Matching Items (10)

152898-Thumbnail Image.png

TFT-based active pixel sensors for large area thermal neutron detection

Description

Due to diminishing availability of 3He, which is the critical component of neutron detecting proportional counters, large area flexible arrays are being considered as a potential replacement for neutron detection.

Due to diminishing availability of 3He, which is the critical component of neutron detecting proportional counters, large area flexible arrays are being considered as a potential replacement for neutron detection. A large area flexible array, utilizing semiconductors for both charged particle detection and pixel readout, ensures a large detection surface area in a light weight rugged form. Such a neutron detector could be suitable for deployment at ports of entry. The specific approach used in this research, uses a neutron converter layer which captures incident thermal neutrons, and then emits ionizing charged particles. These ionizing particles cause electron-hole pair generation within a single pixel's integrated sensing diode. The resulting charge is then amplified via a low-noise amplifier. This document begins by discussing the current state of the art in neutron detection and the associated challenges. Then, for the purpose of resolving some of these issues, recent design and modeling efforts towards developing an improved neutron detection system are described. Also presented is a low-noise active pixel sensor (APS) design capable of being implemented in low temperature indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO) or amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor process compatible with plastic substrates. The low gain and limited scalability of this design are improved upon by implementing a new multi-stage self-resetting APS. For each APS design, successful radiation measurements are also presented using PiN diodes for charged particle detection. Next, detection array readout methodologies are modeled and analyzed, and use of a matched filter readout circuit is described as well. Finally, this document discusses detection diode integration with the designed TFT-based APSs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152987-Thumbnail Image.png

Flexible electronics and display technology for medical, biological, and life science applications

Description

This work explores how flexible electronics and display technology can be applied to develop new biomedical devices for medical, biological, and life science applications. It demonstrates how new biomedical devices

This work explores how flexible electronics and display technology can be applied to develop new biomedical devices for medical, biological, and life science applications. It demonstrates how new biomedical devices can be manufactured by only modifying or personalizing the upper layers of a conventional thin film transistor (TFT) display process. This personalization was applied first to develop and demonstrate the world's largest flexible digital x-ray detector for medical and industrial imaging, and the world's first flexible ISFET pH biosensor using TFT technology. These new, flexible, digital x-ray detectors are more durable than conventional glass substrate x-ray detectors, and also can conform to the surface of the object being imaged. The new flexible ISFET pH biosensors are >10X less expensive to manufacture than comparable CMOS-based ISFETs and provide a sensing area that is orders of magnitude larger than CMOS-based ISFETs. This allows for easier integration with area intensive chemical and biological recognition material as well as allow for a larger number of unique recognition sites for low cost multiple disease and pathogen detection.

The flexible x-ray detector technology was then extended to demonstrate the viability of a new technique to seamlessly combine multiple smaller flexible x-ray detectors into a single very large, ultimately human sized, composite x-ray detector for new medical imaging applications such as single-exposure, low-dose, full-body digital radiography. Also explored, is a new approach to increase the sensitivity of digital x-ray detectors by selectively disabling rows in the active matrix array that are not part of the imaged region. It was then shown how high-resolution, flexible, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) technology can be used to selectively stimulate and/or silence small groups of neurons on the cortical surface or within the deep brain as a potential new tool to diagnose and treat, as well as understand, neurological diseases and conditions. This work also explored the viability of a new miniaturized high sensitivity fluorescence measurement-based lab-on-a-chip optical biosensor using OLED display and a-Si:H PiN photodiode active matrix array technology for point-of-care diagnosis of multiple disease or pathogen biomarkers in a low cost disposable configuration.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

151418-Thumbnail Image.png

Thin film transistor control circuitry for MEMS acoustic transducers

Description

ABSTRACT This work seeks to develop a practical solution for short range ultrasonic communications and produce an integrated array of acoustic transmitters on a flexible substrate. This is done using

