Matching Items (9)

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Cu-Silica Based Programmable Metallization Cell: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications

Description

The Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a novel solid-state resistive switching technology. It has a simple metal-insulator-metal “MIM” structure with one metal being electrochemically active (Cu) and the other one

The Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a novel solid-state resistive switching technology. It has a simple metal-insulator-metal “MIM” structure with one metal being electrochemically active (Cu) and the other one being inert (Pt or W), an insulating film (silica) acts as solid electrolyte for ion transport is sandwiched between these two electrodes. PMC’s resistance can be altered by an external electrical stimulus. The change of resistance is attributed to the formation or dissolution of Cu metal filament(s) within the silica layer which is associated with electrochemical redox reactions and ion transportation. In this dissertation, a comprehensive study of microfabrication method and its impacts on performance of PMC device is demonstrated, gamma-ray total ionizing dose (TID) impacts on device reliability is investigated, and the materials properties of doped/undoped silica switching layers are illuminated by impedance spectroscopy (IS). Due to the inherent CMOS compatibility, Cu-silica PMCs have great potential to be adopted in many emerging technologies, such as non-volatile storage cells and selector cells in ultra-dense 3D crosspoint memories, as well as electronic synapses in brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. Cu-silica PMC device performance for these applications is also assessed in this dissertation.

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  • 2017

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Immobilization of T4 on modified silica particles

Description

Bacteriophage provide high specificity to bacteria; receiving interest in various applications and have been used as target recognition tools in designing bioactive surfaces. Several current immobilization strategies to detect and

Bacteriophage provide high specificity to bacteria; receiving interest in various applications and have been used as target recognition tools in designing bioactive surfaces. Several current immobilization strategies to detect and capture bacteriophage require non-deliverable bioactive substrates or modifying the chemistry of the phage, procedures that are labor intensive and can damage the integrity of the virus. The aim of this research was to develop the framework to physisorb and chemisorb T4 coliphage on varied sized functionalized silica particles while retaining its infectivity. First, silica surface modification, silanization, altered pristine silica colloids to positively, amine coated silica. The phages remain infective to their host bacteria while adsorbed on the surface of the silica particles. It is reported that the number of infective phage bound to the silica is enhanced by the immobilization method. It was determined that covalent attachment yielded 106 PFU/ml while electrostatic attachment resulted in 105 PFU/ml.

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  • 2017

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Two-dimensional glasses

Description

The structure of glass has been the subject of many studies, however some

details remained to be resolved. With the advancement of microscopic

imaging techniques and the successful synthesis of two-dimensional materials,

images

The structure of glass has been the subject of many studies, however some

details remained to be resolved. With the advancement of microscopic

imaging techniques and the successful synthesis of two-dimensional materials,

images of two-dimensional glasses (bilayers of silica) are now available,

confirming that this glass structure closely follows the continuous random

network model. These images provide complete in-plane structural information

such as ring correlations, and intermediate range order and with computer

refinement contain indirect information such as angular distributions, and

tilting.

This dissertation reports the first work that integrates the actual atomic

coordinates obtained from such images with structural refinement to enhance

the extracted information from the experimental data.

The correlations in the ring structure of silica bilayers are studied

and it is shown that short-range and intermediate-range order exist in such networks.

Special boundary conditions for finite experimental samples are designed so atoms

in the bulk sense they are part of an infinite network.

It is shown that bilayers consist of two identical layers separated by a

symmetry plane and the tilted tetrahedra, two examples of

added value through the structural refinement.

Finally, the low-temperature properties of glasses in two dimensions

are studied. This dissertation presents a new approach to find possible

two-level systems in silica bilayers employing the tools of rigidity theory

in isostatic systems.

