Matching Items (9)

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Parental pressure for academic sucess in India

Description

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students in India were recruited from cities such as Chennai, Kerala, and Delhi totaling 608 (303 male, 301 females). Both online and in class recruitment occurred.

There were three main purposes of this study: 1) to construct a quantitative measure of parental pressure, 2) to evaluate whether self-esteem was a potential buffer of the negative impacts of parental pressure and academic stress, and 3) to understand better the factors impacting suicidality among adolescents in India by testing a path model of possible predictors suggested by the literature. Prevalence data of suicidal ideation and attempt history were also collected. Reporting on their experience over the past six months, 14.5% (n = 82) of the participants endorsed suicidal ideation and 12.3% (n = 69) of the participants admitted to having deliberately attempted to hurt or kill themselves.

Five constructs were explored in this study: parental pressure, academic stress, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem. The Parental Pressure for Success Scale, designed for this study, was used to measure parental pressure. The Educational Stress Scale-Adolescents was used to measure academic stress. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale was used to measure depressive symptomology. Two items from the Youth Self-Report Checklist were used as a measure of suicidality in the past six months. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was used to measure global self-esteem.

Preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Parental Pressure for Success Scale was found. While self-esteem was not a significant moderator in this study, it was a predictor of both stress and depression. Results of the path analysis indicated that parental pressure predicted academic stress, stress predicted depression, and depression predicted suicidality. Parental pressure indirectly predicted suicidality through academic stress and depression. Results were discussed in the context of cultural influences on study findings such as the central role of parents in the family unit, the impact of cultural valuing of education, collectivistic society, and the Hindu concept of dharma, or duty.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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An examination of parents' influence strategies on college students' dangerous drinking

Description

Dangerous drinking on college campuses is a significant public health issue. Over the last decade, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the U.S. Department of Health and

Dangerous drinking on college campuses is a significant public health issue. Over the last decade, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have called on universities, community leaders, policymakers, parents and students to work together to develop effective, research based alcohol prevention and/or intervention programs. Despite such calls, parent-based prevention programs are relatively rare on college campuses, and there is a paucity of research on the ways in which parents influence their emerging adult children's drinking behaviors. The present project is designed to help address this need. Grounded in social cognitive theory, this exploratory study focuses on alcohol communication and poses numerous questions regarding the alcohol messages exchanged between college students and their parents, as well as how such messages associate with college students' dangerous drinking. Undergraduate students ages 18 to 25 who were enrolled in communication classes were recruited for the study and asked to recruit a parent. The sample included 198 students and 188 parents, all of whom completed an online survey. Results indicated the majority of college students have had alcohol conversations with a parent since the student graduated from high school. Parents viewed such conversations as significantly more open, direct, and ongoing than did students; though both generally agreed on the content of their alcohol communication, reporting an emphasis on the negative aspects of drinking, particularly the dangers of drinking and driving and the academic consequences of too much partying. Frequent discussions of drinking risks had significant, positive associations with students' dangerous drinking, whereas parents' reports of discussing rules about alcohol had a significant negative association with students' alcohol consumption. There were strong significant associations between the types alcohol topics discussed and students' perception that their parents approved of their drinking, as well as parents' actual approval. Perceived approval had a significant, positive association with students' dangerous drinking; however, actual parental approval was not a significant predictor of students' drinking outcomes. Parents' alcohol consumption had a significant positive association with students' alcohol consumption. Implications for parents, public health practitioners, and future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Examining mechanisms underlying the effect of family disruption in childhood on parenting provided to offspring in adulthood

Description

Family disruption, or the separation of children from caregivers, has been well-established in prior literature as a risk factor for child maladjustment; however, little is known about how family disruption

Family disruption, or the separation of children from caregivers, has been well-established in prior literature as a risk factor for child maladjustment; however, little is known about how family disruption impacts youth into adulthood, particularly how it influences children’s later parenting of their own offspring. The present study examined whether cumulative family disruption (i.e., parental hospitalization, death, incarceration, divorce) in childhood exerts effects on children’s parenting of their own offspring in adulthood, beyond other demographic characteristics and risk factors. Further, several potential mechanisms were hypothesized to underlie the association between family disruption in the first and second generation (G1-G2) family and later parenting provided from second-generation (G2) adults to third-generation (G3) children. Mediators included conflict and disorganization in the G1-G2 family and dysregulation in the G2 child.

