Matching Items (4)

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Techno-economic analysis of a concentrating solar power plant using reduction/oxidation metal oxides for thermochemical energy storage

Description

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant technology can produce reliable and dispatchable electric power from an intermittent solar resource. Recent advances in thermochemical energy storage (TCES) can offer further improvements to

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant technology can produce reliable and dispatchable electric power from an intermittent solar resource. Recent advances in thermochemical energy storage (TCES) can offer further improvements to increase off-sun operating hours, improve system efficiency, and the reduce cost of delivered electricity. This work describes a 111.7 MWe CSP plant with TCES using a mixed ionic-electronic conducting metal oxide, CAM28, as both the heat transfer and thermal energy storage media. Turbine inlet temperatures reach 1200 °C in the combined cycle power block. A techno-economic model of the CSP system is developed to evaluate design considerations to meet targets for low-cost and renewable power with 6-14 hours of dispatchable storage for off-sun power generation. Hourly solar insolation data is used for Barstow, California, USA. Baseline design parameters include a 6-hour storage capacity and a 1.8 solar multiple. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of engineering parameters on total installed cost, generation capacity, and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Calculated results indicate a full-scale 111.7 MWe system at $274 million in installed cost can generate 507 GWh per year at a levelized cost of $0.071 per kWh. Expected improvements to design, performance, and costs illustrate options to reduce energy costs to less than $0.06 per kWh.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide materials

Description

Nanoporous crystalline oxides with high porosity and large surface areas are promising in catalysis, clean energy technologies and environmental applications all which require efficient chemical reactions at solid-solid, solid-liquid, and/or

Nanoporous crystalline oxides with high porosity and large surface areas are promising in catalysis, clean energy technologies and environmental applications all which require efficient chemical reactions at solid-solid, solid-liquid, and/or solid-gas interfaces. Achieving the balance between open porosity and structural stability is an ongoing challenge when synthesizing such porous materials. Increasing porosity while maintaining an open porous network usually comes at the cost of fragility, as seen for example in ultra low density, highly random porous aerogels. It has become increasingly important to develop synthetic techniques that produce materials with these desired properties while utilizing low cost precursors and increasing their structural strength. Based on non-alkoxide sol-gel chemistry, two novel synthetic methods for nanoporous metal oxides have been developed. The first is a high temperature combustion method that utilizes biorenewable oil, affording gamma alumina (Al2O3) with a surface area over 300 cm3/g and porosity over 80% and controllable pore sizes (average pore width 8 to 20 nm). The calcined crystalline products exhibit an aerogel-like textural mesoporosity. To demonstrate the versatility of the new method, it was used to synthesize highly porous amorphous silica (SiO2) which exhibited increased mechanical robustness while achieving a surface area of 960 m2/g and porosity of 85%. The second method utilizes sequential gelation of inorganic and organic precursors forming an interpenetrating inorganic/organic gel network. The method affords yttria-stabilized zirconia with surface area over 90 cm3/g and porosity over 60% and controllable pore sizes (average pore width 6 to 12 nm). X-ray diffraction, gas sorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were all used to characterize the structure, morphology, and the chemical structure of the newly afforded materials. Both novel methods produce products that show superior pore properties and robustness compared to equivalent commercially available and currently reported materials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Sustainable drinking water treatment: using weak base anion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles to simultaneously remove multiple oxoanions

Description

Ion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles can have high affinity and high capacity to simultaneously remove multiple oxygenated anion contaminants from drinking water. This research pursued answering the

