Matching Items (17)

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Nonlinear Electrothermal Monte Carlo Device Simulation

Description

A model of self-heating is incorporated into a Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC) particle-based device simulator through the solution of an energy balance equation (EBE) for phonons. The EBE

A model of self-heating is incorporated into a Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC) particle-based device simulator through the solution of an energy balance equation (EBE) for phonons. The EBE self-consistently couples charge and heat transport in the simulation through a novel approach to computing the heat generation rate in the device under study. First, the moments of the Boltzmann Transport equation (BTE) are discussed, and subsequently the EBE of for phonons is derived. Subsequently, several tests are performed to verify the applicability and accuracy of a nonlinear iterative method for the solution of the EBE in the presence of convective boundary conditions, as compared to a finite element analysis solver as well as using the Kirchhoff transformation. The coupled electrothermal characterization of a GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is then performed, and the effects of non-ideal interfaces and boundary conditions are studied.

The proposed thermal model is then applied to a novel $\Pi$-gate architecture which has been suggested to reduce hot electron generation in the device, compared to the conventional T-gate. Additionally, small signal ac simulations are performed for the determination of cutoff frequencies using the thermal model as well.

Finally, further extensions of the CMC algorithm used in this work are discussed, including 1) higher-order moments of the phonon BTE, 2) coupling to phonon Monte Carlo simulations, and 3) application to other large-bandgap, and therefore high-power, materials such as diamond.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Radiation transport analysis in chalcogenide-based devices and a neutron howitzer using MCNP

Description

As photons, electrons, and neutrons traverse a medium, they impart their energy in ways that are analytically difficult to describe. Monte Carlo methods provide valuable insight into understanding this behavior,

As photons, electrons, and neutrons traverse a medium, they impart their energy in ways that are analytically difficult to describe. Monte Carlo methods provide valuable insight into understanding this behavior, especially when the radiation source or environment is too complex to simplify. This research investigates simulating various radiation sources using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, characterizing their impact on various materials, and comparing the simulation results to general theory and measurements.

A total of five sources were of interest: two photon sources of different incident particle energies (3.83 eV and 1.25 MeV), two electron sources also of different energies (30 keV and 100 keV), and a californium-252 (Cf-252) spontaneous fission neutron source. Lateral and vertical programmable metallization cells (PMCs) were developed by other researchers for exposure to these photon and electron sources, so simplified PMC models were implemented in MCNP to estimate the doses and fluences. Dose rates measured around the neutron source and the predicted maximum activity of activation foils exposed to the neutrons were determined using MCNP and compared to experimental results obtained from gamma-ray spectroscopy.

The analytical fluence calculations for the photon and electron cases agreed with MCNP results, and differences are due to MCNP considering particle movements that hand calculations do not. Doses for the photon cases agreed between the analytical and simulated results, while the electron cases differed by a factor of up to 4.8. Physical dose rate measurements taken from the neutron source agreed with MCNP within the 10% tolerance of the measurement device. The activity results had a percent error of up to 50%, which suggests a need to further evaluate the spectroscopy setup.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Multiscale Modeling of Thermal and Electrical Characteristics in Silicon CMOS Devices

Description

This dissertation explores thermal effects and electrical characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices and circuits using a multiscale dual-carrier approach. Simulating electron and hole transport with carrier-phonon interactions

This dissertation explores thermal effects and electrical characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices and circuits using a multiscale dual-carrier approach. Simulating electron and hole transport with carrier-phonon interactions for thermal transport allows for the study of complementary logic circuits with device level accuracy in electrical characteristics and thermal effects. The electrical model is comprised of an ensemble Monte Carlo solution to the Boltzmann Transport Equation coupled with an iterative solution to two-dimensional (2D) Poisson’s equation. The thermal model solves the energy balance equations accounting for carrier-phonon and phonon-phonon interactions. Modeling of circuit behavior uses parametric iteration to ensure current and voltage continuity. This allows for modeling of device behavior, analyzing circuit performance, and understanding thermal effects.