ABSTRACT This work seeks to develop a practical solution for short range ultrasonic communications and produce an integrated array of acoustic transmitters on a flexible substrate. This is done using flexible thin film transistor (TFT) and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal is to develop a flexible system capable of communicating in the ultrasonic frequency range at a distance of 10 - 100 meters. This requires a great deal of innovation on the part of the FDC team developing the TFT driving circuitry and the MEMS team adapting the technology for fabrication on a flexible substrate. The technologies required for this research are independently developed. The TFT development is driven primarily by research into flexible displays. The MEMS development is driving by research in biosensors and micro actuators. This project involves the integration of TFT flexible circuit capabilities with MEMS micro actuators in the novel area of flexible acoustic transmitter arrays. This thesis focuses on the design, testing and analysis of the circuit components required for this project.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

151814-Thumbnail Image.png

Novel low temperature processing for enhanced properties of ion implanted thin films and amorphous mixed oxide thin film transistors

Description

This research emphasizes the use of low energy and low temperature post processing to improve the performance and lifetime of thin films and thin film transistors, by applying the fundamentals

This research emphasizes the use of low energy and low temperature post processing to improve the performance and lifetime of thin films and thin film transistors, by applying the fundamentals of interaction of materials with conductive heating and electromagnetic radiation. Single frequency microwave anneal is used to rapidly recrystallize the damage induced during ion implantation in Si substrates. Volumetric heating of the sample in the presence of the microwave field facilitates quick absorption of radiation to promote recrystallization at the amorphous-crystalline interface, apart from electrical activation of the dopants due to relocation to the substitutional sites. Structural and electrical characterization confirm recrystallization of heavily implanted Si within 40 seconds anneal time with minimum dopant diffusion compared to rapid thermal annealed samples. The use of microwave anneal to improve performance of multilayer thin film devices, e.g. thin film transistors (TFTs) requires extensive study of interaction of individual layers with electromagnetic radiation. This issue has been addressed by developing detail understanding of thin films and interfaces in TFTs by studying reliability and failure mechanisms upon extensive stress test. Electrical and ambient stresses such as illumination, thermal, and mechanical stresses are inflicted on the mixed oxide based thin film transistors, which are explored due to high mobilities of the mixed oxide (indium zinc oxide, indium gallium zinc oxide) channel layer material. Semiconductor parameter analyzer is employed to extract transfer characteristics, useful to derive mobility, subthreshold, and threshold voltage parameters of the transistors. Low temperature post processing anneals compatible with polymer substrates are performed in several ambients (oxygen, forming gas and vacuum) at 150 °C as a preliminary step. The analysis of the results pre and post low temperature anneals using device physics fundamentals assists in categorizing defects leading to failure/degradation as: oxygen vacancies, thermally activated defects within the bandgap, channel-dielectric interface defects, and acceptor-like or donor-like trap states. Microwave anneal has been confirmed to enhance the quality of thin films, however future work entails extending the use of electromagnetic radiation in controlled ambient to facilitate quick post fabrication anneal to improve the functionality and lifetime of these low temperature fabricated TFTs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

150352-Thumbnail Image.png

Mixed signal design in thin film transistors

Description

Thin film transistors (TFTs) are being used in a wide variety of applications such as image sensors, radiation detectors, as well as for use in liquid crystal displays. However, there