Ion exchange sorbents embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles can have high affinity and high capacity to simultaneously remove multiple oxygenated anion contaminants from drinking water. This research pursued answering the question, “Can synthesis methods of nano-composite sorbents be improved to increase sustainability and feasibility to remove hexavalent chromium and arsenic simultaneously from groundwater compared to existing sorbents?” Preliminary nano-composite sorbents outperformed existing sorbents in equilibrium tests, but struggled in packed bed applications and at low influent concentrations. The synthesis process was then tailored for weak base anion exchange (WBAX) while comparing titanium dioxide against iron hydroxide nanoparticles (Ti-WBAX and Fe-WBAX, respectively). Increasing metal precursor concentration increased the metal content of the created sorbents, but pollutant removal performance and usable surface area declined due to pore blockage and nanoparticle agglomeration. An acid-post rinse was required for Fe-WBAX to restore chromium removal capacity. Anticipatory life cycle assessment identified critical design constraints to improve environmental and human health performance like minimizing oven heating time, improving pollutant removal capacity, and efficiently reusing metal precursor solution. The life cycle environmental impact of Ti-WBAX was lower than Fe-WBAX as well as a mixed bed of WBAX and granular ferric hydroxide for all studied categories. A separate life cycle assessment found the total number of cancer and non-cancer cases prevented by drinking safer water outweighed those created by manufacture and use of water treatment materials and energy. However, treatment relocated who bore the health risk, concentrated it in a sub-population, and changed the primary manifestation from cancer to non-cancer disease. This tradeoff was partially mitigated by avoiding use of pH control chemicals. When properly synthesized, Fe-WBAX and Ti-WBAX sorbents maintained chromium removal capacity while significantly increasing arsenic removal capacity compared to the parent resin. The hybrid sorbent performance was demonstrated in packed beds using a challenging water matrix and low pollutant influent conditions. Breakthrough curves hint that the hexavalent chromium is removed by anion exchange and the arsenic is removed by metal oxide sorption. Overall, the hybrid nano-sorbent synthesis methods increased sustainability, improved sorbent characteristics, and increased simultaneous removal of chromium and arsenic for drinking water.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Metal-oxide based transparent conductive oxides and thin film transistors for flexible electronics

Description

The object of this study is to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) and to study the properties of metal oxide transparent conductive oxides

The object of this study is to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) and to study the properties of metal oxide transparent conductive oxides for wide range of flexible electronic applications. Initially, a study has been done to improve the conductivity of ITO (indium tin oxide) films on PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) by inserting a thin layer of silver layer between two ITO layers. The multilayer with an optimum Ag mid-layer thickness, of 8 nm, exhibited excellent photopic average transmittance (~ 88 %), resistivity (~ 2.7 × 10-5 µ-cm.) and has the best Hackee figure of merit (41.0 × 10-3 Ω-1). The electrical conduction is dominated by two different scattering mechanisms depending on the thickness of the Ag mid-layer. Optical transmission is explained by scattering losses and absorption of light due to inter-band electronic transitions. A systematic study was carried out to improve the performance/stability of the TFTs on PEN. The performance and stability of a-Si:H and a-IZO (amorphous indium zinc oxide) TFTs were improved by performing a systematic low temperature (150 °C) anneals for extended times. For 96 hours annealed a-Si:H TFTs, the sub-threshold slope and off-current were reduced by a factor ~ 3 and by 2 orders of magnitude, respectively when compared to unannealed a-Si:H TFTs. For a-IZO TFTs, 48 hours of annealing is found to be the optimum time for the best performance and elevated temperature stability. These devices exhibit saturation mobility varying between 4.5-5.5 cm2/V-s, ION/IOFF ratio was 106 and a sub-threshold swing variation of 1-1.25 V/decade. An in-depth study on the mechanical and electromechanical stress response on the electrical properties of the a-IZO TFTs has also been investigated. Finally, the a-Si:H TFTs were exposed to gamma radiation to examine their radiation resistance. The interface trap density (Nit) values range from 5 to 6 × 1011 cm-2 for only electrical stress bias case. For "irradiation only" case, the Nit value increases from 5×1011 cm-2 to 2×1012 cm-2 after 3 hours of gamma radiation exposure, whereas it increases from 5×1011 cm-2 to 4×1012 cm-2 for "combined gamma and electrical stress".

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011