The coupled electro-thermal approach, initially developed for individual n-channel MOSFET (NMOS) devices, now allows multiple devices in tandem providing a platform for better comparison with heater-sensor experiments. The latest electro-thermal solver allows simulation of multiple NMOS and p-channel MOSFET (PMOS) devices, providing a platform for the study of complementary MOSFET (CMOS) circuit behavior. Modeling PMOS devices necessitates the inclusion of hole transport and hole-phonon interactions. The analysis of CMOS circuits uses the electro-thermal device simulation methodology alongside parametric iteration to ensure current continuity. Simulating a CMOS inverter and analyzing the extracted voltage transfer characteristics verifies the efficacy of this methodology. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the dual-carrier electro-thermal solver in simulating thermal effects in CMOS circuits.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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The phonon Monte Carlo simulation

Description

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works regarding the modeling of heating effects in nano-scale devices, was derived. Then, detailed description was given on the Monte Carlo (MC) solution of the phonon Boltzmann Transport Equation. The phonon MC solver was developed next as part of this thesis. Simulation results of the thermal conductivity in bulk Si show good agreement with theoretical/experimental values from literature.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Path Integral Quantum Monte Carlo Method for Light Nuclei

Description

I describe the first continuous space nuclear path integral quantum Monte Carlo method, and calculate the ground state properties of light nuclei including Deuteron, Triton, Helium-3 and Helium-4, using both

I describe the first continuous space nuclear path integral quantum Monte Carlo method, and calculate the ground state properties of light nuclei including Deuteron, Triton, Helium-3 and Helium-4, using both local chiral interaction up to next-to-next-to-leading-order and the Argonne $v_6'$ interaction. Compared with diffusion based quantum Monte Carlo methods such as Green's function Monte Carlo and auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo, path integral quantum Monte Carlo has the advantage that it can directly calculate the expectation value of operators without tradeoff, whether they commute with the Hamiltonian or not. For operators that commute with the Hamiltonian, e.g., the Hamiltonian itself, the path integral quantum Monte Carlo light-nuclei results agree with Green's function Monte Carlo and auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo results. For other operator expectations which are important to understand nuclear measurements but do not commute with the Hamiltonian and therefore cannot be accurately calculated by diffusion based quantum Monte Carlo methods without tradeoff, the path integral quantum Monte Carlo method gives reliable results. I show root-mean-square radii, one-particle number density distributions, and Euclidean response functions for single-nucleon couplings. I also systematically describe all the sampling algorithms used in this work, the strategies to make the computation efficient, the error estimations, and the details of the implementation of the code to perform calculations. This work can serve as a benchmark test for future calculations of larger nuclei or finite temperature nuclear matter using path integral quantum Monte Carlo.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Full band Monte Carlo simulation of nanowires and nanowire field effect transistors

Description

In this work, transport in nanowire materials and nanowire field effect transistors is studied using a full band Monte Carlo simulator within the tight binding basis. Chapter 1 is dedicated

In this work, transport in nanowire materials and nanowire field effect transistors is studied using a full band Monte Carlo simulator within the tight binding basis. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the importance of nanowires and nanoscale devices in present day electronics and the necessity to use a computationally efficient tool to simulate transport in these devices. Chapter 2 discusses the calculation of the full band structure of nanowires based on an atomistic tight binding approach, particularly noting the use of the exact same tight binding parameters for bulk band structures as well as the nanowire band structures. Chapter 3 contains the scattering rate formula for deformation potential, polar optical phonon, ionized impurity and impact ionization scattering in nanowires using Fermi’s golden rule and the tight binding basis to describe the wave functions. A method to calculate the dielectric screening in 1D systems within the tight binding basis is also described. Importantly, the scattering rates of nanowires tends to the bulk scattering rates at high energies, enabling the use of the same parameter set that were fitted to bulk experimental data to be used in the simulation of nanowire transport. A robust and efficient method to model interband tunneling is discussed in chapter 4 and its importance in nanowire transport is highlighted. In chapter 5, energy relaxation of excited electrons is studied for free standing nanowires and cladded nanowires. Finally, in chapter 6, a full band Monte Carlo particle based solver is created which treats confinement in a full quantum way and the current voltage characteristics as well as the subthreshold swing and percentage of ballistic transport is analyzed for an In0.7Ga0.3As junctionless nanowire field effect transistor.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Multi scale study of heat transfer using Monte Carlo technique for phonon transport

