Matching Items (20)

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Luminescent cyclometalated platinum and palladium complexes with novel photophysical properties

Description

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than a decade, OLEDs have grown from a promising academic curiosity into a multi-billion dollar global industry. At the heart of an OLED are emissive molecules that generate light in response to electrical stimulation. Ideal emitters are efficient, compatible with existing materials, long lived, and produce light predominantly at useful wavelengths. Developing an understanding of the photophysical processes that dictate the luminescent properties of emissive materials is vital to their continued development. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 provide an introduction to the topics presented and the laboratory methods used to explore them. Chapter 3 discusses a series of tridentate platinum complexes. A synthetic method utilizing microwave irradiation was explored, as well as a study of the effects ligand structure had on the excited state properties. Results and techniques developed in this endeavor were used as a foundation for the work undertaken in later chapters. Chapter 4 introduces a series of tetradentate platinum complexes that share a phenoxy-pyridyl (popy) motif. The new molecular design improved efficiency through increased rigidity and modification of the excited state properties. This class of platinum complexes were markedly more efficient than those presented in Chapter 3, and devices employing a green emitting complex of the series achieved nearly 100% electron-to-photon conversion efficiency in an OLED device. Chapter 5 adapts the ligand structure developed in Chapter 4 to palladium. The resulting complexes exceed reported efficiencies of palladium complexes by an order of magnitude. This chapter also provides the first report of a palladium complex as an emitter in an OLED device. Chapter 6 discusses the continuation of development efforts to include carbazolyl components in the ligand. These complexes possess interesting luminescent properties including ultra-narrow emission and metal assisted delayed fluorescence (MADF) emission.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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New acid medium sol-gel synthesis of metal phosphates

Description

New sol-gel routes based on peroxo complexes of early transition metals in a highly acidic medium were developed, to prepare metal oxide phosphates that feature structural protons. A sol-gel synthetic

New sol-gel routes based on peroxo complexes of early transition metals in a highly acidic medium were developed, to prepare metal oxide phosphates that feature structural protons. A sol-gel synthetic route was chosen because it allows atomic level mixing of precursors and lower heating temperatures, which are preferable in exploring metastable phases. Titanium and molybdenum sol-gel chemistries were the focus of the initial studies and the synthesis of Ti1-xMoxP2O7 (x = 0 – 0.5) and Mo1-yTiyP2O8-y (y = 0 – 0.4) type metal oxide phosphates were explored. For the synthesis of the metal oxide phosphates, hydrogen peroxide was employed to prepare the respective precursor solutions. The peroxide ligand suppressed the immediate precipitation of metal cations in aqueous medium, by coordinating to Ti4+ and Mo6+ ions, and produced a soft wet-gel following polycondensation. Phosphoric acid was used to acidify the reaction medium and to provide protons and phosphate ions as structural components. From this synthetic route, a series of Ti1-xMoxP2O7 (x = 0 – 0.5) and Mo1-yTiyP2O8-y (y = 0 – 0.4) crystalline compounds, with various degrees of purity, were synthesized. For x = 0 and y = 0, the crystalline compounds TiP2O7 and MoP2O8 were produced, respectively, after calcining at 600 °C.

In pursuit of new metastable molybdenum oxide phosphate compounds, peroxo-molybdenum precursor mixtures with different molar ratios were treated gently by low-temperature heating. After controlled drying in a lab oven, MoO2(H2O)(HPO4) crystals were obtained as a highly crystalline pure product instead of a gel. The dissolution of MoO2(H2O)(HPO4) in water and precipitation with a CsCl solution produced a new crystalline compound with a cubic unit cell (a = 11.8(2) Å). Further studies will lead to crystal structure determination and elucidation of the aqueous chemistry of MoO2(H2O)(HPO4).

