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Some Turán-type problems in extremal graph theory

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Since the seminal work of Tur ́an, the forbidden subgraph problem has been among the central questions in extremal graph theory. Let ex(n;F) be the smallest number m such that

Since the seminal work of Tur ́an, the forbidden subgraph problem has been among the central questions in extremal graph theory. Let ex(n;F) be the smallest number m such that any graph on n vertices with m edges contains F as a subgraph. Then the forbidden subgraph problem asks to find ex(n; F ) for various graphs F . The question can be further generalized by asking for the extreme values of other graph parameters like minimum degree, maximum degree, or connectivity. We call this type of question a Tura ́n-type problem. In this thesis, we will study Tura ́n-type problems and their variants for graphs and hypergraphs.

Chapter 2 contains a Tura ́n-type problem for cycles in dense graphs. The main result in this chapter gives a tight bound for the minimum degree of a graph which guarantees existence of disjoint cycles in the case of dense graphs. This, in particular, answers in the affirmative a question of Faudree, Gould, Jacobson and Magnant in the case of dense graphs.

In Chapter 3, similar problems for trees are investigated. Recently, Faudree, Gould, Jacobson and West studied the minimum degree conditions for the existence of certain spanning caterpillars. They proved certain bounds that guarantee existence of spanning caterpillars. The main result in Chapter 3 significantly improves their result and answers one of their questions by proving a tight minimum degree bound for the existence of such structures.

Chapter 4 includes another Tur ́an-type problem for loose paths of length three in a 3-graph. As a corollary, an upper bound for the multi-color Ramsey number for the loose path of length three in a 3-graph is achieved.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Erdős-Ko-Rado theorems: new generalizations, stability analysis and Chvátal's Conjecture

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The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko

The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko and Rado which finds the upper bound on the size of an intersecting family of subsets of an n-element set and characterizes the structure of families which attain this upper bound. A major portion of this dissertation focuses on a recent generalization of the Erdos--Ko--Rado theorem which considers intersecting families of independent sets in graphs. An intersection theorem is proved for a large class of graphs, namely chordal graphs which satisfy an additional condition and similar problems are considered for trees, bipartite graphs and other special classes. A similar extension is also formulated for cross-intersecting families and results are proved for chordal graphs and cycles. A well-known generalization of the EKR theorem for k-wise intersecting families due to Frankl is also considered. A stability version of Frankl's theorem is proved, which provides additional structural information about k-wise intersecting families which have size close to the maximum upper bound. A graph-theoretic generalization of Frankl's theorem is also formulated and proved for perfect matching graphs. Finally, a long-standing conjecture of Chvatal regarding structure of maximum intersecting families in hereditary systems is considered. An intersection theorem is proved for hereditary families which have rank 3 using a powerful tool of Erdos and Rado which is called the Sunflower Lemma.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Optimal degree conditions for spanning subgraphs

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In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example:

In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example: how many connections are necessary to guarantee that the network contains three nodes which are pairwise adjacent? It turns out that more than n^2/4 connections are needed, and no smaller number will suffice in general. Problems of this type fall into the category of ``extremal graph theory.'' Generally speaking, extremal graph theory is the study of how global parameters of a graph are related to local properties. This dissertation deals with the relationship between minimum degree conditions of a host graph G and the property that G contains a specified spanning subgraph (or class of subgraphs). The goal is to find the optimal minimum degree which guarantees the existence of a desired spanning subgraph. This goal is achieved in four different settings, with the main tools being Szemeredi's Regularity Lemma; the Blow-up Lemma of Komlos, Sarkozy, and Szemeredi; and some basic probabilistic techniques.

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Date Created
  • 2011