Participants (N = 236 in models that included multiple G2 siblings; N = 110 in models without siblings) were drawn from a larger sample of at-risk (i.e., alcoholic) and comparison families followed longitudinally for over 30 years and across three generations. Four mediation models were estimated to examine effects of two separate G1-G2 family disruption components (deviance-related and health-related disruption) on parenting of G3, mediated by family conflict, family disorganization, and G2 dysregulation. Results indicated that health-related disruption impairs consistency of parenting provided to G3 offspring through conflict in the G1-G2 family. A direct effect of health-related disruption was also seen on parental monitoring. There were no direct or mediated effects of deviance-related disruption on parenting. Implications and future directions will be discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Understanding the effect of non-responsive parenting on offspring externalizing problems in young adulthood: examining the roles of stress response and culture

Description

Longitudinal data from European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) families (n = 179 mothers, fathers, and youth; 41% MA) was used to test a bio-psycho-cultural model of the effect of non-responsive

Longitudinal data from European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) families (n = 179 mothers, fathers, and youth; 41% MA) was used to test a bio-psycho-cultural model of the effect of non-responsive parenting on externalizing problems in young adult offspring through the effect on the stress response system. Parenting behavior (acceptance, rejection, harsh discipline) was assessed when children were in late childhood (12-13 years), cortisol samples were collected during late adolescence (18-19 years), and externalizing problems were measured in young adulthood (21-22 years). Latent profile analyses were used to examine patterns of parenting behavior in EA and MA families. A path analysis framework was used to examine how non-responsive parenting interacted with acceptance to predict adolescent stress response and subsequent externalizing problems in EA and MA young adults. Results showed different patterns of parenting behavior in EA versus MA families, with MA families demonstrating a profile of high acceptance and high non-responsiveness at higher rates than EA families. In MA families, youth adherence to the traditional cultural value of familismo related to more positive perceptions of parenting behavior. Across ethnic groups, parent rejection only predicted higher externalizing problems in young adults when acceptance was high. The effect of parent harsh discipline on offspring stress response differed by ethnicity. In MA families, harsh discipline predicted dysregulated stress response in youth when acceptance was low. In EA families, harsh discipline did not relate to youth stress response. Overall, results increase the understanding of normative and adaptive parenting behaviors in MA families. Findings inform the development of culturally-competent parenting-focused interventions that can better prevent dysregulated stress response and externalizing behavior problems in ethnically diverse youth.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Transactional processes of parent-child interactions from early to middle childhood

Description

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time.

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time. The goals of this study were twofold: 1) determine whether there were reciprocal relations in maternal hostility and child negativity across early and middle childhood, and 2) investigate whether individual characteristics (i.e., child temperamental anger and frustration and maternal neuroticism) moderated relations found in goal one. Data were from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Empirical support was found for conceptualizing mother-child interactions as reciprocal. Maternal hostility was related to a decrease in the probability children would exhibit negative behaviors during mother-child interactions measured approximately two years later. Child negativity was also associated with a significant decrease in the probability mothers would display future hostility.

Child temperamental anger and frustration was found to moderate reciprocal relations across all three parent-to-child cross-lagged paths. Children scoring high on a dispositional proclivity to react with anger and frustration were more likely to avoid maternal hostility, via a significant decrease in negativity, across time. Moderation was also supported in two of three child-to-parent lagged paths. Finally, maternal neuroticism moderated the reciprocal effects during early childhood, such that more neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of hostility relative to mothers scoring lower on neuroticism. This affect was attenuated in middle childhood, with patterns becoming similar between mothers scoring high and low on neuroticism. Moreover, children of less neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of exhibiting negativity from 36 to 54 months compared to children of more neurotic mothers. This effect also attenuated with patterns becoming negative at the grade 1 to grade 3 lag. Overall, the results from this study supported a transactional model of parent-child relationships, were consistent with the motivation literature, did not support a coercive process of interaction when the sample and measurement paradigm were low-risk, and generally suggested parents and children have an equal influence on the relational processes investigated from early to middle childhood.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Affluent youth in emerging adulthood: evidence of elevated substance use relative to norms

Description

The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether youth from an affluent community showed elevated rates of substance use and associated problems in young adulthood relative to national

The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether youth from an affluent community showed elevated rates of substance use and associated problems in young adulthood relative to national norms. The secondary goal was to determine if parents’ “containment,” or stringent disciplinary action, of adolescent substance use as measured in Grade 12 could help predict substance use in senior year of college, over and above other parenting factors. The final goal was to assess trends of substance use over time for stability based on categories of participants’ overall levels of use in Grade 12, (low, medium, high). Results indicated that substance use remained elevated into young adulthood, relative to national norms, consistent with extant research involving upper middle class youth. In regression analyses, high parents’ containment was associated with low substance use in senior year of college; however, the inclusion of Grade12 use as a covariate reduced this association with containment such that it was no longer statistically significant. Such results suggest a mediated effect, with Grade 12 substance use mediating the effects of Grade 12 Containment on college senior year substance use. Finally, upper middle class youth were found to remain in their relative substance use group (low, medium, high) as determined at Grade 12 through all four years of college. Taken together, these results emphasized the importance of high school substance use behaviors as a notable risk factor for problematic substance use over time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Parent and peer influences on emerging adult substance use disorder: a genetically informed study

