underneath and carrier mobility fluctuations resulting from fluctuations in surface potential barriers. Comparisons of this new analytical model along with existing analytical models are shown to correlate with 3D EMC simulation based model for assessment of VT fluctuations percentage induced by a single interface trap. With scaling of devices beyond 32 nm node, halo doping at the source and drain are routinely incorporated to combat the threshold voltage roll-off that takes place with effective channel length reduction. As a final study on this regard, 3D EMC simulation method based computations of threshold voltage fluctuations have been performed for varying source and drain halo pocket length to illustrate the threshold voltage fluctuations related reliability problems that have been aggravated by trap positions near the source at the interface compared to conventional 45 nm MOSFET.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of quantum wires

Description

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the conductance leave many open questions. In this dissertation, I study the properties and the internal electron states of semiconductor quantum wires with the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. PIMC is a tool for simulating many-body quantum systems at finite temperature. Its ability to calculate thermodynamic properties and various correlation functions makes it an ideal tool in bridging experiments with theories. A general study of the features interpreted by the Luttinger liquid theory and observed in experiments is first presented, showing the need for new PIMC calculations in this field. I calculate the DC conductance at finite temperature for both noninteracting and interacting electrons. The quantized conductance is identified in PIMC simulations without making the same approximation in the Luttinger model. The low electron density regime is subject to strong interactions, since the kinetic energy decreases faster than the Coulomb interaction at low density. An electron state called the Wigner crystal has been proposed in this regime for quasi-1D wires. By using PIMC, I observe the zig-zag structure of the Wigner crystal. The quantum fluctuations suppress the long range correla- tions, making the order short-ranged. Spin correlations are calculated and used to evaluate the spin coupling strength in a zig-zag state. I also find that as the density increases, electrons undergo a structural phase transition to a dimer state, in which two electrons of opposite spins are coupled across the two rows of the zig-zag. A phase diagram is sketched for a range of densities and transverse confinements. The quantum point contact (QPC) is a typical realization of quantum wires. I study the QPC by explicitly simulating a system of electrons in and around a Timp potential (Timp, 1992). Localization of a single electron in the middle of the channel is observed at 5 K, as the split gate voltage increases. The DC conductance is calculated, which shows the effect of the Coulomb interaction. At 1 K and low electron density, a state similar to the Wigner crystal is found inside the channel.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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The phonon Monte Carlo simulation

Description

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works regarding the modeling of heating effects in nano-scale devices, was derived. Then, detailed description was given on the Monte Carlo (MC) solution of the phonon Boltzmann Transport Equation. The phonon MC solver was developed next as part of this thesis. Simulation results of the thermal conductivity in bulk Si show good agreement with theoretical/experimental values from literature.

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Date Created
  • 2015