Description

Self-heating degrades the performance of devices in advanced technology nodes. Understanding of self-heating effects is necessary to improve device performance. Heat generation in these devices occurs at nanometer scales but

Self-heating degrades the performance of devices in advanced technology nodes. Understanding of self-heating effects is necessary to improve device performance. Heat generation in these devices occurs at nanometer scales but heat transfer is a microscopic phenomena. Hence a multi-scale modeling approach is required to study the self-heating effects. A state of the art Monte Carlo device simulator and the commercially available Giga 3D tool from Silvaco are used in our study to understand the self heating effects. The Monte Carlo device simulator solves the electrical transport and heat generation for nanometer length scales accurately while the Giga 3D tool solves for thermal transport over micrometer length scales. The approach used is to understand the self-heating effects in a test device structure, composed of a heater and a sensor, fabricated and characterized by IMEC. The heater is the Device Under Test(DUT) and the sensor is used as a probe. Therefore, the heater is biased in the saturation region and the sensor is biased in the sub-threshold regime. Both are planar MOSFETs of gate length equal to 22 nm. The simulated I-V characteristics of the sensor match with the experimental behavior at lower applied drain voltages but differ at higher applied biases.

The self-heating model assumes that the heat transport within the device follows Energy Balance model which may not be accurate. To properly study heat transport within the device, a state of the art Monte Carlo device simulator is necessary. In this regard, the Phonon Monte Carlo(PMC) simulator is developed. Phonons are treated as quasi particles that carry heat energy. Like electrons, phonons obey a corresponding Boltzmann Transport Equation(BTE) which can be used to study their transport. The direct solution of the BTE for phonons is possible, but it is difficult to incorporate all scattering mechanisms. In the Monte Carlo based solution method, it is easier to incorporate different relevant scattering mechanisms. Although the Monte Carlo method is computationally intensive, it provides good insight into the physical nature of the transport problem. Hence Monte Carlo based techniques are used in the present work for studying phonon transport. Monte Carlo simulations require calculating the scattering rates for different scattering processes. In the present work, scattering rates for three phonon interactions are calculated from different approaches presented in the literature. Optical phonons are also included in the transport problem. Finally, the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for silicon is calculated in the range from 100K to 900K and is compared to available experimental data.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Mobility Modeling of Gallium Nitride Nanowires

Description

Semiconductor nanowires have the potential to emerge as the building blocks of next generation field-effect transistors, logic gates, solar cells and light emitting diodes. Use of Gallium Nitride (GaN) and

Semiconductor nanowires have the potential to emerge as the building blocks of next generation field-effect transistors, logic gates, solar cells and light emitting diodes. Use of Gallium Nitride (GaN) and other wide bandgap materials combines the advantages of III-nitrides along with the enhanced mobility offered by 2-dimensional confinement present in nanowires. The focus of this thesis is on developing a low field mobility model for a GaN nanowire using Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) techniques. A 2D Schrödinger-Poisson solver and a one-dimensional Monte Carlo solver is developed for an Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Heterostructure nanowire. A GaN/AlN/AlGaN heterostructure device is designed which creates 2-dimensional potential well for electrons. The nanowire is treated as a quasi-1D system in this work. A self-consistent 2D Schrödinger-Poisson solver is designed which determines the subband energies and the corresponding wavefunctions of the confined system. Three scattering mechanisms: acoustic phonon scattering, polar optical phonon scattering and piezoelectric scattering are considered to account for the electron phonon interactions in the system. Overlap integrals and 1D scattering rate expressions are derived for all the mechanisms listed. A generic one-dimensional Monte Carlo solver is also developed. Steady state results from the 1D Monte Carlo solver are extracted to determine the low field mobility of the GaN nanowires.