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  • 2018

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Synthesis and carbon dioxide adsorption properties of amine modified particulate silica aerogel sorbents

Description

Post-combustion carbon capture is a viable option for reducing CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, and one potentially promising technology for this route is adsorption using chemically and physically based sorbents. A

Post-combustion carbon capture is a viable option for reducing CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, and one potentially promising technology for this route is adsorption using chemically and physically based sorbents. A number of exceptional CO2 sorbents materials have been prepared including metal organic frameworks, zeolites, and carbon based materials. One particular group of capable materials are amine based solid sorbents that has shown to possess high adsorption capacities and favorable adsorption kinetics. A key variable in the synthesis of an amine based sorbent is the support which acts as the platform for the amine modification. Aerogels, due to their high porosities and surface areas, appear to be a promising support for an amine modified CO2 sorbent. Therefore, in order to develop a commercially viable CO2 sorbent, particulate aerogels manufactured by Cabot Corporation through an economical and proprietary ambient drying process were modified with amines using a variety of functionalization methods. Two methods of physical impregnation of the amino polymer TEPA were performed in order to observe the performance as well as understand the effects of how the TEPA distribution is affected by the method of introduction. Both samples showed excellent adsorption capacities but poor cyclic stability for lack of any covalent attachment. Furthermore the method of TEPA impregnation seems to be independent on how the polymer will be distributed in the pore space of aerogel. The last two methods utilized involved covalently attaching amino silanes to the surface silanols of the aerogel. One method was performed in the liquid phase under anhydrous and hydrous conditions. The materials developed through the hydrous method have much greater adsorption capacities relative to the anhydrous sample as a result of the greater amine content present in the hydrous sample. Water is another source of silylation where additional silanes can attach and polymerize. These samples also possessed stable cyclic stability after 100 adsorption/regeneration cycles. The other method of grafting was performed in the gas phase through ALD. These samples possessed exceptionally high amine efficiencies and levels of N content without damaging the microstructure of the aerogel in contrast to the liquid phase grafted sorbents.

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  • 2014

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Core-shell composite nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications

Description

Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in various fields due to their unique properties not seen in similar bulk materials. Among them, core-shell composite nanoparticles are an important class of materials which are

Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in various fields due to their unique properties not seen in similar bulk materials. Among them, core-shell composite nanoparticles are an important class of materials which are attractive for their applications in catalysis, sensing, electromagnetic shielding, drug delivery, and environmental remediation. This dissertation focuses on the study of core-shell type of nanoparticles where a polymer serves as the core and inorganic nanoparticles are the shell. This is an interesting class of supramolecular building blocks and can "exhibit unusual, possibly unique, properties which cannot be obtained simply by co-mixing polymer and inorganic particles". The one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization method was successfully developed and applied to synthesize polystyrene-silica core-shell composite particles. Possible mechanisms of the Pickering emulsion polymerization were also explored. The silica nanoparticles were thermodynamically favorable to self-assemble at liquid-liquid interfaces at the initial stage of polymerization and remained at the interface to finally form the shells of the composite particles. More importantly, Pickering emulsion polymerization was employed to synthesize polystyrene/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-silica core-shell nanoparticles with N-isopropylacrylamide incorporated into the core as a co-monomer. The composite nanoparticles were temperature sensitive and could be up-taken by human prostate cancer cells and demonstrated effectiveness in drug delivery and cancer therapy. Similarly, by incorporating poly-2-(N,N)-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMA) into the core, pH sensitive core-shell composite nanoparticles were synthesized and applied as effective carriers to release a rheological modifier upon a pH change. Finally, the research focuses on facile approaches to engineer the transition of the temperature-sensitive particles and develop composite core-shell nanoparticles with a metallic shell.