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Characterization of Solution-processed Metal Chalcogenide Precursor, Thin Film, and Nanocomposite for Thermoelectricity

Description

Satisfying the ever-increasing demand for electricity while maintaining sustainability and eco-friendliness has become a key challenge for humanity. Around 70% of energy is rejected as heat from different sectors. Thermoelectric

Satisfying the ever-increasing demand for electricity while maintaining sustainability and eco-friendliness has become a key challenge for humanity. Around 70% of energy is rejected as heat from different sectors. Thermoelectric energy harvesting has immense potential to convert this heat into electricity in an environmentally friendly manner. However, low efficiency and high manufacturing costs inhibit the widespread application of thermoelectric devices. In this work, an inexpensive solution processing technique and a nanostructuring approach are utilized to create thermoelectric materials. Specifically, the solution-state and solid-state structure of a lead selenide (PbSe) precursor is characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. This precursor has shown promise for preparing thermoelectric lead selenide telluride (PbSexTe1-x) thin films. The precursor was prepared by reacting lead and diphenyl diselenide in different solvents. The characterization reveals the formation of a solvated lead(II) phenylselenolate complex which deepens the understanding of the formation of these precursors. Further, using slightly different chemistry, a low-temperature tin(II) selenide (SnSe) precursor was synthesized and identified as tin(IV) methylselenolate. The low transformation temperature makes it compatible with colloidal PbSe nanocrystals. The colloidal PbSe nanocrystals were chemically treated with a SnSe precursor and subjected to mild annealing to form conductive nanocomposites. Finally, the room temperature thermoelectric characterization of solution-processed PbSexTe1-x thin films is presented. This is followed by a setup development for temperature-dependent measurements and preliminary temperature-dependent measurements on PbSexTe1-x thin films.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Zeolites: structural properties and benchmarks of feasibility

Description

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to exist in nature, and the question remains: What distinguishes known zeolite topologies from their hypothetical counterparts? It has been found that all 206 of the known zeolites can be represented as networks of rigid perfect tetrahedra that hinge freely at the connected corners. The range of configurations over which the corresponding geometric constraints can be met has been termed the "flexibility window". Only a small percentage of hypothetical types exhibit a flexibility window, and it is thus proposed that this simple geometric property, the existence of a flexibility window, provides a reliable benchmark for distinguishing potentially realizable hypothetical structures from their infeasible counterparts. As a first approximation of the behavior of real zeolite materials, the flexibility window provides additional useful insights into structure and composition. In this thesis, various methods for locating and exploring the flexibility window are discussed. Also examined is the assumption that the tetrahedral corners are force-free. This is a reasonable approximation in silicates for Si-O-Si angles above ~135°. However, the approximation is poor for germanates, where Ge-O-Ge angles are constrained to the range ~120°-145°. Lastly, a class of interesting low-density hypothetical zeolites is evaluated based on the feasibility criteria introduced.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Design of Redox Proteins as Catalysts for Fuel Production

Description

Redox enzymes represent a big group of proteins and they serve as catalysts for

biological processes that involve electron transfer. These proteins contain a redox center

that determines their functional properties, and

Redox enzymes represent a big group of proteins and they serve as catalysts for

biological processes that involve electron transfer. These proteins contain a redox center

that determines their functional properties, and hence, altering this center or incorporating

non-biological redox cofactor to proteins has been used as a means to generate redox

proteins with desirable activities for biological and chemical applications. Porphyrins and

Fe-S clusters are among the most common cofactors that biology employs for electron

transfer processes and there have been many studies on potential activities that they offer

in redox reactions.

In this dissertation, redox activity of Fe-S clusters and catalytic activity of porphyrins

have been explored with regard to protein scaffolds. In the first part, modular property of

repeat proteins along with previously established protein design principles have been

used to incorporate multiple Fe-S clusters within the repeat protein scaffold. This study is

the first example of exploiting a single scaffold to assemble a determined number of

clusters. In exploring the catalytic activity of transmetallated porphyrins, a cobalt-porphyrin

binding protein known as cytochrome c was employed in a water oxidation

photoelectrochemical cell. This system can be further coupled to a hydrogen production

electrode to achieve a full water splitting tandem cell. Finally, a cobalt-porphyrin binding

protein known as cytochrome b562 was employed to design a whole cell catalysis system,

and the activity of the surface-displayed protein for hydrogen production was explored

photochemically. This system can further be expanded for directed evolution studies and

high-throughput screening.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Design of protein-based hybrid catalysts for fuel production

Description

One of the greatest problems facing society today is the development of a

sustainable, carbon neutral energy source to curb the reliance on fossil fuel combustion as the primary source of

One of the greatest problems facing society today is the development of a

sustainable, carbon neutral energy source to curb the reliance on fossil fuel combustion as the primary source of energy. To overcome this challenge, research efforts have turned to biology for inspiration, as nature is adept at inter-converting low molecular weight precursors into complex molecules. A number of inorganic catalysts have been reported that mimic the active sites of energy-relevant enzymes such as hydrogenases and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. However, these inorganic models fail to achieve the high activity of the enzymes, which function in aqueous systems, as they lack the critical secondary-shell interactions that enable the active site of enzymes to outperform their organometallic counterparts.