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  • 2017

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A Study of Hole Transport in Crystalline Monoclinic Selenium Using Bulk Monte Carlo Techniques

Description

Amorphous materials can be uniformly deposited over a large area at lower cost compared to crystalline semiconductors (Silicon or Germanium). This property along with its high resistivity and wide band-ga

Amorphous materials can be uniformly deposited over a large area at lower cost compared to crystalline semiconductors (Silicon or Germanium). This property along with its high resistivity and wide band-gap found many applications in devices like rectifiers, xerography, xero-radiography, ultrahigh sensitivity optical cameras, digital radiography, and mammography (2D and 3D tomosynthesis). Amorphous selenium is the only amorphous material that undergoes impact ionization where only holes avalanche at high electric fields. This leads to a small excess noise factor which is a very important performance comparison matrix for avalanche photodetectors. Thus, there is a need to model high field avalanche process in amorphous selenium. At high fields, the transport in amorphous selenium changes from low values of activated trap-limited drift mobility to higher values of band transport mobility, via extended states. When the transport shifts from activated mobility with a high degree of localization to extended state band transport, the wavefunction of the amorphous material resembles that of its crystalline counterpart. To that effect, crystalline monoclinic selenium which has the closest resemblance to vapor deposited amorphous selenium has been studied. Modelling a crystalline semiconductor makes calculations simpler. The transport phenomena in crystalline monoclinic selenium is studied by using a bulk Monte Carlo technique to solve the semi-classical Boltzman Transport equation and thus calculate vital electrical parameters like mobility, critical field and mobility variations against temperatures. The band structure and the density of states function for monoclinic selenium was obtained by using an atomistic simulation tool, the Atomistic Toolkit in the Virtual Nano Lab, Quantum Wise, Copenhagen, Denmark. Moreover, the velocity and energy against time characteristics have been simulated for a wide range of electric fields (1-1000 $\frac{kV}{cm}$), which is further used to find the hole drift mobility. The low field mobility is obtained from the slope of the velocity vs. electric field plot. The low field hole mobility was calculated to be 5.51 $\frac{cm^{2}}{Vs}$ at room temperature. The experimental value for low field hole mobility is 7.29 $\frac{cm^{2}}{Vs}$. The energy versus electric field simulation at high fields is used to match the experimental onset of avalanche (754 $\frac{kV}{cm}$) for an ionization threshold energy of 2.1 eV. The Arrhenius plot for mobility against temperature is simulated and compared with published experimental data. The experimental and simulation results show a close match, thus validating the study.

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  • 2017

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Modeling and design of GaN high electron mobility transistors and hot electron transistors through Monte Carlo particle-based device simulations

Description

In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and

In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation methods. The techniques for device modeling are described applied to a recent GaN-HEMT, and they are validated with experimental measurements. The main techniques characterization techniques are also described, including the original contribution provided by this work. Chapter 3 focuses on a popular technique to enhance HEMTs performance: the down-scaling of the device dimensions. In particular, this chapter is dedicated to lateral scaling and the calculation of a limiting cutoff frequency for a device of vanishing length. Finally, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 describe the modeling of Hot Electron Transistors (HETs). The simulation approach is validated by matching the current characteristics with the experimental one before variations of the layouts are proposed to increase the current gain to values suitable for amplification. The frequency response of these layouts is calculated, and modeled by a small signal circuit. For this purpose, a method to directly calculate the capacitance is developed which provides a graphical picture of the capacitative phenomena that limit the frequency response in devices. In Chapter 5 the properties of the hot electrons are investigated for different injection energies, which are obtained by changing the layout of the emitter barrier. Moreover, the large signal characterization of the HET is shown for different layouts, where the collector barrier was scaled.

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Date Created
  • 2016