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  • 2012

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Synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide materials

Description

Nanoporous crystalline oxides with high porosity and large surface areas are promising in catalysis, clean energy technologies and environmental applications all which require efficient chemical reactions at solid-solid, solid-liquid, and/or

Nanoporous crystalline oxides with high porosity and large surface areas are promising in catalysis, clean energy technologies and environmental applications all which require efficient chemical reactions at solid-solid, solid-liquid, and/or solid-gas interfaces. Achieving the balance between open porosity and structural stability is an ongoing challenge when synthesizing such porous materials. Increasing porosity while maintaining an open porous network usually comes at the cost of fragility, as seen for example in ultra low density, highly random porous aerogels. It has become increasingly important to develop synthetic techniques that produce materials with these desired properties while utilizing low cost precursors and increasing their structural strength. Based on non-alkoxide sol-gel chemistry, two novel synthetic methods for nanoporous metal oxides have been developed. The first is a high temperature combustion method that utilizes biorenewable oil, affording gamma alumina (Al2O3) with a surface area over 300 cm3/g and porosity over 80% and controllable pore sizes (average pore width 8 to 20 nm). The calcined crystalline products exhibit an aerogel-like textural mesoporosity. To demonstrate the versatility of the new method, it was used to synthesize highly porous amorphous silica (SiO2) which exhibited increased mechanical robustness while achieving a surface area of 960 m2/g and porosity of 85%. The second method utilizes sequential gelation of inorganic and organic precursors forming an interpenetrating inorganic/organic gel network. The method affords yttria-stabilized zirconia with surface area over 90 cm3/g and porosity over 60% and controllable pore sizes (average pore width 6 to 12 nm). X-ray diffraction, gas sorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were all used to characterize the structure, morphology, and the chemical structure of the newly afforded materials. Both novel methods produce products that show superior pore properties and robustness compared to equivalent commercially available and currently reported materials.

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  • 2012

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Characterization of copper-doped silicon dioxide programmable metallization cells

Description

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a resistance-switching device based on migration of nanoscale quantities of cations in a solid electrolyte and formation of a conducting electrodeposit by the reductions of

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a resistance-switching device based on migration of nanoscale quantities of cations in a solid electrolyte and formation of a conducting electrodeposit by the reductions of these cations. This dissertation presents electrical characterization results on Cu-SiO2 based PMC devices, which due to the na- ture of materials can be easily integrated into the current Complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process line. Device structures representing individual mem- ory cells based on W bottom electrode and n-type Si bottom electrode were fabricated for characterization. For the W bottom electrode based devices, switching was ob- served for voltages in the range of 500mV and current value as low as 100 nA showing the electrochemical nature and low power potential. The ON state showed a direct de- pendence on the programming current, showing the possibility of multi-bit storage in a single cell. Room temperature retention was demonstrated in excess of 105 seconds and endurance to approximately 107 cycles. Switching was observed for microsecond duration 3 V amplitude pulses. Material characterization results from Raman, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy analysis shows the influence of processing conditions on the Cu concentration within the film and also the presence of Cu as free atoms. The results seemed to indicate stress-induced void formation in the SiO2 matrix as the driving mechanism for Cu diffusion into the SiO2 film. Cu/SiO2
Si based PMC devices were characterized and were shown to have inherent isolation characteristics, proving the feasibility of such a structure for a passive array. The inherent isolation property simplifies fabrication by avoiding the need for a separate diode element in an array. The isolation characteristics were studied mainly in terms of the leakage current. The nature of the diode interface was further studied by extracting a barrier potential which shows it can be approximated to a Cu-nSi metal semiconductor Schottky diode.

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  • 2011

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Characterization of novel adsorbents for the recovery of alcohol biofuels from aqueous solutions via solid-phase extraction

Description

Emergent environmental issues, ever-shrinking petroleum reserves, and rising fossil fuel costs continue to spur interest in the development of sustainable biofuels from renewable feed-stocks. Meanwhile, however, the development and viability