Thin film transistors (TFTs) are being used in a wide variety of applications such as image sensors, radiation detectors, as well as for use in liquid crystal displays. However, there is a conspicuous absence of interface electronics for bridging the gap between the flexible sensors and digitized displays. Hence is the need to build the same. In this thesis, the feasibility of building mixed analog circuits in TFTs are explored and demonstrated. A flexible CMOS op-amp is demonstrated using a-Si:H and pentacene TFTs. The achieved performance is ¡Ö 50 dB of DC open loop gain with unity gain frequency (UGF) of 7 kHz. The op-amp is built on the popular 2 stage topology with the 2nd stage being cascoded to provide sufficient gain. A novel biasing circuit was successfully developed modifying the gm biasing circuit to retard the performance degradation as the TFTs aged. A switched capacitor 7 bit DAC was developed in only nMOS topology using a-Si:H TFTs, based on charge sharing concept. The DAC achieved a maximum differential non-linearity (DNL) of 0.6 least significant bit (LSB), while the maximum integral non-linearity (INL) was 1 LSB. TFTs were used as switches in this architecture; as a result the performance was quite unchanged even as the TFTs degraded. A 5 bit fully flash ADC was also designed using all nMOS a-Si:H TFTs. Gray coding was implemented at the output to avoid errors due to comparator meta-stability. Finally a 5 bit current steering DAC was also built using all nMOS a-Si:H TFTs. However, due to process variation, the DNL was increased to 1.2 while the INL was about 1.8 LSB. Measurements were made on the external stress effects on zinc indium oxide (ZIO) TFTs. Electrically induced stresses were studied applying DC bias on the gate and drain. These stresses shifted the device characteristics like threshold voltage and mobility. The TFTs were then mechanically stressed by stretching them across cylindrical structures of various radii. Both the subthreshold swing and mobility underwent significant changes when the stress was tensile while the change was minor under compressive stress, applied parallel to channel length.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

150113-Thumbnail Image.png

Mixed oxide thin film transistors for flexible displays

Description

A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) backplane technology for flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed to create 4.1-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps

A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) backplane technology for flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed to create 4.1-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication of white organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Mixed oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) on flexible plastic substrates typically suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer enables significant improvements in both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment in the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible colorless plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

151102-Thumbnail Image.png

Design of NMOS and CMOS thin film transistors and application to electronic textiles

Description

The field of flexible displays and electronics gained a big momentum within the recent years due to their ruggedness, thinness, and flexibility as well as low cost large area manufacturability.

The field of flexible displays and electronics gained a big momentum within the recent years due to their ruggedness, thinness, and flexibility as well as low cost large area manufacturability. Amorphous silicon has been the dominant material used in the thin film transistor industry which could only utilize it as N type thin film transistors (TFT). Amorphous silicon is an unstable material for low temperature manufacturing process and having only one kind of transistor means high power consumption for circuit operations. This thesis covers the three major researches done on flexible TFTs and flexible electronic circuits. First the characterization of both amorphous silicon TFTs and newly emerging mixed oxide TFTs were performed and the stability of these two materials is compared. During the research, both TFTs were stress tested under various biasing conditions and the threshold voltage was extracted to observe the shift in the threshold which shows the degradation of the material. Secondly, the design of the first flexible CMOS TFTs and CMOS gates were covered. The circuits were built using both inorganic and organic components (for nMOS and pMOS transistors respectively) and functionality tests were performed on basic gates like inverter, NAND and NOR gates and the working results are documented. Thirdly, a novel large area sensor structure is demonstrated under the Electronic Textile project section. This project is based on the concept that all the flexible electronics are flexible in only one direction and can not be used for conforming irregular shaped objects or create an electronic cloth for various applications like display or sensing. A laser detector sensor array is designed for proof of concept and is laid in strips that can be cut after manufacturing and weaved to each other to create a real flexible electronic textile. The circuit designed uses a unique architecture that pushes the data in a single line and reads the data from the same line and compares the signal to the original state to determine a sensor excitation. This architecture enables 2 dimensional addressing through an external controller while eliminating the need for 2 dimensional active matrix style electrical connections between the fibers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

154279-Thumbnail Image.png

Flexible electronics powered by mixed metal oxide thin film transistors

Description

A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal

A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide TFT and a-Si PIN photodiode process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication and assembly of the flexible detectors.

Mixed oxide semiconductor TFTs on flexible plastic substrates suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer improves both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment to the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors.

