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Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

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Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

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Date Created
2013

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New model for simulating impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) in CMOS Circuits

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Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is commonly seen in p-channel transistors under negative gate voltages at an elevated temperature. The interface traps, oxide traps and NBTI mechanisms are discussed and their effect on circuit degradation and results are discussed. This

Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is commonly seen in p-channel transistors under negative gate voltages at an elevated temperature. The interface traps, oxide traps and NBTI mechanisms are discussed and their effect on circuit degradation and results are discussed. This thesis focuses on developing a model for simulating impact of NBTI effects at circuit level. The model mimics the effects of degradation caused by the defects.

The NBTI model developed in this work is validated and sanity checked by using the simulation data from silvaco and gives excellent results. Furthermore the susceptibility of CMOS circuits such as the CMOS inverter, and a ring oscillator to NBTI is investigated. The results show that the oscillation frequency of a ring oscillator decreases and the SET pulse broadens with the NBTI.

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Date Created
2014

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Reliability issues and design solutions in advanced CMOS design

Description

Over decades, scientists have been scaling devices to increasingly smaller feature sizes for ever better performance of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology to meet requirements on speed, complexity, circuit density, power consumption and ultimately cost required by many advanced applications.

Over decades, scientists have been scaling devices to increasingly smaller feature sizes for ever better performance of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology to meet requirements on speed, complexity, circuit density, power consumption and ultimately cost required by many advanced applications. However, going to these ultra-scaled CMOS devices also brings some drawbacks. Aging due to bias-temperature-instability (BTI) and Hot carrier injection (HCI) is the dominant cause of functional failure in large scale logic circuits. The aging phenomena, on top of process variations, translate into complexity and reduced design margin for circuits. Such issues call for “Design for Reliability”. In order to increase the overall design efficiency, it is important to (i) study the impact of aging on circuit level along with the transistor level understanding (ii) calibrate the theoretical findings with measurement data (iii) implementing tools that analyze the impact of BTI and HCI reliability on circuit timing into VLSI design process at each stage. In this work, post silicon measurements of a 28nm HK-MG technology are done to study the effect of aging on Frequency Degradation of digital circuits. A novel voltage controlled ring oscillator (VCO) structure, developed by NIMO research group is used to determine the effect of aging mechanisms like NBTI, PBTI and SILC on circuit parameters. Accelerated aging mechanism is proposed to avoid the time consuming measurement process and extrapolation of data to the end of life thus instead of predicting the circuit behavior, one can measure it, within a short period of time. Finally, to bridge the gap between device level models and circuit level aging analysis, a System Level Reliability Analysis Flow (SyRA) developed by NIMO group, is implemented for a TSMC 65nm industrial level design to achieve one-step reliability prediction for digital design.

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Date Created
2016

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Radiation effects measurement test structure using GF 32-nm SOI process

Description

This thesis describes the design of a Single Event Transient (SET) duration measurement test-structure on the Global Foundries (previously IBM) 32-nm silicon-on insulator (SOI) process. The test structure is designed for portability and allows quick design and implementation on a

This thesis describes the design of a Single Event Transient (SET) duration measurement test-structure on the Global Foundries (previously IBM) 32-nm silicon-on insulator (SOI) process. The test structure is designed for portability and allows quick design and implementation on a new process node. Such a test structure is critical in analyzing the effects of radiation on complementary metal oxide semi-conductor (CMOS) circuits. The focus of this thesis is the change in pulse width during propagation of SET pulse and build a test structure to measure the duration of a SET pulse generated in real time. This test structure can estimate the SET pulse duration with 10ps resolution. It receives the input SET propagated through a SET capture structure made using a chain of combinational gates. The impact of propagation of the SET in a >200 deep collection structure is studied. A novel methodology of deploying Thick Gate TID structure is proposed and analyzed to build multi-stage chain of combinational gates. Upon using long chain of combinational gates, the most critical issue of pulse width broadening and shortening is analyzed across critical process corners. The impact of using regular standard cells on pulse width modification is compared with NMOS and/or PMOS skewed gates for the chain of combinational gates. A possible resolution to pulse width change is demonstrated using circuit and layout design of chain of inverters, two and three inputs NOR gates. The SET capture circuit is also tested in simulation by introducing a glitch signal that mimics an individual ion strike that could lead to perturbation in SET propagation. Design techniques and skewed gates are deployed to dampen the glitch that occurs under the effect of radiation. Simulation results, layout structures of SET capture circuit and chain of combinational gates are presented.

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Date Created
2017

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High speed camera chip

Description

The market for high speed camera chips, or image sensors, has experienced rapid growth over the past decades owing to its broad application space in security, biomedical equipment, and mobile devices. CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology has significantly improved the performance

The market for high speed camera chips, or image sensors, has experienced rapid growth over the past decades owing to its broad application space in security, biomedical equipment, and mobile devices. CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology has significantly improved the performance of the high speed camera chip by enabling the monolithic integration of pixel circuits and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion. However, for low light intensity applications, many CMOS image sensors have a sub-optimum dynamic range, particularly in high speed operation. Thus the requirements for a sensor to have a high frame rate and high fill factor is attracting more attention. Another drawback for the high speed camera chip is its high power demands due to its high operating frequency. Therefore, a CMOS image sensor with high frame rate, high fill factor, high voltage range and low power is difficult to realize.

This thesis presents the design of pixel circuit, the pixel array and column readout chain for a high speed camera chip. An integrated PN (positive-negative) junction photodiode and an accompanying ten transistor pixel circuit are implemented using a 0.18 µm CMOS technology. Multiple methods are applied to minimize the subthreshold currents, which is critical for low light detection. A layout sharing technique is used to increase the fill factor to 64.63%. Four programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and 10-bit pipeline analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are added to complete on-chip analog to digital conversion. The simulation results of extracted circuit indicate ENOB (effective number of bits) is greater than 8 bits with FoM (figures of merit) =0.789. The minimum detectable voltage level is determined to be 470μV based on noise analysis. The total power consumption of PGA and ADC is 8.2mW for each conversion. The whole camera chip reaches 10508 frames per second (fps) at full resolution with 3.1mm x 3.4mm area.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017