Emergent environmental issues, ever-shrinking petroleum reserves, and rising fossil fuel costs continue to spur interest in the development of sustainable biofuels from renewable feed-stocks. Meanwhile, however, the development and viability of biofuel fermentations remain limited by numerous factors such as feedback inhibition and inefficient and generally energy intensive product recovery processes. To circumvent both feedback inhibition and recovery issues, researchers have turned their attention to incorporating energy efficient separation techniques such as adsorption in in situ product recovery (ISPR) approaches. This thesis focused on the characterization of two novel adsorbents for the recovery of alcohol biofuels from model aqueous solutions. First, a hydrophobic silica aerogel was evaluated as a biofuel adsorbent through characterization of equilibrium behavior for conventional second generation biofuels (e.g., ethanol and n-butanol). Longer chain and accordingly more hydrophobic alcohols (i.e., n-butanol and 2-pentanol) were more effectively adsorbed than shorter chain alcohols (i.e., ethanol and i-propanol), suggesting a mechanism of hydrophobic adsorption. Still, the adsorbed alcohol capacity at biologically relevant conditions were low relative to other `model' biofuel adsorbents as a result of poor interfacial contact between the aqueous and sorbent. However, sorbent wettability and adsorption is greatly enhanced at high concentrations of alcohol in the aqueous. Consequently, the sorbent exhibits Type IV adsorption isotherms for all biofuels studied, which results from significant multilayer adsorption at elevated alcohol concentrations in the aqueous. Additionally, sorbent wettability significantly affects the dynamic binding efficiency within a packed adsorption column. Second, mesoporous carbons were evaluated as biofuel adsorbents through characterization of equilibrium and kinetic behavior. Variations in synthetic conditions enabled tuning of specific surface area and pore morphology of adsorbents. The adsorbed alcohol capacity increased with elevated specific surface area of the adsorbents. While their adsorption capacity is comparable to polymeric adsorbents of similar surface area, pore morphology and structure of mesoporous carbons greatly influenced adsorption rates. Multiple cycles of adsorbent regeneration rendered no impact on adsorption equilibrium or kinetics. The high chemical and thermal stability of mesoporous carbons provide potential significant advantages over other commonly examined biofuel adsorbents. Correspondingly, mesoporous carbons should be further studied for biofuel ISPR applications.

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  • 2011

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Interaction between organophosphorus and oxide surface for air pollution control

Description

The release of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) and subsequent exposure to these compounds is of concern to humans and the environment. The goal of this work was to control the

The release of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) and subsequent exposure to these compounds is of concern to humans and the environment. The goal of this work was to control the concentrations of gaseous OPs through interaction with sorbent oxides. Experimental and computational methods were employed to assess the interactions of dimethyl phosphite (DMHP), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), dimethyl ethylphosphonate (DMEP), diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP) with amorphous silica (a-silica), ã-alumina, and monoclinic zirconia (m-zirconia) for applications in air pollution control. Interactions of the selected OPs with a-silica were chosen as a baseline to determine the applicability of the computational predictions. Based on the a-silica results, computational methods were deemed valid for predicting the trends among materials with comparable interactions (e.g. -OH functionality of a-silica interacting with the phosphonyl O atoms of the OPs). Computational evaluations of the interactions with the OPs were extended to the oxide material, m-zirconia, and compared with the results for ã-alumina. It was hypothesized that m-zirconia had the potential to provide for the effective sorption of OPs in a manner superior to that of the a-silica and the ã-alumina surfaces due to the surface charges of the zirconium Lewis acid sites when coordinated in the oxidized form. Based on the computational study, the predicted heats of adsorption for the selected OPs onto m-zirconia were more favorable than those that were predicted for ã-alumina and a-silica. Experimental studies were carried out to confirm these computational results. M-zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized to determine if the materials could be utilized for the adsorption of the selected OPs. M-zirconia was shown to adsorb the OPs, and the heats of adsorption were stronger than those determined for commercial samples of a-silica. However, water interfered with the adsorption of the OPs onto m-zirconia, thus leading to heats of adsorption that were much weaker than those predicted computationally. Nevertheless, this work provides a first investigation of m-zirconia as a viable sorbent material for the ambient control of the selected gaseous OPs. Additionally, this work represents the first comparative study between computational predictions and experimental determination of thermodynamic properties for the interactions of the selected OPs and oxide surfaces.

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  • 2011