Low temperature (200°C) processed amorphous silicon photodiodes were developed successfully by balancing the tradeoffs between low temperature and low stress (less than -70 MPa compressive) and device performance. Devices with a dark current of less than 1.0 pA/mm2 and a quantum efficiency of 68% have been demonstrated. Alternative processing techniques, such as pixelating the PIN diode and using organic photodiodes have also been explored for applications where extreme flexibility is desired.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

152045-Thumbnail Image.png

Post processing treatment of InGaZnO thin film transistors for improved bias-illumination stress reliability

Description

This thesis work mainly examined the stability and reliability issues of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors under bias-illumination stress. Amorphous hydrogenated silicon has been the dominating

This thesis work mainly examined the stability and reliability issues of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors under bias-illumination stress. Amorphous hydrogenated silicon has been the dominating material used in thin film transistors as a channel layer. However with the advent of modern high performance display technologies, it is required to have devices with better current carrying capability and better reproducibility. This brings the idea of new material for channel layer of these devices. Researchers have tried poly silicon materials, organic materials and amorphous mixed oxide materials as a replacement to conventional amorphous silicon layer. Due to its low price and easy manufacturing process, amorphous mixed oxide thin film transistors have become a viable option to replace the conventional ones in order to achieve high performance display circuits. But with new materials emerging, comes the challenge of reliability and stability issues associated with it. Performance measurement under bias stress and bias-illumination stress have been reported previously. This work proposes novel post processing low temperature long time annealing in optimum ambient in order to annihilate or reduce the defects and vacancies associated with amorphous material which lead to the instability or even the failure of the devices. Thin film transistors of a-IGZO has been tested for standalone illumination stress and bias-illumination stress before and after annealing. HP 4155B semiconductor parameter analyzer has been used to stress the devices and measure the output characteristics and transfer characteristics of the devices. Extra attention has been given about the effect of forming gas annealing on a-IGZO thin film. a-IGZO thin film deposited on silicon substrate has been tested for resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration before and after annealing in various ambient. Elastic Recoil Detection has been performed on the films to measure the amount of hydrogen atoms present in the film. Moreover, the circuit parameters of the thin film transistors has been extracted to verify the physical phenomenon responsible for the instability and failure of the devices. Parameters like channel resistance, carrier mobility, power factor has been extracted and variation of these parameters has been observed before and after the stress.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

149554-Thumbnail Image.png

Metal-oxide based transparent conductive oxides and thin film transistors for flexible electronics

Description

The object of this study is to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) and to study the properties of metal oxide transparent conductive oxides

The object of this study is to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) and to study the properties of metal oxide transparent conductive oxides for wide range of flexible electronic applications. Initially, a study has been done to improve the conductivity of ITO (indium tin oxide) films on PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) by inserting a thin layer of silver layer between two ITO layers. The multilayer with an optimum Ag mid-layer thickness, of 8 nm, exhibited excellent photopic average transmittance (~ 88 %), resistivity (~ 2.7 × 10-5 µ-cm.) and has the best Hackee figure of merit (41.0 × 10-3 Ω-1). The electrical conduction is dominated by two different scattering mechanisms depending on the thickness of the Ag mid-layer. Optical transmission is explained by scattering losses and absorption of light due to inter-band electronic transitions. A systematic study was carried out to improve the performance/stability of the TFTs on PEN. The performance and stability of a-Si:H and a-IZO (amorphous indium zinc oxide) TFTs were improved by performing a systematic low temperature (150 °C) anneals for extended times. For 96 hours annealed a-Si:H TFTs, the sub-threshold slope and off-current were reduced by a factor ~ 3 and by 2 orders of magnitude, respectively when compared to unannealed a-Si:H TFTs. For a-IZO TFTs, 48 hours of annealing is found to be the optimum time for the best performance and elevated temperature stability. These devices exhibit saturation mobility varying between 4.5-5.5 cm2/V-s, ION/IOFF ratio was 106 and a sub-threshold swing variation of 1-1.25 V/decade. An in-depth study on the mechanical and electromechanical stress response on the electrical properties of the a-IZO TFTs has also been investigated. Finally, the a-Si:H TFTs were exposed to gamma radiation to examine their radiation resistance. The interface trap density (Nit) values range from 5 to 6 × 1011 cm-2 for only electrical stress bias case. For "irradiation only" case, the Nit value increases from 5×1011 cm-2 to 2×1012 cm-2 after 3 hours of gamma radiation exposure, whereas it increases from 5×1011 cm-2 to 4×1012 cm-2 for "combined gamma and electrical stress".

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011