Description

The present study utilized longitudinal data from a high-risk community sample (n=254, 52.8% female, 47.2% children of alcoholics, 74% non-Hispanic Caucasian) to test questions concerning the effects of genetic risk,

The present study utilized longitudinal data from a high-risk community sample (n=254, 52.8% female, 47.2% children of alcoholics, 74% non-Hispanic Caucasian) to test questions concerning the effects of genetic risk, parental knowledge, and peer substance use on emerging adult substance use disorders (SUDs). Specifically, this study examined whether parental knowledge and peer substance use mediated the effects of parent alcohol use disorder (AUD) and genetic risk for behavioral undercontrol on SUD. The current study also examined whether genetic risk moderated effects of parental knowledge and peer substance use on risk for SUD. Finally, this study examined these questions over and above a genetic "control" which explained a large proportion of variance in the outcome, thereby providing a stricter test of environmental influences.

Analyses were performed in a path analysis framework. To test these research questions, the current study employed two polygenic risk scores. The first, a theory-based score, was formed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from receptor systems implicated in the amplification of positive effects in the presence of new/exciting stimuli and/or pleasure derived from using substances. The second, an empirically-based score, was formed using a data-driven approach that explained a large amount of variance in SUDs. Together, these scores allowed the present study to test explanations for the relations among parent AUD, parental knowledge, peer substance use, and SUDs.

Results of the current study found that having parents with less knowledge or an AUD conferred greater risk for SUDs, but only for those at higher genetic risk for behavioral undercontrol. The current study replicated research findings suggesting that peer substance use mediated the effect of parental AUD on SUD. However, it adds to this literature by suggesting that some mechanism other than increased behavioral undercontrol explains relations among parental AUD, peer substance use, and emerging adult SUD. Taken together, these findings indicate that children of parents with AUDs comprise a particularly risky group, although likelihood of SUD within this group is not uniform. These findings also suggest that some of the most important environmental risk factors for SUDs exert effects that vary across level of genetic propensity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The influence of parent cultural values on Mexican heritage adolescent intentions to use drugs

Description

This study examined the influence of the traditional values held by Mexican heritage parents on the intention of their adolescent children to use drugs. Specifically, the study tested a mediation

This study examined the influence of the traditional values held by Mexican heritage parents on the intention of their adolescent children to use drugs. Specifically, the study tested a mediation model in which the traditional cultural values of parents were hypothesized to influence adolescent drug use intentions indirectly by influencing ethnic identify and adolescent perceptions of parental injunctive norms against drug use. Parents reported on traditional cultural values and expectations for their child. Adolescents reported perceived reaction from parents if they used drugs (parental injunctive norms), ethnic identity, and their intention to use drugs in the future. Two direct effects were observed: parental values on expectations and parental injunctive norms on adolescent drug use intentions. Two paths were also moderated by the sex of the adolescent. The path from parent values to parent expectations was significantly stronger for adolescent girls than boys; the path from ethnic identity affirmation to drug intentions was protective for boys but not for girls. The negative relationship between perceived parental reaction and adolescent drug use intentions suggests that anti-drug norms communicated by parents had a protective influence and can deter youth from using drugs. The results of the current study did not support the hypothesized mediational model, but did provide additional support for the importance of parental influence on adolescents' plans and ideas about using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. More research is necessary to examine the influence of culture and the mechanisms by which cultural values impact Mexican heritage adolescents' intentions to use drugs and subsequent use.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Parent-child relationships and parental tactic use: the socialization of physical activity within the context of an expectancy-value model

Description

The purpose of this study was to expand on existing parental socialization models of youth achievement motivation for engaging in physical activity. This study examined the extent to which youth

The purpose of this study was to expand on existing parental socialization models of youth achievement motivation for engaging in physical activity. This study examined the extent to which youth affective reactions and expectancy-value beliefs mediated the relation between parental influence tactics and youth physical activity. More specifically, the direct and indirect effects of parents' positive, negative and sedentary-control tactics, the direct effect of parents' desire to change their child's physical activity, and the moderating role of the socio-emotional climate on the relation between parental influence tactics and child outcomes were investigated. Data were collected from 171 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th grade students and their parents. Pedometers were used to collect youth physical activity data and all participants completed questionnaires. Youth expectancy-value beliefs and negative affective reactions to parental influence tactics were both positively related to youth physical activity. Path analyses revealed that youth expectancy-value beliefs and negative affective reactions fully mediated the direct effects of positive and negative parental influence tactics on youth physical activity, respectively. Moreover, parents' desire to change their child's physical activity was negatively related to parent's use of positive influence tactics. Although several moderators were examined, none were statistically significant (lowest p >.05). The results suggest that additional explanatory power is gained by including a broader range of parental influence tactics and youth affective reactions in models of achievement motivation. The findings are in accord with prior recommendations made to parents with sedentary children.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011