To address these challenges, my work utilizes bio-hybrid systems in which artificial proteins are used to modulate the properties of organometallic catalysts. This approach couples the diversity of organometallic function with the robust nature of protein biochemistry, aiming to utilize the protein scaffold to not only enhance rates of reaction, but also to control catalytic cycles and reaction outcomes. To this end, I have used chemical biology techniques to modify natural protein structures and augment the H2 producing ability of a cobalt-catalyst by a factor of five through simple mutagenesis. Concurrently I have designed and characterized a de novo peptide that incorporates various iron sulfur clusters at discrete distances from one another, facilitating electron transfer between the two. Finally, using computational methodologies I have engineered proteins to alter the specificity of a CO2 reduction reaction. The proteins systems developed herein allow for study of protein secondary-shell interactions during catalysis, and enable structure-function relationships to be built. The complete system will be interfaced with a solar fuel cell, accepting electrons from a photosensitized dye and storing energy in chemical bonds, such as H2 or methanol.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Synthesis and properties of Sn-based group IV alloys

Description

Sn-based group IV materials such as Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys have great potential for developing Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible devices on Si because of their tunable band structure

Sn-based group IV materials such as Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys have great potential for developing Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible devices on Si because of their tunable band structure and lattice constants by controlling Si and/or Sn contents. Growth of Ge1-xSnx binaries through Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) started in the early 1980s, producing Ge1-xSnx epilayers with Sn concentrations varying from 0 to 100%. A Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) method was developed in the early 2000s for growing Ge1-xSnx alloys of device quality, by utilizing various chemical precursors. This method dominated the growth of Ge1-xSnx alloys rapidly because of the great crystal quality of Ge1-xSnx achieved. As the first practical ternary alloy completely based on group IV elements, Ge1-x-ySixSny decouples bandgap and lattice constant, becoming a prospective CMOS compatible alloy. At the same time, Ge1-x-ySixSny ternary system could serve as a thermally robust alternative to Ge1-ySny binaries given that it becomes a direct semiconductor at a Sn concentration of 6%-10%. Ge1-x-ySixSny growths by CVD is summarized in this thesis. With the Si/Sn ratio kept at ~3.7, the ternary alloy system is lattice matched to Ge, resulting a tunable direct bandgap of 0.8-1.2 eV. With Sn content higher than Si content, the ternary alloy system could have an indirect-to-direct transition, as observed for Ge1-xSnx binaries. This thesis summarizes the development of Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys through MBE and CVD in recent decades and introduces an innovative direct injection method for synthesizing Ge1-x-ySixSny ternary alloys with Sn contents varying from 5% to 12% and Si contents kept at 1%-2%. Grown directly on Si (100) substrates in a Gas-phase Molecular Epitaxy (GSME) reactor, both intrinsic and n-type doped Ge1-x-ySixSny with P with thicknesses of 250-760 nm have been achieved by deploying gas precursors Ge4H10, Si4H10, SnD4 and P(SiH3)3 at the unprecedented low growth temperatures of 190-220 °C. Compressive strain is reduced and crystallinity of the Ge1-x-ySixSny epilayer is improved after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatments. High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HR-XRD), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscope (XTEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) have been combined to characterize the structural properties of the Ge1-x-ySixSny samples, indicating good crystallinity and flat surfaces.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Synthesis and reactivity of group 9 complexes featuring redox non-innocent ligands

Description

The addition of aminoalkyl-substituted 2,6-bis(imino)pyridine (or pyridine diimine, PDI) ligands to [(COD)RhCl]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) resulted in the formation of rhodium monochloride complexes with the general formula (NPDI)RhCl (NPDI =

The addition of aminoalkyl-substituted 2,6-bis(imino)pyridine (or pyridine diimine, PDI) ligands to [(COD)RhCl]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) resulted in the formation of rhodium monochloride complexes with the general formula (NPDI)RhCl (NPDI = iPr2NEtPDI or Me2NPrPDI). The investigation of (iPr2NEtPDI)RhCl and (Me2NPrPDI)RhCl by single crystal X-ray diffraction verified the absence of amine arm coordination and a pseudo square planar geometry about rhodium. Replacement of the chloride ligand with an outer-sphere anion was achieved by adding AgBF4 directly to (iPr2NEtPDI)RhCl to form [(iPr2NEtPDI)Rh][BF4]. Alternatively, this complex was prepared upon chelate addition following the salt metathesis reaction between AgBF4 and [(COD)RhCl]2. Using the latter method, both [(NPDI)Rh][BF4] complexes were isolated and found to exhibit κ4-N,N,N,N-PDI coordination regardless of arm length or steric bulk. In contrast, the metallation of PPDI chelates featuring alkylphosphine imine substituents (PPDI = Ph2PEtPDI or Ph2PPrPDI) resulted in the formation of cationic complexes featuring κ5-N,N,N,P,P-PDI coordination in all instances, [(PPDI)Rh][X] (X = Cl, BF4). Adjusting the metallation stoichiometry allowed the preparation of [(Ph2PPrPDI)Rh][(COD)RhCl2], which was characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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The investigation and characterization of redox enzymes using protein film electrochemistry

Description

Redox reactions are crucial to energy transduction in biology. Protein film electrochemistry (PFE) is a technique for studying redox proteins in which the protein is immobilized at an electrode surface

Redox reactions are crucial to energy transduction in biology. Protein film electrochemistry (PFE) is a technique for studying redox proteins in which the protein is immobilized at an electrode surface so as to allow direct exchange of electrons. Establishing a direct electronic connection eliminates the need for redox­active mediators, thus allowing for interrogation of the redox protein of interest. PFE has proven a versatile tool that has been used to elucidate the properties of many technologically relevant redox proteins including hydrogenases, laccases, and glucose oxidase.

This dissertation is comprised of two parts: extension of PFE to a novel electrode material and application of PFE to the investigation of a new type of hydrogenase. In the first part, mesoporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) is employed for the first time as an electrode material for protein film electrochemistry. Taking advantage of the excellent optical transparency of ATO, spectroelectrochemistry of cytochrome c is demonstrated. The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the protein are analogous to those measured for the native protein in solution, and the immobilized protein is stable for weeks at high loadings. In the second part, PFE is used to characterize the catalytic properties of the soluble hydrogenase I from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfSHI). Since this protein is highly thermostable, the temperature dependence of catalytic properties was investigated. I show that the preference of the enzyme for reduction of protons (as opposed to oxidation of hydrogen) and the reactions with oxygen are highly dependent on temperature, and the enzyme is tolerant to oxygen during both oxidative and reductive catalysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Reactivity of metal (Co, Ni, Cu) bound peptides with organometallic fragments and small molecules

Description

Understanding the mechanisms of metalloproteins at the level necessary to engineer new functionalities is complicated by the need to parse the complex overlapping functions played by each amino acid without

Understanding the mechanisms of metalloproteins at the level necessary to engineer new functionalities is complicated by the need to parse the complex overlapping functions played by each amino acid without negatively impacting the host organism. Artificial or designed metallopeptides offer a convenient and simpler platform to explore metal-ligand interactions in an aqueous, biologically relevant coordination context. In this dissertation, the peptide SODA (ACDLPCG), a synthetic derivative of the nickel-binding pocket of nickel superoxide dismutase, is used as a scaffold to construct a variety of novel metallopeptides and explore their reactivity. In Chapter 2, I show that SODA binds Co(II) and the resulting peptide, CoSODA, reacts with oxygen in an unexpected two step process that models the biosynthesis of Co nitrile hydratase. First, the thiolate sulfur is oxidized and then the metallocenter is oxidized to Co(III). In Chapter 3, I show that both CoSODA and CuSODA form CN- adducts. Spectroscopic investigations of these metallopeptides are compared with data from NiSODA and Ni(CN)SODA to show the remarkable geometric versatility of SODA with respect to interactions with metallocenters. In Chapter 4, exploiting the propensity of sulfur ligands to form bridging structures, NiSODA is used as a metallosynthon to direct synthesis of hetero bi- and tri-metallic peptides as models for [NiFe]-hydrogenases and the A cluster of acetyl-CoA synthase carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Building on this synthetic strategy, in Chapter 5, I demonstrate synthesis of NiRu complexes including a Ru(bipyridine)2 moiety and characterize their photochemistry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012